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Southern California

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Southern California is a megapolitan region occupying the southern portion of the US state of California. The region is bordered to the east by the states of Nevada and Arizona, to the south by the international border of the United States and Mexico, and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. There is no official definition for the northern boundary of Southern California, but most include all the land south of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Tehachapi Mountains. Southern California also includes several offshore islands such as the Channel Islands, deserts such as the Mojave and Colorado, and the largest lake in California, the very salty Salton Sea. The largest metropolitan area is Los Angeles, the nation's second largest metro area. Other metro areas include San Diego, Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, and the lightly populated El Centro.


Southern California is a culturally diverse and well known area worldwide. Many tourists travel here for its fine year-round weather along the coast, open dramatic spaces, beaches, and numerous amusement parks. Southern California is a major economic center for the state of California and the United States.


Southern California (or SoCal as it is sometimes called) is known for its mild and pleasant weather, especially the winters. The region is dry and mild. However, there is a difference in climate between the coastal region and the inland region.

The coastal region, streching from about San Luis Obispo in the north to San Diego in the south and averaging no more than 35 miles eastward from the Pacific Ocean, is generally touted as having the most pleasant weather in the USA -outside of Hawaii that is. In this long but narrow strip, summer daytime highs are mostly comfortable, but with variations. For example, during the month of July, Santa Monica averages daytime highs of 75(F) while Los Angeles averages daytime highs of 84(F). There may be occasional heat spells thrown in, but the summers are generally pleasant never-the-less. During the winter, daytime highs are usually in the mid-60s(F) for the entire coastal region, with occassional low 70s(F) temperatures thrown in. Year-round outdoor activities can be enjoyed day or night on the coastal region due to the mild climate that is dominated by Mediterranean-type weather.

The large inland section (which generally begins about 35 miles inland from the coast and stretches all the way eastward to the Arizona and Nevada borders) enjoys mild daytime winter temperatures, but the winter nights are chillier than the coastal region. Summer highs in the inland portion can be extremely hot. For example, during the month of July, daytime temperatures in Rancho Cucamonga average 91(F). For Palm Springs the average is 108(F). Summer nights are generally pleasant in much of the inland region.

Most rain and fog comes between mid-November through the end of March for Southern California, and sunshine is a stable throughout much of the year.


Southern California is composed of several counties:

For most of these counties, the population is not uniformally distributed. For instance, the southern portion of Los Angeles County, the western portion of San Diego County, the extreme western portion of Riverside County, and the extreme southwestern portion of San Bernardino County are all heavily urbanized areas. This is roughly the geographic area where most of these counties connect with each other. The other portions of these counties are much less populated.

Southern California's population encompasses eight metropolitan areas: the Los Angeles metropolitan area (Los Angeles and Orange counties), the Inland Empire (Riverside and San Bernardino counties), the Palm Springs and Indio metropolitan area (Coachella Valley), the San Diego metropolitan area, the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area, the Santa Barbara metropolitan area, the San Luis Obispo metropolitan area, and the El Centro area. The four major metropolitan areas located in Southern California are: the Los Angeles-Long Beach metro, with over 12 million inhabitants; the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metro (also called the Inland Empire), with over 4 million inhabitants; the San Diego metro, with over 3 million inhabitants; and the El Centro metro area, with 174,000 inhabitants. In addition, the close proximity of the Los Angeles metro and the Inland Empire also means they are combined together to make up one metropolitan area called the Greater Los Angeles Area with over 17 million people. Southern California, with 25 million people, is the nation's third largest megalopolis, after the Great Lakes region with 54 million people, and the Northeast with 49 million people.

Although cities such as Los Angeles and San Diego are not high-density rate cities, many of the suburban cities in Southern California are high density.


Some of the major cities and areas of Southern California include:

Urban Landscape. Southern California consists of a very heavily developed urban environment, along with vast areas that have not been developed. Many Southern California suburban and satellite cities have dense populations, and the region is famous for its large, sprawling landscape and its dependence on automobiles. Public transportation is adequate enough in certain areas, but not as comprehensive as it should be for a region of this size. The areas of Los Angeles, San Diego, and Riverside-San Bernardino, each of which are the center of their respective metropolitan areas, are composed of numerous smaller cities and communities.

Natural Landscape. Southern California consists of geologic, topographic, and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diverse setting. The region spans from the Pacific Ocean islands (such as Santa Catalina and Santa Cruz among others), to beaches, and to desert, through the Peninsular Ranges with their peaks, and into small and large valleys, and wine country. Every year the area has about 10,000 earthquakes, but nearly all of them are so small that they are not felt. Only several hundred are greater than magnitude 3.0, and only about 15-20 are greater than magnitude 4.0.

Other destinations


As it is an American region, English is the predominant language spoken in Southern California. However, Spanish is widely spoken by large Hispanic populations and it is not uncommon in Southern California to see store signs written in both English and Spanish. Chinese, Tagalog, Japanese, Hindi, Korean, and Vietnamese are also spoken by various immigrant groups.

Get in


Southern California has multiple commercial airports to utilize for flying into the region. Of course, the nearest airport should be used as the region is vast. If visiting the Los Angeles area, there are the airports of Los Angeles [LAX], Burbank [BUR], Orange County [SNA], and Long Beach [LGB]. The Los Angeles area itself is sprawling, so the nearest airport to your destination in and around L.A. should definitely be considered.

If your plans have you traveling to the Inland Empire, there are the airports of Ontario [ONT] and Palm Springs [PSP].

If the San Diego area is your destination, you have airports at San Diego [SAN] and Carlsbad [CLD].

And if visiting Imperial County which contains the cities of El Centro and Imperial, there is the Imperial County Airport [IPL].


As Southern California contains two major American cities, it's no surprise the US interstate highway system converges on the area, in addition to the many regional highways that are there as well. If driving is your thing, Interstate 5 runs a north-south route from the city of Seattle, Washington, through Los Angeles, and into San Diego. Interstate 10 runs east-west from Jacksonville, Florida to Los Angeles. And Interstate 15 can be taken from Salt Lake City, Utah, through Las Vegas and the Inland Empire, and terminating in San Diego.

Get around

Southern California features extensive transportation options, the most popularized being via automobile. An extensive freeway network exists throughout the area.

Public transportation in Southern California consists of buses and rail transit.

Buses may run anywhere from every 30 minutes to every 90 minutes depending on the route. The more frequent service usually is found on routes near the downtowns of Los Angeles or San Diego during weekday rush hours. Service outside the core of these two cities is usually less frequent. Some routes may end service in the early evening or have no service whatsoever on weekends.

Rail transit consists of light rail and subway, apart from commuter and national rail systems. The light rail lines of Los Angeles and San Diego have been growing over the years, but may not service many tourist destinations. Buses help make up the gap, but taxis and rental cars are suggested for certain areas. Taxis are required to be called to come and pick you up; they cannot be hailed off the streets such as in New York City or Chicago.

Note that Southern California is known for its traffic, and rush hour often lasts for many hours and is more severe than most cities.

Public transportation agencies in Southern California include:


  • Metro (Los Angeles County Metro Rail), operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Agency, operates all light rail and subway services in the Los Angeles area, providing service on more than eighty miles of service and eighty stations. Extensions set to open in 2016 will extend the system to ninety-three stations.
  • Metrolink is a suburban commuter train that extends out of Los Angeles to many suburbs throughout the Los Angeles, Inland Empire, Ventura, Antelope Valley, and Orange County areas through several lines operating throughout the area.
  • San Diego Trolley and San Diego County MTS operate a light rail system for San Diego, with service throughout the San Diego metropolitan area.
  • Coaster and Sprinter are commuter rail systems that operate within San Diego County from Oceanside to Downtown San Diego and Oceanside to Escondido, respectively.
  • Amtrak, through its various train services, operates various train services linking Los Angeles and San Diego to the rest of the nation.


  • Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Agency bus
  • Orange County Transportation Authority
  • Omnitrans (southwestern San Bernardino County)
  • Santa Barbara MTD
  • Gold Coast Transit (Ventura County)
  • North County Transit District (northern San Diego County)
  • Big Blue Bus (Santa Monica)
  • Riverside Transit Agency (western Riverside County)

The metropolitan regions of Southern California consist of many small cities that run into one another. It can be confusing while driving and you can get lost very easily if you do not have a map, even with detailed directions. A Thomas Guide, which contains detailed maps of all neighborhoods, is a useful tool if you plan on doing any driving in Southern California. This book can be found in local stores and bookstores.

By thumb

Hitchhiking is not worth trying. Safety issues aside, metro areas in Southern California are large so it may be extremely hard to find someone going your way. And with traffic generally being so heavy, most drivers will not want to veer off their route to drop a hitchhiker off somewhere else. However, if you must hitchhick, then the best bets in the L.A. area are the 101 north of Ventura, and the 5 north of Santa Clarita -where you have escaped the sprawling cityscape and may find it easier to find somebody traveling your way. In the San Diego area, north of Escondido on the 15, and east of El Cajon on the 8 may be better options.


Southern California is home to many motion picture, television, and recorded music companies, primarily located in the L.A. area. It is also home to the world's largest adult entertainment industry, located mainly in the San Fernando Valley. Hollywood is the center of the motion picture and television industries, at least in name. Located in Southern California is The Walt Disney Company, Sony, Universal, and Warner Brothers all of which operate both movie studios and record companies. Paramount, MGM, Dreamworks, and 20th Century Fox are other major movie studios also located in Southern California.

SoCal is home to many sports franchises and sports networks. Professional teams that are located in the region include the Los Angeles Lakers, Los Angeles Clippers, Los Angeles Dodgers, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, San Diego Padres, Los Angeles Kings, Anaheim Ducks, Los Angeles Galaxy, Chivas USA, and San Diego Chargers. Southern California also is home to a number of popular NCAA sports programs, such as the UCLA Bruins, the USC Trojans, and the San Diego State Aztecs.

  • Cabrillo National Monument - (San Diego) Climbing out of his boat and onto shore in 1542, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo stepped into history as the first European to set foot on what is now the West Coast of the United States. In addition to telling the story of 16th century exploration, the park is home to a wealth of cultural and natural resources.


Southern California is home to many movie studios that generally offer tours. Television production from the big four networks of ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC is also a major industry in SoCal. These networks offer enjoyable tours where the public can see the sets of many popular shows or perhaps see a filming in progress.

Beaches are another staple of Southern California. Whether swimming or people watching, beaches are a great destination in SoCal.

Amusement parks are quite numerous in Southern California. There are several in the region such as Disneyland, California Adventure, Magic Mountain, SeaWorld, Knott's Berry Farm, and Lego Land.

If you feel like satisfying your cultural craving, there are several options. Southern California has several zoos such as the large and wonderfully highly-ranked San Diego Zoo. Other zoos include L.A. Zoo in Griffith Park, and the smaller Orange County Zoo in the city of Orange, the Santa Ana Zoo, and the Santa Barbara Zoo.

Griffith Observatory is a leader in public astronomy. The facility is located on the southern slope of Mount Hollywood, providing an excellent view of Los Angeles. Shows are shown in the Samuel Oschin Planetarium at the facility.

The USS Midway is an aircraft carrier museum ship located in San Diego. The ship saw action in the Vietnam War and the Gulf War, and contains more than 60 exhibits.

The Getty Center in Los Angeles is a museum that specializes in pre-20th century European paintings, sculptures, and decorative arts. The center sits atop a hill overlooking Los Angeles.


Most types of food can be found in the towns and cities of Southern Californian -especially popular are Mexican, Chinese, Soul, Thai, Japanese, Vietnamese, Indian, and Filipino.

Southern California is the birthplace of modern day American fast food such as McDonald's (now headquartered in the Chicago metropolitan area). One should not miss out on In-N-Out Burger, which has multiple locations throughout the SoCal region. The menu is pretty straightforward, but a "secret" menu allows you to customize by ordering "animal style" fries and burgers.

For a taste of California, you can visit a farmers’ market and rub shoulders with celebrity chefs and foodie insiders picking out the finest organic produce. You can also step into sleek restaurants serving innovative, ultra-fresh California cuisine. You can taste gelato made with locally-produced chocolate and toasted hazelnuts, or handmade cheeses from local farms. Drive down a tree-lined lane to wineries in grand chateaus, or relaxed, family-run vineyards where the guy pouring and chatting in the tasting room is a world-class winemaker.

Stay safe

Due to California's proximity to the International Boundary with Mexico, visitors should be cautious while in areas near the border.

Know where you are at all times, follow good safety procedures and use common sense when making decisions. Do not pick-up hitch hikers. Keep valuables, including spare change, out of sight and lock your vehicle. Avoid traveling in well-marked but unofficial "trails." Avoid hiking or camping in areas of major border activity. If you are visiting a national or state park, consult park staff to help plan backcountry travel in safer areas. Report all suspicious person and behaviors to U.S Border patrol,California Highway Patrol or other law enforcement agency.


The tourist areas of Los Angeles are generally quite safe, as well as many parts of Orange County and San Diego. Many residential neighborhoods in metro L.A. and the Inland Empire are generally safe. However, crime can also be high in certain parts of Southern California, particularly in, again, parts of the Los Angeles metro area and parts of the Inland Empire. The Los Angeles and Inland Empire areas both comprise a high proportion of gang members and activities, however, both these areas are large in geographical area, and therefore have both affluent as well as struggling neighborhoods.


Some tourists may suffer respiratory problems because of the major cities' air pollution. Drink plenty of fluids and reduce outdoor activities.

Natural Disasters

California sits on the San Andreas fault. Earthquakes sometimes dangerous occur in the state. It is very wise to read up on earthquake safety when visiting this area. Tsunamis sometimes occur. Never go to the beach to watch one. Just get yourself to safety high and inland as you can. Tornadoes and severe thunderstorms are rare. That doesn't mean they never get them. California's storms are nowhere as violent and severe as further east including the Great Plains and the South.


There are some animals of which you may want to be aware in Southern California.

  • Snakes are very common in California and other places in the southwest. While most snakes might be harmless there is a few where you should take extreme caution near and around them. Rattlesnakes are common and extremely venomous. When the snake is coiled up and you hear a rattle sound this is their defense position where the snake is going to attack and bite.

Types of rattlesnakes in california

  • Red Diamond
  • Mojave
  • Sidewinder- slithers in a S formation usually
  • Panamint/ Southern Speckled Snake
  • Western Diamond Back (Considered the most dangerous snake known in the State of California.)

Western Rattlesnake

  • There are rattlesnakes in open spaces. You are unlikely to see them, but if you do, they will usually ignore you unless you bother them. Even so, it is best to stay alert while hiking.
  • Mountain lions (also known as pumas, cougars, or catamounts) exist in National Parks and open spaces in Southern California. These cats are, however, shy and elusive. It is very rare to be attacked by them or even to see them; most hikers who have been hiking these areas for their whole lives have never seen a mountain lion, but attacks happen every few years or so. Make sure to hike with another person, especially around dawn and dusk.
  • Bears are in the mountains of Southern California and have been known to wander into city neighborhoods. It is uncommon, but be on the lookout around dawn and dusk, especially in the cities that border the mountains.
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