Difference between revisions of "Syria"
Revision as of 08:06, 7 September 2005
Syria (الجمهوريّة العربيّة السّوريّة Al-Jumhuriya al-`Arabiya as-Suriya, the Syrian Arab Republic) is one of the larger states of the Middle East and has its capital in Damascus. Syria is bordered to the north by Turkey, to the east by Iraq, by Jordan and Israel to the south, and by Lebanon to the south-west. In addition, the country possesses a long coastline on the east Mediterranean Sea.
Syria has a population of 17.8 million people (UN, 2003), of which 6 million are concentrated in the capital Damascus. A moderately large country (185,180 sq km or 72,150 sq miles), Syria is situated centrally within the Middle East region and has land borders with Turkey in the north, with Israel and Lebanon in the south, and with Iraq and Jordan in the east and south-east respectively.
The population of Syria is predominately Arab (90%), with large minorities from other ethnic groups: Kurds, Armenians, Circassians and Turks. The official language is Arabic, but other tongues are widely spoken and include Kurdish, Armenian, Turkish, French and English. The Syrian Republic is officially secular, but in nonetheless greatly influenced by the majority religion of Islam (90% of the population, split between 74% Sunni Muslim and 16% other Muslim). There is a large Christian minority that amounts to about 10% of the population.
The President of Syria is Bashar al-Assad, who replaced his father Hafez al-Assad soon after his death on 10 June 2000. Having studied to become an opthalmologist (eye doctor) in Damsascus and London, Bashar was groomed for the presidency after the 1994 car fataility of his elder brother Basil. As a consequence, he joined the army and became colonel in 1999. Bashar's modernising credentials were somewhat boosted by his role in a domestic anti-corruption drive. More recently, however, Bashar's style of leadership has more closely come to resemble that of his father as an non-democratically elected and autocratic ruler (à la Saddam Hussein of Iraq). Bashar's position as dictator of Syria rests on his presidency of the Baath Party (the only legal political party, as previously in Iraq) and his command-in-chief of the army. A "cult of personality" is widely promoted for Bashar Assad and his late father - their images are to be seen everywhere in the streets of Syria.
Assad's regime and the Baath Party own or control the vast majority of Syria's media. Criticism of the president and his family is not permitted and the press (both foreign and domestic) are heavily censored for material deemed threatening or embarrassing to the government. A brief period of relative press freedom arose after Bashar became president in 2000 and saw the licensing of the first private publications in almost 40 years. A later crackdown, however, imposed a range of restrictions regarding licensing and content. In a more relaxed manner (perhaps owing more to the fact that these matters are largely beyond possible government control), many Syrians have gained access to foreign television broadcasts (usually via satellite) as well as the three state-run networks. In 2002 the government set out conditions for licensing private, commercial FM radio stations, ruling at the same time, however, that radio stations could not broadcast news or political content.
Syria has two international airports: Damascus International Airport, 35km (22miles) SE of the capital, and another just NE of Aleppo in the north of the country. Both airports have regular direct flights served by Syrian Arab Airlines to Europe, the Middle East, North Africa.Those flights tend to compete with other international carriers serving the same destinations. Syria levies an airport departure tax for tourists who have stayed more than 15 days in the country.
There are two international train connections to Syria: Tehran -Damascus and Istanbul - Damascus
Traveling from Lebanon service taxis are a convenient way to reach Damascus, Homs, Tartus, Aleppo or other Syrian towns near the border. A taxi from Beirut to Damascus will cost about $18 per person (collective taxi, otherwise about $75 for a private taxi). Although in most cases it is necessary to buy a Syrian visa before leaving home, often costing about $100 or less, depending of the country of residency. It's possible, to obtain free entry visa for tourists if being received by a local Travel Agency. It is also possible to arrive by car from Turkey. A private taxi from Gaziantep Airport (Turkey) will cost about $60.
The taxis (usually either white or yellow, and always clearly marked) are an easy way to get around Damascus, Aleppo and other cities. A little Arabic would be helpful: most taxi drivers do not speak English. All licensed taxis carry meters, and it is best to insist that the driver puts the meter on, and watch that it stays on. Most drivers expect to haggle prices with foreign travellers rather than use the meter. A taxi ride across Damascus might come to £S30.
The microbuses (locally called meekroboos) are little white vans that carry ten, or so, passengers around cities on set routes for about £S4. The destinations are written on the front of microbus in Arabic. Usually, the passenger sitting behind the driver deals with the money. You can ask the driver to stop anywhere along his route.
Often, microbuses will do longer routes, for example, to surrounding villages around Damascus and Aleppo, or from Homs to Tadmor or Krak-des-Chavaliers. They are often more uncomfortable and crowded than the larger buses, but cheaper.
By bus or coach
Air-conditioned coaches are one of the easy ways to make longer hauls around Syria, for example, the trip from Damascus to Tadmor.
The Syrian railways are reasonably modern and are based on Russian rolling stock. Rail travel is inexpensive and generally punctual, although railway stations are often a reasonable distance out of town centres. The main line connects Damascus, Aleppo, Deir ez-Zur, Hassake and Qamishle. A secondary line serves stations along the Mediterranean coast.
In the summer, on Fridays, a little steam train leaves from the Hejaz Railway Station in Damascus (which has a good restaurant) and climbs into the Anti-Lebanon Mountains. Many locals enjoy the ride to picnic in the cooler mountains.
The unit of currency in Syria is the Syrian pound or 'lira' (£S), divided into 100 piastres.
Exchange rates (current in November 2003):
In the past, many forgeiners visiting Syria had to make a trip to Lebanon in order to withdraw money using their ATM cards. In recent months, a number of ATMs have become available in downtown Damascus. At the time of writing, ATMs are available, down the street from downtown's Tourist Information Office (just ask the taxi driver to take you to "al-Sahaw Ma-ha-foutha" and near the entrace to the Cham Palace Hotel. Others are also available in various locations throughout downtown.
One thing to keep in mind is that exchange rates using the ATM system are much lower than the official rate which is still lower than street rate. Unfortunately, withdrawal of money in US dollars via ATM is not an option in Syria. If you really need dollars, Lebanon is your best choice.
Credit cards are becoming more widely accepted, but their use is largely confined to top hotels and expensive restaurants. It is also virtually impossible to get an advance on your credit card in Syria.
You can find the famous falafel for 10 to 15 Syrian Pound.
Shwarma costs 25 Syrian Pound.
Generally you can drink water from the tap, but if you're unsure ask the locals first. This water is of course for free compared to bottled water, which comes at 25 Syrian Pound for 1.5 litres.
Beer is cheap, costing from 35 SP in a shop and anywhere from 50 to 100 SP in most budget accommodation and local bars for a half litre bottle or can.
A budget traveler spends about 100 to 150 Syrian Pound a night for a rooftop.
A double room you can find for around 500 Syrian Pound.
Syria is a safe country for travellers. As crime is considered shameful and is heavily punished, there is little petty crime. However, it is still best to take basic precautions.
It is unwise to make political comments. This would make most Syrians embarrassed.
Women travelling alone may find that they draw a little too much attention from Syrian men. However, this is generally limited to stares or attempts at making conversation. If a woman feels that she is getting too much attention from men, the best approach is to be polite but very clear that approaches are unwelcome. It can be good to involve bystanders as these will often be very chivalrous and helpful.
In some tourist spots away from Damascus travellers can sometimes be hounded by children begging for money, pens or anything else. Although they pose no threat, it is probably best not encourage these small groups or get into conversation with them.
Male and female visitors should wear modest/conservative clothing. It is best to wear loose-fitting clothes and not to reveal too much skin. T-shirts and skirts coming to below the knee are fine. Men should wear long trousers. A headscarf is generally not necessary other than when visiting mosques.
The international calling code for Syria is +963.
Syrians were only allowed access to the Internet after 2000 when the new President relaxed most (if not all) restrictions to its use. The advent of the Internet has created a mini-boom with most cities and towns having at least two or three internet cafés. The system remains heavily overloaded and can be incredibly slow. The authorities have blocked direct access to some Western web site (such as Yahoo and Hotmail), but the proprietors of Internet cafés have mostly managed to get around this, presenting no problem to the traveler in general.
Robert Tewdwr Moss, Cleopatra's Wedding Present: Travels Through Syria, Duckworth, 1997. ISBN 0715630997 (reprinted University of Wisconsin Press ISBN 0299192903) - an excellent and evocative travelogue from a gay author as he journeyed through Syria, sadly murdered in London the day after he completed this book. A must-read...
Travel and Tourism