Slovenia (Slovenija)  is a country in Central Europe that lies in the eastern Alps at the northeastern end of the Adriatic Sea, with Austria to the north, Italy to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast and Croatia to the south. Despite its small size, Slovenia has a surprising variety of terrain, ranging from the beaches of the Mediterranean to the peaks of the Julian Alps, to the rolling hills of the south. Slovenia was already more economically advanced than other "East Block" nations prior to European integration and the powerhouse of Tito's Yugoslavia. Added the fact that Slovenia is also home to some of the finest scenery in the "New Europe", the transition from socialism to the european common market economy has gone well and serves as a model for other nations on the same track to follow.
Slavic ancestors of Slovenians came from eastern parts of Europe and inhabitated territory north of present Slovenian territory in 6. century AD. They established a state called Caranthania (Karantanija in Slovene), which was an early example of parliamentary democracy in Europe. The ruler (knez in Slovene) was elected by popular vote. The Caranthanians were later defeated by Bavarians and Franks who subordinated them. They were christianized, but they preserved many rituals of their pagan religion, and above all they preserved their native language. The Slovene lands were part of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria under Habsburg dynasty until 1918 when the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new south-Slavic state ruled by Serbian Karadjordjević dynasty called Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians ("Kraljevina Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev" in Slovene), renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. In WWII Slovenia was invaded and occupied by Germans, Italians and Hungarians. A parallel civil war between pro-communist liberation forces (Partizani) and catholic anti-communist factions (Belogardisti, Domobranci) that collaborated with occupation forces also took place. The victory of the Allies and consequentlly the Partizans resulted in a massive exodus and a large scale massacre of members of anti-communist forces. Tainted by their sympathy for the German and Italian invasions and wide scale collaborations, nearly the entire indigenous ethnic German population was expelled to Austria and Germany and many Italians left as well. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic in the reestablished Yugoslavia, which although Communist, distanced itself from the Soviet bloc and small territorial gains were made from Italy. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power of the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 with minimal bloodshed. In 2004, Slovenia joined the European Union and NATO. Most recently Slovenia adopted the Euro in 2007, completing a quick and efficient accession to Europe and the EU.
Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy make Slovenia a leading country among the new members of the EU and NATO.
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east.
A short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an Alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to the east. Central Ljubljana valley with Ljubljana marshes in the southern part. In the southwest there is the Karst (Kras in Slovene) (where the name for karst topography actually comes from).
Slovenia is a member country of the European Union and has also joined the Schengen agreement, which means that you can enter on a European Union Schengen visa and there are no longer any ID/passport controls on the EU borders.
The Ljubljana Bus Station (Avtobusna Postaja Ljubljana) provides composite information about international and airport bus services. Phone: 090 93 42 30 (inland only), website in English: .
Ljubljana is Slovenia's primary international airport and the hub of national carrier Adria Airways , which flies to most major European cities and various Balkan destinations. The cheapest ways into the city, though, are via easyJet's daily flight from London-Stansted.
There are a few other options worth exploring. Ryanair also runs flights from Dublin to Pula across the border in Croatia. Another convenient gateway, especially to western Slovenia, is via Italy's Trieste airport which is but an hour's drive from Ljubljana via super highway. Klagenfurt, in Austria, is also an option.
A low cost and quick door to door service is provided by ljubljanatransfer.net , the minibus company at Ljubljana Brnik Airport. The service costs 8 euro for individuals, while groups shall pay as few as 5 euro per person. The company provides really cheap transfers to all destinations in Slovenia, including cities, spas and ski centers.
Slovenia is well connected to Austria and Croatia by train. The most popular routes connect from Vienna or Villach in Austria (in good weather, this journey past the Julian Alps is spectacular), from Budapest in Hungary and from Zagreb in Croatia. All lines converge on the capital Ljubljana.
With April 2008, the Italian Railways have slashed the only remaining daytime cross-border service, even though it still appears on many international timetables. Contact the the Slovenian Railways for current information on replacement buses. The night train to Venice will be running at least until December 2008.
English website of the Slovenian Railways company . There are number of international routes , special offers exist for some destinations, so you should consider informing yourself about that in advance. There are destinations, which have tickets on contingency basis, meaning that they could run out fast, but are usually a lot cheaper, such as Ljubljana - Prague line (cooperation between SŽ and Czech railways), 58€ for a return ticket (with the normal price of just bellow 200€). For return trips originating in Slovenia, "City Star" tickets, which are open-dated, but usually require a weekend stay, are often the cheapest choice . Also, be aware that you also receive a discount with the Euro<26 youth card  on most international lines (of course the discount does not stack up if you already have a special deal). The same card also applies for all domestic lines, with a 30% discount.
The quality and comfort of the trains on international routes varies significantly. The unwritten rule is that everything heading up north from Ljubljana has a pretty good standard. The trains usually have restaurants on board, with clean and modern toilets. The same can not be guaranteed for the lines heading south (such as Belgrade, Sofia, Skopje or Thessaloniki), so be sure to carry a supply of food and beverages on board (water (and coffee) is available in every sleeping compartment), when heading to or from Ljubljana from the Balkans, with the train.
Slovenia has an excellent highway network  connected to neighboring countries. Since 1 July 2008 Slovenia demands that all vehicles with a permissible weight of up to 3.5 tons buy a vignette (road tax) before using motorways or expressways. This vignette costs 35€ for 6 months, or 55€ for a year. For motorcyclists this costs 17.5€ and 27.5€ respectively. Using motorways without a vignette will result in a fine of 300€ or more.
When entering through northern neighbor Austria one also needs a separate vignette to use the Austrian highway network.
Slovenia is a small country — there are no domestic flights — and getting around is generally quick and painless. However, the explosive growth in car ownership has meant tougher times for public transport, and bus schedules in particular have been slashed, so some planning ahead is required. Services are sparse on Saturdays and very limited indeed on Sundays.
Quite a bit of money and effort has been put into modernizing the system and the newest trains are as nice as anything you'll find in Western Europe, but the stations themselves are often not quite up to scratch. In particular, the name of the station is typically only visible on a single sign on the station building itself, so figuring out where you are means craning your neck a lot. Trains are punctual though, so check the expected arrival time and some previous station names to be sure where to get off. For figuring out your next train from a station, electronic signboards are a rarity (outside Ljubljana), but printed schedules are always available: odhod (yellow) means departures, while prihod (white) is arrivals.
Buses fill in the gaps, and may be a better option for some towns not directly served from Ljubljana by train (eg. Bled, Piran). Some bigger stations have handy electronic search engines for schedules and fares.
Time table in English: 
Slovenia's roads are for the most part well maintained and well signposted, and you won't have a problem if you drive or hire a car. Having a car certainly does add a level of mobility and self direction that you won't get by train or bus.
There are a number of car rental and taxi businesses in Ljubljana. The big international companies are all represented, but if you are on a budget, the local companies have some nice offers if you do not mind using a car which is a few years old.
Slovene, the national language, is spoken as mother tongue by 91% of the population, but there are also significant Italian (concentrated on the Primorska coast) and Hungarian (in Prekmurje to the northeast) minorities. Historically, and prior to the end of WWII there was also a significant German speaking minority. Most people you come into contact with as a tourist, especially younger ones, will speak English, and if not they'll almost certainly speak either Italian or German or other Serbo-Croatian.
When speaking in English, use a simple language, no fancy stuff (as anywhere where English is not a native language). It will get you further and help to avoid any misunderstandings. The Slovenian school system promotes the teaching of many languages, especially English from elementary school on. A typical high school also has the second or even a third foreign language (usually German, Spanish, French or Italian). Young people usually speak English quite fluently, also because there is no dubbing (on television) in the native language and the wide-spread use and availability of Internet. However, learning the local language will earn you a great deal of respect.
The closely-related Serbo-Croatian is widely understood, as it is largely mutually intelligible with Slovene, and spoken fluently by anyone who was schooled before 1991, the same goes for reading and writing the Cyrillic alphabet. Russian is also understandable, although it was not as taught as extensively as in other Slavic-speaking countries. Many Slovenes have some functional knowledge of German and Italian.
There are many great opportunities for activity holidays in Slovenia: The mountains and rivers of the Julian Alps provide the perfect location for hiking, mountain biking, rafting and kayaking.
Slovenia entered the Eurozone on January 1st, 2007 and now utilises the euro (€, EUR) as its currency, having previously used the Slovenian tolar (SIT).
Prices are high compared to most Eastern European countries (except Croatia), but generally a bit lower (but not by much) compared to Italy or Austria. Although prices do vary quite a bit. It really depends on your location. For example, a beer (0,5 litre) in a pub in "Stara Ljubljana" (literally "Old (Town) Ljubljana") would cost you around 3€, while a beer outside Ljubljana would cost around half as much. A budget minded traveller can hold his own, if he is smart. For example buying your groceries in a large store (supermarket), such are Mercator, Tuš, Spar, Lidl, Hofer etc., will be likely cheaper than buying on the market, or in a small store, etc.
A value-added tax (VAT) of 20% is charged on most purchases—this is always included in the price displayed. Note that if you are not an EU citizen, you are entitled to VAT tax return for purchases over a certain value. Ask the cashier to write down your name on your bill (racun) and show this bill when you leave Slovenia through Brnik airport, or any of the main border crossings with Croatia.
The flip side to the near-disappearance of Communist-style "service with a snarl" is that tips for service are now generally expected at sit-down restaurants, with 10% considered standard.
Not too many people come to Slovenia for the food, but with Italian, Hungarian and Balkan influences most people will find something to their liking — unless they're strict vegetarians.
Generally speaking, Slovenian food is heavy, meaty and plain. A typical three-course meal starts with a soup (juha), often just beef or chicken broth with egg noodles, and then a meat dish served with potatoes (krompir) and a vinegary fresh salad (solata). Fresh bread (kruh) is often served on the side and is uniformly delicious.
Common mains include cutlets (zrezek), sausage (klobasa) and goulash (golaž), all usually prepared from pork, but there is a large choice of fish (ribe) and seafood even further away from the coast. Popular Italian imports include all sorts of pasta (testenine), pizza (pica), ravioli (žlikrofi) and risotto (rižota). A major event in the countryside still today is the slaughtering of a pig from which many various products are made: blood sausage, roasts, stuffed tripe, smoked sausage, salami (salama), ham (šunka) and bacon. Recipes for the preparation of poultry, especially turkey (puran), goose (gos), duck, and capon, have been preserved for many centuries. Chicken (piščanec) is surprisingly uncommon. Squid is fairly common and reasonably priced.
Uniquely Slovenian dishes are available, but you won't find them on every menu, so here are some to look out for:
Some Slovenian desserts can also be found:
Places to eat
At the top of the food chain is the restavracija, a fancy restaurant with waiters and tablecloths. More common in the countryside are the gostilna and gostišče, rustic inns serving hearty Slovene fare. Lunch sets (dnevno kosilo) cost around €7 for three courses (soup, salad and main) and are usually good value.
Fast food, invariably cheap, greasy and (more often than not) terrible — it's best to steer clear of the local mutation of the hamburger — is served up in grills and snack bars known as bife or okrepčevalnica, where trying to pronounce the name alone can cause indigestion. Greasy Balkan grills like pljeskavica (a spiced-up hamburger patty) and čevapčiči (spicy meatballs) are ubiquitous, but one of the more tasty if not healthy options is the Bosnian speciality burek, a large, flaky pastry stuffed with meat (mesni), cheese (sirni) or apple (jabolčni), often sold for as little as €2.
Slovenia is not the easiest of places for a vegetarian, although even the smokiest inn can usually whip up a decent fresh salad (solata) on request. Some dumplings and other dishes with cheese (sir) are vegetarian, and in the cities the Mediterranean chick-pea staple falafel and its cousin the vegiburger have made some inroads on fast-food menus. Many restaurants offer a "vegetarian plate", which includes potatoes, fresh or boiled vegetables and soya "steak".
In proper Slovene style, all bases are covered for drinks and you can get very good Slovenian beers, wines and spirits. Tap water is generally drinkable.
Coffee and tea
In Slovenia, coffee (kava) usually means a tiny cup of strong espresso, and cafes (kavarna) are a common sight with a basic cup costing around €1-1,5. One can also order coffee with milk (kava z mlekom) or whipped cream (kava s smetano). Coffee culture is wide-spread in Slovenia, and one can see Slovenes with friends sitting in the same café for hours. Tea (čaj) is nowhere near as popular, and if they do drink it, Slovenes prefer all sorts of fruit-flavored and herbal teas over a basic black cup.
Beer (pivo) is the most popular tipple and the main brands are Laško and Union. An inside tip would be Adam Ravbar beer, which is usually hard to find anywhere except in their small brewery (located in Domžale, a town about 10 km north of Ljubljana). A bottle or jug will cost you on the order of €1.5 in a pub (pivnica). Ask for veliko (large) for 0.5L and malo (small) for 0.3L.
Despite what you might think if you've ever sampled an exported sickly sweet Riesling, Slovenian wine (vino) can be quite good — they keep the best stuff for themselves. Generally, the Goriška brda region produces the best reds and the drier whites (in a more Italian/French style), while the Štajerska region produces the best semi-dry to sweet whites, which cater more to the German/Austrian-type of palate. Other local specialities worth sampling are Teran, a very dry red from the Kras region, and Cviček, a red so dry and light it's almost a rosé. Wine is usually priced and ordered by the decilitre (deci, pronounced "de-tsee"), with a deci around one euro and a normal glass containing about two deci.
A Slovene brandy known as žganje, not unlike the Hungarian palinka, can be distilled from almost any fruit. Medeno žganje also known as medica has been sweetened with honey.
Slovenia has a wide variety of accommodation, ranging from five star hotels to secluded cottages in the mountains.
There are many hostels in and around Ljubljana, the average price for a basic bed in a dorm is around 10-20 euro, with discounts for Hostelling International/YHA members. Quite a few student dormitories (dijaški dom) are converted into hostels in the summer, but these tend to be poorly located and somewhat dingy.
Amongst the best hostels around Slovenia can be found in the Triglav National Park where there are many 'Mountain Huts' which are very warm, welcoming and friendly. Again, information about these huts can be found at tourist information offices who will also help you plan your walks around the area and phone the hostels to book them for you. The only way to get to the huts is by foot, and expect a fair bit of walking up hills, as the lowest huts are around 700m up. There are clear signs/information around stating how long it will take to travel to/between all the huts indicated in hours.
Camping is not permitted in the national parks of Slovenia, but there are various camping grounds. It's advisable to take a camping mat of some sort, as nice, comfortable grass is a luxury at camp sites and you're much more likely to find pitches consisting of small stones.
Slovenia has four universities (Ljubljana , Maribor , Koper , Nova Gorica ) and several independent colleges (i.e. BSA Kranj, IEDC Bled ). The University of Ljubljana also contains 3 art academies: Theater and Film, Music, Fine Arts.
It's possible for English-speaking graduates to get work in a Slovene school teaching English for around a year in a scheme similar to Japan's JET programme.
Phone Nr.: Emergency 112 Phone Nr.: Police 113
Note: Slovenia is most likely one of the safest countries to visit, but to be aware of your surroundings.
Tivoli park (Ljubljana): The park is generally very safe, and a great place to take an afternoon stroll, but rapes have been reported in Tivoli park after dark, and flashers are know to hang around the Eastern side of the Park across from the student dormitories. Horse mounted police patrol the park.
Discoteques: People may get a bit aggressive in crowded bars, and it's not uncommon to be grabbed or groped.
There are no unusual health concerns in Slovenia. Hygience standards are generally high and tap water is potable.
Slovenians are a bit more reserved than neighboring nations but after the initial contact they are quite open and friendly. Don't hesitate to address people, those younger than 50 understand English and they will be eager to help you. You will impress when using some basic Slovene words. Slovene is rarely spoken by foreigners, so your effort will be appreciated and rewarded.
Slovenians are proud of the fact that they preserved their national identity (especially the language) in spite of the pressures from neighboring non-Slavic nations in past centuries.
Due to their economic success and historical as well as contemporary cultural bonds to the West, they don't like their country to be described as part of "Eastern Europe". Another common misconception is that Slovenia was part of the Soviet Bloc (in fact it was part of Yugoslavia that notoriously split with the Eastern bloc back in 1948). People have no problems talking about the communist period and often become nostalgic over it. They are also proud that they were the first of the federal republics to secede from Yugoslavia. Tito is considered by the vast majority as a national hero, as he also spoke Slovenian very fluently.
There are some open territorial issues with Croatia. Be careful if entering a discussion on this subject as nationalists get quite emotional when this subject is broached! Another delicate issue is the Slovenian civil war during WWII. This national tragedy is still painful for many Slovenians. Try to stay neutral if discussing it.