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Tiruchirappalli also spelled Tiruchirapalli, commonly known as Tiruchi or Trichy (formerly also pronounced as Trichinopoly under British rule) is Tamil Nadu's Fourth largest City after Chennai, Madurai, Coimbatore with an estimated population of 1,067,915 (as of 2008).

It is situated in the centre of the state, on the banks of the Cauvery River. Trichy is a Municipal Corporation and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirapalli District.

The most famous landmark of Trichy is the Rock fort temple which is perched on a huge rocky out crop. The smooth crop was first hewn by the Pallavas but it was the Nayaks of Madurai who later built the Rock fort temple. The temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva and Lord Ganesha.

Trichy city encompasses Srirangam, a Vaishnavite temple and the biggest functioning Hindu temple in the world. Trichy also contains "ThiruAnaikka" (ThiruvAnaikkaval), House of Water, one of the five main abodes ("Panchaboodha Sthalam") of Lord Shiva. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born in Thiruvanaikaval and his house has been preserved as a museum.

The topology of Trichy is flat. It lies at an altitude of 78 m above sea level. The river Kaveri (also called Cauvery) and the river Coleroon (also called Kollidam) flows here, the latter forms the northern boundary of the city. The river Cauvery flows along WNW-SSE direction through the city.

There are a few hills located within the city, the prominent among them are Golden Rock, Rock Fort, and the one in Thiruverumbur. There are few reserve forests along the river Cauvery, located at the west or the north-west of the city. The southern and the south-western part of the district is dotted by several hills which are thought to be an offset of the Western Ghat Mountain range—the soil here is considered to be very fertile. As two rivers flows through the city, the northern part of the city is greener than other areas of the city.

Trichy has a moderate and pleasant climate, with humidity slightly above normal. The city experiences mild winters and humid summers. The timing of the monsoon in this part of the country has lately become unpredictable, with the rainy season starting from mid-October until early-November and the rains then extending until early or mid-January.

Summer temperature : 41.10°C (maximum) 36.40°C (minimum) Winter temperature : 21.31°C (maximum) 18.60°C (minimum)

As of the 2001 national census[4], Trichy had a population of 752,066. Males constitute 49.97% of the population and females 50.03%. Trichy has an average literacy rate of 91.45%. Male literacy is 94.17% and female literacy is 88.73%. In Trichy 9.59% of the population is under 6 years of age.

The city's population is predominantly Hindu, and there are sizable Christian and Muslim populations. Sikhs JAINSalso are present in smaller numbers.

Tamil is the official language. The dialect of the Tamil language spoken here is usually 'Neutral', although there is a hint of "Kongu Tamil". Madurai Tamil may be heard as one travels through the western and southern boundaries of the city. One may also hear elangai / Sri Lankan Tamil widely spoken in some pockets of the city. Other language spoken here is English.

The city has a multi-cultural society with a sizeable presence of Tamil, English, Marathi, Telugu, Hindi, and Malayalam-speaking population. The city projects a calm outlook and is considered to be friendly toward tourists. One may experience typical Anglo-Indian, Andhra and Kerala cuisines here.

Trichy is a major Engineering hub and Energy Equipment and Fabrication Capital of India.Some major industrial houses are located in Trichy: among them are BHEL, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited -- a prominent Navaratna company, a highly profitable Public Sector Undertaking which, along with its ancillary industries, contributes some 6000 crores rupees (1 crore = 10 million) to the industrial output of Trichy) -- also Ordnance Factory (HAPP and Small Arms Project), Golden Rock Locomotive Workshop, and Dalmia Cements.

The plant of BHEL in Trichy manufactures high pressure boilers. There also are many BHEL-groomed small to medium scale industries notable in the national and international market, such as Cethar Vessels, Veesons Energy Systems, Anand Engg, GB Engg, Adela Software and Services Pvt. Ltd., Pi Square Software Solutions, Kps and Co Silica gel manufacturer, Simsys Corp Software Research and Development Company, Satron Technologies , Cethar FoodOils Ltd., and others.

Trichy also has exclusive Rotary Airpreheater manufacturer namely GEECO. Being a commercial hub, Trichy stands first with 70% in India, in boiler & windmill manufacturing and fabrication. Number of small scale industries have also sprung up in Trichy, mostly around Thuvakudi and Mathur. Leather tanneries are located on the way to Pudukottai. Viralimalai, considered an industrial suburb on Madurai road has the factories of TVS, India bus body building unit, MM Forgings. Also in the same area ,Sanmar Group of Companies are located. A very Big Steel Foundry 10000 Tons per annum is in operation and one more foundry is coming up. Apart from this three more companies catering to Chemical and Process Industries find place here. One can also find agro-based industries around Trichy city, especially along Coimbatore road and Chennai. Manachanallur, famous for its numerous rice mills supplying polished rice all over Tamil Nadu and outside is located about 7 km from Main Guard gate.

The economy of the city is driven to a certain extent by IT/ITES companies like Pradev Software Solution & Mindchain Solution, HCL,CONTURA Technologies,SUTHERLAND, ALSEC, encouraged by the support from state government. A dedicated stretch of land has been identified and developed to increase the state's share in national IT/ITES exports.

Trichy is well connected to various parts of Tamil Nadu, by private and public bus services. The Chathram (Maingaurd Gate) bus station, near Rock Fort temple, runs local and mofussil (City-to-Town) bus services which connect people to nearby towns and villages such as Thurayur, Perambalur, Ariyalur, Karur so ans so..... Bus services are frequent, once every two to five minutes.

The central bus station runs long distance services to major cities adn states of South India such as Thanjavur,Chennai, Madurai, Coimbatore, Bangalore, Tirunelveli, Nagercoil, Tirupathi, Salem, Erode, Pudukkotai, Dindigul, Rameswaram, Theni,Hosur,Vellore also well-connected Karnataka, Andhra and Kerala through private charter and Luxery buses. One can get buses from Trichy to almost any part of the state, due to its geographical location in the center of Tamil Nadu.

On the road infrastructure front, with the completion of highway projects in Tamil Nadu state, Trichy will have four track highways from the city branching to destination Chennai, Madurai, Nagappattinam and Coimbatore.The four-laning of Chennai-Trichy should be completed in mid 2009 and also Trichy-Madurai would be completed at the same time. The widening of Trichy-Tanjore, Trichy-Karur and Trichy-Rameswaram should also be completed in 1 years. Trichy is connected by major National Highways which connect Chennai(towards north)and Dindigul(towards south) by NH 45,Madurai and Tuticorin by NH 45B(towards south),Coimbatore and Ooty(towards west)and Tanjore and Nagapatinam(towards east) by NH 67,Putukkottai and Ramanathapuram(towards south-east) by NH 210 and Chidambaram (towards north-east) by NH 227.

Trichy is the hub of Southern Railway's operation to connect this central part of Tamil Nadu to various parts of India, notably regions in Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Delhi, and Madhya Pradesh. Trichy Railway Junction has five branches leading to Madurai, Rameswaram, Coimbatore, Tanjore and Chennai and currently there are 7 platforms. After the completion of electification of tracks between Villupuram-Trichy sector in Tamil Nadu, Trichy is set to become one of the busiest railway junctions. The Electrification between Villupuram and Trichy is nearing completion and expected to become operational around March 2009.The railway station code for Trichy Junction is TPJ.

The most important trains of Trichy are Pallavan Express,Trichy-Howrah Express,Rockfort Express,Trichy-Ernakulam Tea Garden Express are the important trains originating from Trichy.

Trichy has an international airport about five kilometres from the city, which operates flights to Indian cities, territories, and neighbouring countries including Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka and the Gulf by Air Asia, Indian Airlines, Air India Express, Srilankan Airlines, Mihin Lanka,Kingfisher Airlines,Paramount Airways and Kingfisher Red. Trichy airport is the second airport in south India next to Chennai to get international connectivity to Colombo (Srilanka) in 1981. Nowadays, flights are operated to Gulf countries such as the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. Plans are being made to upgrade it to a full fledged international airport in the next three years [2]. The extended runway (8000ft) was commissioned and further expansion to 12500 ft has started. Also, the construction of new terminal building is expected to be completed in 2008.An new Air Traffic Control Centre is also being planned to be constructed to cope up with growing air traffic in the region.

Various airlines including Malaysian airlines, Oman Air, Air Arabia will soon operate international flights while Kingfisher Airlines which now operates to Bangalore from Trichy is planning to connect various Indian cities. Air India Express will make Dubai and Singapore flights a daily service as soon as the corrections in the extended runway is completed.

Considered an educational city, Tiruchirapalli has schools and colleges that are hundreds of years old. College Road in Chatram has three colleges and five schools. Notable educational institutions from the city include: the National Institute of Technology, Trichy (formerly known as REC Trichy — Regional Engineering College), Anna University Trichy, Bharathidasan Institute of Management, Bharathidasan University and the Government Law College.[St. Joseph's College (Autonomous),] Former President where Abdul Kalam studied . Former Presidents of India, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and R. Venkataraman, and writer Sujatha Rangarajan (Rangarajan) studied at colleges in Trichy. [edit]Health-care

The city has numerous hospitals. Apart from the Government hospital, several multi-facility hospitals function in the city. The district's health department is one of the best in terms of implementing government-initiated healthcare schemes. Rare surgical procedures have taken place in some of the hospitals in the city. The polio eradication programme is heavily assisted by various NGOs and clubs in the city. It also has many sidhdha/unani/ayurveda/homeopathic clinics. Trichy - A low-cost high-quality healthcare destination Fast pace of economic development with the increase in the health awareness have led to the growth of the healthcare industry in the city. The city stands next to Chennai in Tamilnadu for affordable and quality healthcare deliveries of high-standards.

Trichy is also a preferred healthcare destination to the population from nearby towns and districts.

The Anna Science Centre-Planetarium is located 5 km from Trichy-Central bus terminus on Pudukkottai road, close to Trichy Airport. A Zoological Park has been proposed to be set-up in Trichy, along the river Cauvery soon.

Grand Anicut at Kallanai (24 km) is an ancient dam built (according to legends) by Karikala Chola across the river Cauvery in the 1st century CE. It still is in use as part of the district's irrigation system. Mukkombu or Upper Anicut (18 km) is a wonderful picnic spot where the river Kollidam or Coleroon branches off from the Cauvery.

Viralimalai (30 km) a hillock has a peacock sanctuary at the foothills. Sittanavasal (58 km) is the site of an ancient Jain monastery with exquisite fresco paintings in a cave. It is also noted for its prehistoric burial grounds. Puliancholai (72 km) is a waterfall in the foothills of the Kolli hills. It is a nice picnic spot. Kolli Hills seated on the Pachamalai (Green hills) range which in turn is an eastern offshoot of the Eastern Ghats. The Pachaimalai range of hills is cut across by the river Cauvery at numerous places, forming small valleys. Kolli hills is a low lying hill station with gentle plateau falls inside Trichy district. Though the altitude of these hills is only average, it always has a pleasant climate and many parts of the hills are heavily wooded. However, it has retained its pristine beauty owing to being lesser known among the tourists.

The spectacular Rock Fort Temple, the landmark of the city, is on the shores of the Kaveri. It is perched on a massive rocky outcrop at an altitude of 83 m above sea level. The Thayumanaswamy Temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva, is situated halfway to the top. It has a 100-pillar hall and a vimana covered with gold. On the southern face of the rock are several beautifully carved rock-cut cave temples of the Pallava period.

The Architecture of the St. Joseph's College Church situated within the St. Joseph College Campus on College road is awe inspiring and the height of the church(cross-included) is said to be just 7 feet shorter than the highest point in rock fort.

A famous mosque is located in Palakarai.

The Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam, situated 6 km north of the city, is among the most revered shrines dedicated to Lord Vishnu in South India, and is the largest temple complex in the world. Shrouded in a haze of coconut palms away to the north, the temple is built on an island in the middle of the Kaveri and covers an area of 2.5 km². Enclosed by seven rectangular walled courtyards, this temple has 21 gopurams, the largest of which was completed in 1987 and measures 73 m in height. Srirangam is connected to the mainland by a bridge. The temple is replete with excellent carvings and numerous shrines dedicated to various gods. It is believed that Sri Ramanujar the Vaishavite saint and philosopher is embalmed inside the temple premises in the Sri Ramanujar Sannidhi.

The Jambukeshwara Temple (Thiruvanaikaval), dedicated to lord Shiva, is situated just 2 km east of Srirangam and houses five concentric walls and seven gopurams. Mythology has it that an elephant once worshipped the Lord under the holy Jambu tree, and hence the name Jambukeshwara. The principal deity is the shiva lingam, almost submerged in water, which flows from the subterranean spring in the sanctum sanctorum.

The Samayapuram Mariamman Temple is located 12 km north of the Trichy central bus terminus on Trichy-Chennai NH 45.The Maariamman Temple is one of the most visited shrines in Tamilnadu, dedicated to maariamman, a manifestation of the primeval energy shakti as the mother goddess. The offerings are in various forms. The most common offering is the mavilakku mavu made of jagery, rice-flour, dhal and ghee. mariamman is believed to be a form of shakti associated with prosperity and health. Local beliefs associate the deity with cures for diseases such as small pox and chicken pox. Samayapuram was a local capital of the Vijayanagar rulers in the vicinity of Tiruchirappalli, and was known as Vikramapuram.

The poondi madha basilica is one of the famous churches in trichy. It is approximately 25Kms from trichy junction and around 12Kms from the grand anaikut kallanai. It is an excellent place and its open to all. It has a wonderful atmosphere of garden and pet animals over there. The management had taken a good care to maintain it. A must see place for all the tourists.

There are numerous other churches, temples, and mosques in and around the city.

Kollam pond, is a large water-body located in Crawford lies along the Trichy-Madurai Railway line. The pond is home to different types of bird varieties including ducks and Kingfisher. One could also see few fisherman spreading nets naviagating with the help of vehicle tyre tubes.