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Uganda

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Uganda

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Quick Facts
CapitalKampala
Governmentrepublic
CurrencyUgandan shilling (UGX)
Areatotal: 236,040 sq km
water: 36,330 sq km
land: 199,710 sq km
Population24,699,073
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
LanguageEnglish (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
ReligionRoman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 18%

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Uganda achieved independence from the UK in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed another 100,000 lives. During the 1990s the government promulgated non-party presidential and legislative elections.


Geography

Ug-map.png
Map of Uganda
Location 
Eastern Africa, west of Kenya
Geographic coordinates 
1 00 N, 32 00 E
Map references 
Africa
Area 
total: 236,040 sq km
water: 36,330 sq km
land: 199,710 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries 
total: 2,698 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km
Coastline 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims 
none (landlocked)
Climate 
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
Terrain 
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
Natural resources 
copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land
Land use 
arable land: 25.34%
permanent crops: 8.77%
other: 65.89% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
90 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
NA
Environment - current issues 
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; poaching is widespread
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note 
landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers

People

Population 
24,699,073
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 50.9% (male 6,314,371; female 6,265,681)
15-64 years: 47% (male 5,803,430; female 5,789,713)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 247,798; female 278,080) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
2.94% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
47.15 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
17.53 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
-0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: according to the UNHCR, by the end of 2001, Uganda was host to 178,815 refugees from a number of neighboring countries, including: Sudan 155,996, Rwanda 14,375, and Democratic Republic of the Congo 7,459 (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
89.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 43.81 years
female: 44.67 years (2002 est.)
male: 42.97 years
Total fertility rate 
6.8 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
6.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
1.1 million (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
110,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
Ethnic groups 
Baganda 17%, Ankole 8%, Basoga 8%, Iteso 8%, Bakiga 7%, Langi 6%, Rwanda 6%, Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Batoro 3%, Bunyoro 3%, Alur 2%, Bagwere 2%, Bakonjo 2%, Jopodhola 2%, Karamojong 2%, Rundi 2%, non-African (European, Asian, Arab) 1%, other 8%
Religions 
Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 18%
Languages 
English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 62.7%
male: 74%
female: 54% (2000 est.)

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
Government type 
republic
Capital 
Kampala
Administrative divisions 
45 districts; Adjumani, Apac, Arua, Bugiri, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kalangala, Kampala, Kamuli, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum, Kotido, Kumi, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakasongola, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Soroti, Tororo
note: there may be eleven more districts: Kaberamaido, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kayunga, Kyenjojo, Mayngc, Nakapiripiti, Pader, Sironko, Wakiso, Yumbe
Independence 
9 October 1962 (from UK)
National holiday 
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Constitution 
8 October 1995; adopted by the interim, 284-member Constituent Assembly, charged with debating the draft constitution that had been proposed in May 1993; the Constituent Assembly was dissolved upon the promulgation of the constitution in October 1995
Legal system 
in 1995, the government restored the legal system to one based on English common law and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 January 1986); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 January 1986); Prime Minister Apollo NSIBAMBI (since 5 April 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators
election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 69.3%, Kizza BESIGYE 27.8%
elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 12 March 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); note - first popular election for president since independence in 1962 was held in 1996; prime minister appointed by the president
Legislative branch 
unicameral National Assembly (303 members - 214 directly elected by popular vote, 81 nominated by legally established special interest groups [women 56, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5], 8 ex officio members; members serve five-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - election campaigning by party was not permitted
elections: last held 26 June 2001 (next to be held May or June 2006);
Judicial branch 
Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders 
only one political organization, the National Resistance Movement or NRM [President MUSEVENI, chairman] is allowed to operate unfettered; note - the president maintains that the NRM is not a political party, but a movement which claims the loyalty of all Ugandans
note: the new constitution requires the suspension of political parties while the Movement organization is in governance; of the political parties that exist but are prohibited from sponsoring candidates, the most important are the Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Milton OBOTE]; Democratic Party or DP [Paul SSEMOGERERE]; Conservative Party or CP [Joshua S. MAYANJA-NKANGI]; Justice Forum [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; and National Democrats Forum [Chapaa KARUHANGA]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
NA
International organization participation 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Edith Grace SSEMPALA
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Jimmy KOLKER
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Rd., Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (41) 234-142
FAX: [256] (41) 258-451
Flag description 
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview 
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. During 1990-2001, the economy turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, reduced inflation, gradually improved domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Ongoing Ugandan involvement in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, corruption within the government, and slippage in the government's determination to press reforms raise doubts about the continuation of strong growth. In 2000, Uganda qualified for enhanced Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief worth $1.3 billion and Paris Club debt relief worth $145 million. These amounts combined with the original HIPC debt relief added up to about $2 billion. Growth for 2001 was held back because of a continued decline in the price of coffee, Uganda's principal export.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $29 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
5.1% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 44%
industry: 18%
services: 38% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line 
35% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 21% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index 
37 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
3.5% (2001 est.)
Labor force 
12 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation 
agriculture 82%, industry 5%, services 13% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate 
NA%
Budget 
revenues: $959 million
expenditures: $1.04 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY98/99 est.)
Industries 
sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement
Industrial production growth rate 
7% (1999) (1999)
Electricity - production 
1.599 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 1%
hydro: 99%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
1.314 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
174 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
1 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, cut flowers
Exports 
$367 million f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities 
coffee, fish and fish products, tea; gold, cotton, flowers, horticultural products
Exports - partners 
Germany 12.0%, Netherlands 10.2%, US 8.7%, Spain 8.0%, Belgium 7.1% (2000)
Imports 
$1.26 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities 
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
Imports - partners 
Kenya 43.1%, US 7.0%, India 6.8%, South Africa 6.1%, Japan 3.4% (2000)
Debt - external 
$3.4 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient 
$1.4 billion (2000) (2000)
Currency 
Ugandan shilling (UGX)
Currency code 
UGX
Exchange rates 
Ugandan shillings per US dollar - 1,738.7 (January 2002), 1,755.7 (2001), 1,644.5 (2000), 1,454.8 (1999), 1,240.2 (1998), 1,083.0 (1997)
Fiscal year 
1 July - 30 June

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
50,074; however, 80,868 main lines have been installed (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
9,000 (1998)
Telephone system 
general assessment: seriously inadequate; two cellular systems have been introduced, but a sharp increase in the number of main lines is essential; e-mail and Internet services are available
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile cellular systems for short range traffic
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 7, FM 33, shortwave 2 (2001)
Radios 
5 million (2001)
Television broadcast stations 
8 (plus one low-power repeater) (2001)
Televisions 
500,000 (2001)
Internet country code 
.ug
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
2 (2000)
Internet users 
60,000 (2002)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 1,241 km
narrow gauge: 1,241 km 1.000-m gauge
note: a program to rehabilitate the railroad is underway (2001)
Highways 
total: 27,000 km
paved: 1,800 km
unpaved: 25,200 km (of which about 4,200 km are all-weather roads) (1990)
Waterways 
Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake Edward, Victoria Nile, Albert Nile
Ports and harbors 
Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell
Merchant marine 
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,091 GRT/8,229 DWT
ships by type: roll on/roll off 3
note: these ships are in cargo and passenger (ferry) service on Uganda's inland waterways (2002 est.)
Airports 
27 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 7 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Ugandan Peoples' Defense Force (including Army, Marine unit, Air Wing)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 5,302,787 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 2,879,083 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$121.3 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
2.1% (FY01)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
Tutsi, Hutu, and other ethnic groups, political rebels, and various government forces continue fighting in Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda