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Quick Facts
CapitalTashkent (Toshkent)
Governmentrepublic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
CurrencyUzbekistani sum (UZS)
Areatotal: 447,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
Population25,563,441 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageUzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
ReligionMuslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Uzkbekistan is in Central Asia.



===Tashkent=== (capital)





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Most citizens are ethnic Uzbeks, and speak Uzbek as their first language, although many also speak Russian, and certainly in the capital this is a good bet. In some border regions Tajik or Kyrgyz are spoken.







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This article is an import from the CIA World Factbook 2002. It's a starting point for creating a real Wikitravel country article according to our country article template. Please plunge forward and edit it.

Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include insurgency by Islamic militants based in Tajikistan and Afghanistan, a nonconvertible currency, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.


Map of Uzbekistan
Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Geographic coordinates 
41 00 N, 64 00 E
Map references 
total: 447,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries 
total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims 
none (doubly landlocked)
mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Natural resources 
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use 
arable land: 10.8%
permanent crops: 0.91%
other: 88.29% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
42,810 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
Environment - current issues 
shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note 
along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world


25,563,441 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 35.5% (male 4,617,110; female 4,457,065)
15-64 years: 59.8% (male 7,567,510; female 7,726,753)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 482,137; female 712,866) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
1.62% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
26.09 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
7.98 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
-1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
71.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 63.9 years
female: 67.6 years (2002 est.)
male: 60.38 years
Total fertility rate 
3.03 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
less than 100 (1999 est.)
noun: Uzbek(s)
adjective: Uzbek
Ethnic groups 
Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (yearend 1996)


Country name 
conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local short form: Ozbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi
Government type 
republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Tashkent (Toshkent)
Administrative divisions 
12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qaraqalpog'iston Respublikasi* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday 
Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
new constitution adopted 8 December 1992
Legal system 
evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
head of government: Prime Minister Otkir SULTONOV (since 21 December 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 91.9%, Abdulkhafiz JALALOV 4.2%
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional ammendment in 2002); election last held 9 January 2000 (next to be held NA 2007); prime minister and deputy ministers appointed by the president
Legislative branch 
unicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis (250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - 2002 ammendment to the constitution creates a second chamber to be established via elections in 2004
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NDP 48, Self-Sacrificers Party 34, Fatherland Progress Party 20, Adolat Social Democratic Party 11, MTP 10, citizens' groups 16, local government 110, vacant 1
note: not all seats in the last Supreme Assembly election were contested; all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV
elections: last held 5 December and 19 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2004)
Judicial branch 
Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
Political parties and leaders 
Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Anwar JURABAYEV, first secretary]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Aziz KAYUMOV, chairman]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Abdulkhafiz JALOLOV, first secretary]; Self-Sacrificers Party or Fidokorlar National Democratic Party [Ahtam TURSUNOV, first secretary]; note - Fatherland Progress Party merged with Self-Sacrificers Party
Political pressure groups and leaders 
Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 December 1992; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Abdumannob POLAT, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Ezgulik [Vasilia Inoyatova]
International organization participation 
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Shavkat HAMRAKULOV
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador John Edward HERBST
embassy: 82 Chilanzarskaya, Tashkent 700115
mailing address: use embassy street address; US Embassy Tashkent, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7110
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
Flag description 
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant


Economy - overview 
Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second largest cotton exporter, a large producer of gold and oil, and a regionally significant producer of chemicals and machinery. Following independence in December 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. The state continues to be a dominating influence in the economy and has so far failed to bring about much-needed structural changes. The IMF suspended Uzbekistan's $185 million standby arrangement in late 1996 because of governmental steps that made impossible fulfillment of Fund conditions. Uzbekistan has responded to the negative external conditions generated by the Asian and Russian financial crises by emphasizing import substitute industrialization and by tightening export and currency controls within its already largely closed economy. Economic policies that have repelled foreign investment are a major factor in the economy's stagnation. A growing debt burden, persistent inflation, and a poor business climate led to disappointing growth in 2001. However, in December 2001 the government voiced a renewed interest in economic reform, seeking advice from the IMF and other financial institutions.
purchasing power parity - $62 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
3% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 33%
industry: 24%
services: 43% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line 
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 25% (1993) (1993)
Distribution of family income - Gini index 
33 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
23% (2001 est.)
Labor force 
11.9 million (1998 est.)
Labor force - by occupation 
agriculture 44%, industry 20%, services 36% (1995) (1995)
Unemployment rate 
10% plus another 20% underemployed (1999 est.)
revenues: $4 billion
expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate 
3.5% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production 
44.075 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 87%
hydro: 13%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
41.89 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
4.1 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
5 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
$2.8 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities 
cotton 41.5%, gold 9.6%, energy products 9.6%, mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals, textiles, food products, automobiles (1998 est.)
Exports - partners 
Russia 16.7%, Switzerland 8.3%, UK 7.2%, Ukraine 4.7%, South Korea 3.3%, Kazakhstan 3.1% (2000)
$2.5 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities 
machinery and equipment 49.8%, foodstuffs 16.4%, chemicals, metals (1998 est.)
Imports - partners 
Russia 15.8%, South Korea 9.8%, US 8.7%, Germany 8.6%, Kazakhstan 7.3%, Ukraine 6.1% (2002)
Debt - external 
$5.1 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient 
approximately $150 million from the US (2001)
Uzbekistani sum (UZS)
Currency code 
Exchange rates 
Uzbekistani sums per US dollar - 687.0 (January 2002), 325.0 (January 2001), 141.4 (January 2000), 111.9 (February 1999), 110.95 (December 1998), 75.8 (September 1997)
Fiscal year 
calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use 
1.98 million (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
130,000 (2003)
Telephone system 
general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization
domestic: the domestic telephone system is being expanded and technologically improved, particularly in Tashkent and Samarqand, under contracts with prominent companies in industrialized countries; moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed in operation - four of the GSM type (Global System for Mobile Communication), one D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS type (Advanced Mobile Phone System)
international: linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications; Inmarsat also provides an international connection, albeit an expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 10 (1998)
10.8 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
4 (plus two repeaters that relay Russian programs), 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent; approximately 20 stations in regional capitals (2003)
6.4 million (1997)
Internet country code 
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
42 (2000)
Internet users 
100,000 (2002)


total: 3,656 km
broad gauge: 3,656 km 1.520-m gauge (618 km electrified) (2000)
total: 81,600 km
paved: 71,237 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved: 10,363 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
1,100 km (1990)
crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810 km (1992)
Ports and harbors 
Termiz (Amu Darya)
267 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 257
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 222 (2002)


Military branches 
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Security Forces (internal security and border troops)
Military manpower - military age 
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 6,747,221 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 5,478,766 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
males: 274,602 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$200 million (FY97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
2% (FY97)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
dispute over access to Sokh and other Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan mars progress on international boundary delimitation; Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan wrestle with sharing limited water resources; Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan contend with the regional environmental degradation caused by the shrinking Aral Sea; the border with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan is mined in certain sections, continuing to cause civilian casualties
Illicit drugs 
transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan