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Quick Facts
Capital Hanoi
Government Communist state
Currency đồng (VND)
Area total: 329,560 km2
land: 325,360 km2
water: 4,200 km2
Population 81,098,416 (July 2002 est.)
Language Vietnamese (official), Chinese, English, French, and Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Religion Buddhist, Daoism, Confucianism, Hoa Hao, Cao Dai, Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic, some Protestant), indigenous beliefs, Muslim
Country code 84
Internet TLD .vn
Time Zone UTC +7

Vietnam / Việt Nam / a country in Southeast Asia. Its neighboring countries are China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west.


Map of Vietnam
another map of vietnam
  • The North, around Hanoi (Hà Nội): from the Red River Delta to high mountains near China, to the World Heritage site HaLong Bay, the North harbors some of the most magnificent views of Vietnam in an exotic context.
  • The Central Coast, around the ancient city of Hue (Huế), is the home of the still recent Vietnamese kings, and features one of the nicest old seacoast town in Vietnam: Hoi An (Hội An), A World Heritage Site.
  • The Central Highlands, are hilly and covered with lush forest, features tribes and the occasional elephant, but is still accessible to the more adventurous. Dalat, the former retreat of the French is the largest city in the Central Highlands with a great golf course and the tallest mountain near by.
  • The South, is the economic engine of Vietnam, built around Ho Chi Minh City (Thành Phố Hồ Chí Minh, former Saigon) but also covering the lush and little-visited Mekong Delta, the rice basket of Vietnam.


  • Hanoi / Hà Nội - the capital

Other destinations



Tomb of Khai Dinh, Hue

Vietnam's history is a history of war, colonization and rebellion - from long, long before Americans ever showed up. Occupied by China no less than four times, the Vietnamese managed to beat off the invaders just as often. Vietnam's last emperors were the Nguyễn Dynasty, who ruled from their capital at Hue from 1802 to 1945, although France exploited the succession crisis after the fall of Tự Đức to de facto colonize Vietnam after 1884.

After a brief Japanese occupation in World War II, the Communist Viet Minh under the leadership of Hồ Chí Minh continued the insurgency against the French, with the last Emperor Bao Dai abdicating in 1945 and a proclamation of independence following soon after. The majority of French had left by 1930, but in 1948 they returned to continue the fight until their decisive defeat at Dien Bien Phu in 1954. The Geneva Conference partitioned the country into two at 17th parallel, with a Communist-led North and Ngo Dinh Diem declaring himself President of the Republic of Vietnam in the South.

The tank that ended the war, Saigon

US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the Southern Vietnam government, escalating into the dispatch of 500,000 American troops in 1966 and what became known as the Vietnam War - although the Vietnamese refer to it as the American War. What was supposed to be a quick and decisive action soon degenerated into a quagmire, and US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, on April 30, 1975. a North Vietnamese tank drove into the South's Presidential Palace in Saigon and the war ended, with over 50,000 Americans and an estimated 3 million Vietnamese killed.

While the Americans are still interested in the history of the war, it is untaught history to most Vietnamese. The American Vietnamese war was only one of many that the Vietnamese have fought. Over two thirds of the current population was born after 1975. American tourists will receive a particularly friendly welcome in Vietnam, as many young Vietnamese aspire to American culture.


Bustling central Hanoi

Economic reconstruction of the reunited country has proven difficult. After the failures of the state-run economy started to become apparent, the country launched a program of dổi mới (renovation), introducing elements of capitalism. The policy has proved highly successful, with Vietnam recording near-10% growth yearly (except for a brief interruption during the Asian economic crisis of 1997), but after decades of war the country still has a long way to go.


Vietnam is large enough to have several distinct climate zones.

  • The South is hot, humid and tropical, with temperatures hovering in the 25-30°C all year round, but it rains the most from May to November.
  • The North has four distinct seasons, with a comparatively chilly winter (temperatures can dip below 15°C in Hanoi), a hot and dry summer and pleasant spring (March-April) and autumn (October-December) seasons. However, in the Highlands both extremes are amplified, with occasional snow in the winter and temperatures hitting 40°C in the summer.
  • In the Central regions the weather is somewhere in between, only just to confuse things here the rainy season is in the summer, not the winter.


By far the largest holiday of the year is Tết, also known as Vietnamese New Year, which takes place between late January and March following the lunisolar Chinese calendar. During the three days of Tet shops close up and everybody heads home to their family, making this a somewhat difficult time to travel in Vietnam. However, hotels do stay open and the foreigner-aimed travel industry of backpacker buses and such chugs on as normal, and penny-pinchers will be glad to know that no admission is charged to those museums and historical sites that stay open. Visitors also stand a good chance of being invited to join the festivities, often involving large quantities of food and candy (for women and kids) and alcohol, karaoke, and gambling (for the men).

Get in

Most visitors to Vietnam, except citizens of Nordic or ASEAN countries and Japan, require a visa in advance. A single-entry tourist visa valid for 30 days costs around €35 (although exact fees vary depending on issuing country) and takes around 4-7 days to process; express visas take 2-3 days at twice the price. Visas are now generally valid for all entry and exit points.

A fairly convoluted visa on arrival process has recently been introduced, but this requires a prior application to Hanoi and is generally intended mostly for groups and citizens of countries without Vietnamese embassies.

At the customs, you'll have to fill in a landing card, the carbon copy of which becomes your infamous "Yellow Paper". You want to keep this slip of paper just as safe as your passport, since you'll have to produce it when leaving the country to avoid a fine.

Depending on the present level of SARS, avian flu or cooties hysteria, you may be subjected to a so-called health-check. There is no examination, though, but yet another form to fill in and, of course, another fee. If you can get hold of a handful of Dong it is only 2000 VND per person, but they charge US$2 for the same "service" if you only have greenbacks!

By plane

Vietnam has international airports at Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh, and Da Nang. Direct flights are available from Australia, Cambodia, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan. However, long-distance flights are limited and most visitors transit via Bangkok, Singapore, Taipei or Tokyo.

By train

Ha Long Bay on the South China Sea

Trains from Beijing, China, cross the border at Dong Dang and terminate in Hanoi.

Due to landslides the rail link to Kunming, China is closed until further notice.

By road


There are at least four border crossings between Cambodia and Vietnam that can be used by foreigners. These include:

  • Bavet - Moc Bai
  • Kaam Samnor - Vinh Xuong
  • Phnom Den - Tinh Bien


There are three border crossings between China and Vietnam that can be used by foreigners:

  • Dongxing - Mong Cai (by road; onward travel Mong Cai to Halong by sea or by road)
  • Hekou - Lao Cai (by road and/or rail, but no international passenger train services)
  • Youyi Guan - Huu Nghi Quan (Friendship Pass - by road and/or rail)


There are at least six border crossings between Laos and Vietnam that can be used by foreigners. These include:

  • Donsavanh - Lao Bao
  • Kaew Neua - Cau Treo (Keo Nua Pass)
  • Nam Can
  • Tay Trang

Get around

By plane

Flights are the fastest way to travel the distance of this long country; the trip from Hanoi to HCMC will take about 2 hours by plane. The major domestic airlines in Vietnam are Vietnam Airlines and Pacific Airlines. It is significantly more expensive to book domestic flights outside of Vietnam than to book with a local travel agent in Vietnam. Neither currently provide online bookings, but Pacific Airlines has an updated schedule on its website, or check iViVu for schedule and fare for both airlines.

By train

There is one major train line in Vietnam, the 1723-kilometer trunk between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, on which the Reunification Express runs. HCMC to Hanoi is more than 30 hours. It's a good way to see the countryside, but unless you are traveling in first class it is no more comfortable than buses. Sleeper seats are recommendeded.

In addition, there are shorter routes from Hanoi leading northwest and northeast, with international crossings into China. One of the most popular of the shorter routes is the overnight train from Hanoi to Lao Cai (with bus service from Lao Cai to the tourist destination of Sapa). Best sources of online information for trains in Vietnam is Vietnam Railways and Seat61.

By bus

Long-distance bus services connect most cities in Vietnam. Most depart early in the morning to accommodate traffic and late afternoon rains.

Public Buses travel between the cities' bus stations. In bigger places, you often have to use local transport to get into the city center from there. Buses are generally in reasonable shape, and you have the chance to interact with locals.

Open Tour buses are run by several tour companies. They cater especially for tourists, offering ridiculous low rates (Hanoi to HCMC: US$25) and door-to-door service to your desired hostel. You can break the journey at any point and continue on a bus of the same company any time later, or simply buy tickets just for the stage you're willing to cover next. Most hotels and guesthouses can book seats for any connection, or just show up at their office to avoid commissions. Major companies include Sinh Cafe.

Since tour companies charge very little, they do make commission on their stop-offs which are often at souvenir shops, where you do not have to buy; they always have toilets and drinks and water available for purchase. The estimated time for a bus trip may not be accurate and may be an additional couple of hours sometimes, due to the number of stop offs. Collecting the passengers at the start of the journey can also take quite a while too.

By car

International driving licenses are not accepted in Vietnam. Therefore, there are no car rental companies such as Hertz and Avis etc. However, it is quite easy to hire a car and driver for excursions and day trips. (around $40-$50 US an 8 hr. day) Hotels and tourist cafes can usually take care of this. You will find that few drivers will speak any English. Therefore, make sure you tell the hotel/cafe exactly where you want to go.

By cycle

Adventurous travelers may wish to see Vietnam by motorcycle or bicycle. Several adventure travel tours provide package tours with equipment. Most of the population gets around on two wheels, so it's an excellent way to get closer to the people, as well as off the beaten path.

In cities like Saigon and Hanoi, parking bicycles on the sidewalks is not allowed, and you'll have to go to a pay parking lot. 2000 VND per bike.

By motorcycle taxi

"MotoBike?" as some xe ôm (literally 'wheel hug') drivers will yell to you as you walk by. They are reasonably cheap, about average 5000 Dong. You should be able to get anywhere within a city for about 5000-10000 Dong, since the city is usually densely populated and everything is reasonably close by. But watch out, some drivers will try to get you to pay more after you negotiated a price. But be firm on the price.

Another alternative is to rent your own motorbike. Traffic is chaotic (few stop signs or lights) but reasonably easy to follow and people don't go very fast, since there are always lots of people on the road. Charging the intersections is more of a game of chicken than conventional western traffic navigation. Not knowing the nuance of the horn might also get you in trouble. As long as you don't break any traffic rules police will not pull you over. Although many people drive without a license, licenses are required.

Exploring on motorcycle gives freedom and close contacts with local people. Minsk is the best motorcycle and there are several companies offer motorcycle tours, for example Voyage Vietnam, Active Travel Vietnam, Explore Indochina and Compagnie Bourlingue...

By cyclo

Cyclo in Hue

While slowly being supplanted by motorbikes, cyclo pedicabs still roam the streets of Vietnam's cities and towns. Their drivers are notoriously mercenary and, while the ride will be slow, hot and dangerous, you'll generally need to pay more than for a motorbike for the equivalent distance. On the plus side, some drivers (particularly in the South) are very friendly and are happy to be chartered for sightseeing tours. Be aware to bargain the price before the ride.

By boat

You will be missing a big part of Vietnamese life if you do not spend some time on a boat. Tour boats can be hired for around $20 for a day's tour, or you can book through a tour company. Boat tours are definitely called for around Halong Bay, Hue, Nha Trang, and everywhere in the Mekong region.


Vietnamese, spoken by most of the population, is a tonal language and definitely not easy to master. It is written in a Latin-based script, making maps and signs relatively easy to understand. More than 20% of the modern Vietnamese vocabulary originally came from Chinese, so travelers fluent in other East Asian languages may find some similar words.

Many young people have a basic grasp of English. It is not uncommon to meet young people who learned English in school, especially in the South. French, although not widely spoken anymore, is still used by many older Vietnamese people who were educated in French. If not English, young people may study Japanese, Thai or Chinese.


(Information as of july 2005)

The national currency is the dong (đồng, VND), which has stabilized in the past few years but is difficult to find or exchange outside Vietnam. Bills are available in denominations of 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000, 50000, 100000, 200000 and 500000 dong. In 2003, coins were also introduced in denominations of 200, 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000 dong. You can see photos of Vietnam currency.

U.S. dollars are widely accepted, the standard exchange rate for small quantities being 15000 dong to US$1; this is some 5% below the bank rate (Click here for current rate) , so it's usually better to pay in dong. Also note that dollar bills in less than perfect condition may be rejected. $50 and $100 US notes get a higher exchange rate than notes of lower denominations. Note that all gold shops will exchange the majority of hard currencies (Sterling, Yen, Euro etc.) at reasonable rates.

With Vietnam being a very safe country, when it comes to foreign tourists, you might opt for U.S.$ cash as the basic staple of your money belt, but bear in mind that it is always wise not to rely on just one leg when walking.

Traveller cheques of well known companies are widely accepted, but usually a small fee is charged. Fees might also be the only thing that would keep you from getting cash advances on visa- or mastercard at most banks. Through both ways you can also get hold of U.S. dollars, though there will be even higher fees.

ATMs are getting more and more common and can be found in most bigger cities and every tourist destination. They will accept a selection of credit and bank-cards, including Visa, Mastercard, Maestro or Cirrus and several other systems. Not every machine will like your particular card, but "Vietcombank-ATMs" are known for the broadest variety. The amount of your withdrawal may not exceed VND 2 000 000 in one transaction. You will usually incur a charge of VND20,000 for each transaction, in addition to any charges your bank will make.

There are branches of money transfer companies like Western Union, but this is always one of the more expensive ways to get money.

On most land borders connecting to Cambodia, China, and Laos there are freelance moneychangers to take care of your financial leftovers, but be assured they'll get the better of you if you don't know the going rate.

Prices such as hotel and bus fares are, by government mandate, significantly higher (typically three times) for "foreign guests" than for locals.

You can bargain on practically anything in Vietnam. Most merchants will start off charging foreigner prices, which you can easily bring down by a minimum of 10%, or more if you like bargaining.


Gỏi cuốn fresh spring rolls, cao lầu noodles (a specialty of Hoi An), nước mắm dipping sauce and local beer

It can be argued that food sits at the very epicenter of Vietnamese culture: every significant holiday on the Vietnamese cultural calendar, all the important milestones in a Vietnamese person's life, and indeed, most of the important day-to-day social events and interactions - food plays a central role in each. Special dishes are prepared and served with great care for every birth, marriage and death, and even the anniversaries of ancestors' deaths. More business deals are struck over dinner tables than over boardroom tables, and when friends get together, they eat together. Preparing food and eating together remains the focus of family life.

Characteristics of Vietnamese food include heavy use of fish sauce (nước mắm), which smells notoriously bad if you sniff it straight from the bottle, but blends into food very well. Vegetables, herbs and spices, notably Vietnamese coriander (rau răm), accompany almost every dish and help make Vietnamese food much lighter than the cuisine of its neighboring countries.

Vietnam's national dish is phở, a broth soup with rice noodles garnished with fresh greens (usually including basil) and bean sprouts. Phở bò, the classic form of phở, is made with beef broth that is often simmered for many hours and may include one or more kinds of beef (skirt, flank, tripe, etc.). Phở gà is the same idea, but with chicken broth and chicken meat. Phở is available at any time of the day, but is most often eaten for lunch. Famous phở restaurants can be found in both Hanoi and HCMC.

Streetside eateries in Vietnam typically advertise phở and cơm. Though cơm literally means rice, the sign means the restaurant serves a plate of rice accompanied with fish or meat and vegetables.

Coffee, baguettes, and pastries were originally introduced by the French colonials, but all three have been localized and remain popular contemporary aspects of Vietnamese cuisine. More on cà phê below, but coffee shops that also serve light fare can be found in almost village and on multiple street corners in the bigger cities. Bánh mì Hanoi are French bread sandwiches: freshly baked white bread baguettes filled with grilled meats or liver or pork pâté, plus fresh herbs and vegetables. Most pastry shops serve a variety of sweets and quick foods, and are now owned by Vietnamese.

If you like seafood, you may find heaven in Vietnam. The ultimate seafood experience is traveling to a seaside village or beach resort area in the south to try the local seafood restaurants that often serve shrimp, crab, and locally-caught fish. Follow the locals to a good restaurant: the food will still be swimming when you order it, it will be well-prepared, very affordable by Western standards, and often served in friendly surroundings with spectacular views.


Keep in mind that all travel books strongly urge tourists to refrain from beverages containing ice since it is created from local, impure water sources.


Wikitravel founder Evan quaffing bia hoi in Hoi An

Don't miss out on bia hơi, (literally "beer gas"), or draft beer made daily. It's available throughout Vietnam, mostly from small bars on street corners. Bia hoi bars will give you the opportunity to relax drinking in a typical Vietnamese bar surrounded by the hustle and bustle of everyday life. Every traveler can easily find these bars to experience what the locals are enjoying.

The beer is brewed daily and each bar gets a fresh batch delivered every day in plastic jugs. It's a very light (3% alcohol) refreshing lager at a fraction of the cost of draft or bottled beer in the Western-style bars. Bia hoi is not always made in sanitary conditions and its making is not monitored by any health agency.

The most popular beer (draft, bottle or can) among the Vietnamese is Tiger. 333, pronounced "ba-ba-ba" is a local brand, but it's somewhat bland; for a bit more flavor, look for Bia Saigon in the green bottle and a bigger bottle than Bia Saigon Special. Bière Larue is also good, and you can find local brands in every larger city.

It's regular practise for beer in Vietnam to be drunk over ice. This means that the cans or bottles need not be chilled. If you are drinking with Vietnamese people it is considered polite to top up their beer/ice before re-filling your own drink.

Wine and liquor

Vietnamese "ruou de" or rice alcohol (ruou means alcohol) is served in tiny porcelain cups often with candied fruit or pickles. It's commonly served to male guests and visitors. Vietnamese women don't drink much alcohol, well at least in public.

Dating back to French colonial times, Vietnam adopted a tradition of viniculture. Dalat is the center of the winelands, and you can get red and white wine with a hint of fish sauce everywhere in the country. Unfortunately, it is very hard to find places that store the bottles properly, so even imported stuff is likely to be spoilt due to the heat and humidity.

Soft drinks

Coconut water is a favorite in the hot southern part of the country. Nuoc mia, or sugar cane juice, is served from distinctive metal carts with a crank-powered sugar cane stalk crushers that release the juice. Another thirst-quencher is the fabulous Sinh Tố, a selection of sliced fresh fruit in a big glass, combined with crushed ice, sweetened condensed milk and coconut milk. You can also have it blended in a mixer.


Lodging is not an issue in Vietnam, even if you're traveling on a pretty tight budget. Hotels in Vietnam range from scruffy, $10-a-night backpacking hostels to world-class resorts, both in the city and in popular rural destinations. Service in a lot of the more inexpensive hotels is actually quite good (since the fares that a person pays per night could equal a Vietnamese national's monthly pay), although modern amenities like television and room service in some cases are hard to come by. Like many hotels, there are often drinks and snacks in the mini-refrigerators in Vietnamese hotels; but these are horribly overpriced and you would be much better off buying these items on the street. Adequate plumbing is a problem in some hotels.

Many hotels in the larger cities, mostly Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, have very good high-speed Internet access; but there is a fee (3000-15000 VND an hour) to use the computers in some cases.

The more high-end hotels have a multitude of free/low cost amneties; such as elaborate buffets with local cuisine, spa treatments, local sightseeing packages, etc.


If you want to meet local people, stop by a school. In Hồ Chí Minh City (aka Sàigòn), visit the American Language School, where you'll be welcomed enthusiastically and invited to go into a class and say hi. You'll feel like a rockstar.

The Vietnamese love to meet new people, and teachers welcome the opportunity for their students to meet foreigners.



Stay safe


Vietnam is very keen on bolstering foreign tourism, with severe punishments for crimes against tourists, and violent crime against foreigners is rare. Nevertheless be alert in the big cities, especially Saigon, where teams on motorbikes drive by their victims to snatch bags, cameras, mobile 'phones, jewelry, etc. Carry bags on the side away from the street, use money belts, and let the hotel reception keep your valuables.

On the road

Be careful! When traveling within the confines of the city it is fine, as speed is pretty tame. However, getting on the freeway is dangerous, there are a lot of traffic fatalities (average is 30 deaths a day) on the freeways in Vietnam, and some locals will not even venture on them, if not in a big vehicle(car or bus).

Taking a bicycle or motobike on the freeway is not advised. There are transport buses and tour buses that go about 80 km/hour that pay very little attention to what is going on around them (as is usually the way people adhere to traffic in Vietnam). This often leads to accidents, where frequently you will see many bodies lying on the road with a blanket over them and incense burning around them.

If you are in an accident you have to get yourself to the hospital. You have to call yourself or if lucky, get someone to call for you. Local hospitals will not accept you unless they think you can pay the bill.

Crossing the road

The stakes are high: if you are to die in Vietnam, more than likely it will happen on the road - be it in a car or under one. Vietnamese cities are crowded, and the roads are absolutely packed. You will take your life into your own hands every time that you cross a busy street in any of Vietnam's major cities.

In most of the Western world, the trick is to avoid the cars. That's simply not possible in Vietnam, as there are far too many cars, trucks (lorries or utes), motorbikes, cyclos and bicycles in far too little space. No, the trick in Vietnam is to enable the vehicles to avoid you.

This is managed by first picking a reasonable gap in the traffic (probably a smaller gap than you'd choose when jaywalking in, say London or Manhattan or Sydney), then walking slowly and predictably across the street while looking directly at the on-coming cars, motorcycles, cyclos and bicycles.

The predictability of your pace and path is the critical factor between life and death. Do not change direction or speed.

If you stop, retreat or try to dodge the vehicles, you'll probably die or at least be severely maimed, and your misfortune will merely annoy a lot of commuters by snarling traffic even further. But if you step confidently and carefully, the drivers will see and smoothly avoid you - often with grace and a casual aplomb that's initially bewildering to many panic-stricken Westerners. But remember, they do this all the time, every day...or they wouldn't be alive themselves.

The simplest way to cross a busy street is to find a local and walk close to him or her, mirroring their path and pace. They know what they're doing! And once you get the hang of it, it's actually great fun to find yourself walking unafraid through a deadly sea of swarming vehicles and people, suddenly feeling like part of the normal flow in this otherwise foreign land.


Vietnam has a great night life and is reasonably safe compared to most developing countries. However, Vietnam is still a developing country, and people are still very poor. Petty crime, prostitution, AIDS and drugs are rampant. Basically don't go looking for trouble, if you do, you are sure to find it. Remember Vietnam is still a communist country and though they are lenient towards foreigners you shouldn't try your luck. Bringing a Vietnamese national to your hotel room is still illegal. Also, things tend to get a little bit empty at night, since there is a curfew for shops to close, which is usually around 10ish. Alleyways, which there are a lot of in Vietnam, are usually safe, but walking in one coming out of a nightclub, half drunk at 3am in the morning in an area you don't know too well isn't too good an idea. Use common sense.

Stay healthy

Tropical diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis are endemic in rural Vietnam. Malaria isn't as much a concern in the bigger cities such as Ho Chi Minh and Hanoi.


Souvenir shops in Vietnam sell lots of T-shirts with the red flag and portraits of "Uncle Ho." Though they may make good souvenirs, you are advised not to wear them in overseas Vietnamese communities back home such as in France, Canada or the USA!



Internet access is available in all but the most remote towns. Rates are fairly cheap (3.000-10.000 VND) and connection speeds are high, especially in the big cities. Most of these internet shops have ADSL.

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!