Earth : Europe : Central Europe : Slovenia
Slovenia (Slovenija) is a small country in Central Europe - a member of the European Union, Schengen Agreement and NATO. Not to be confused with Slovakia. The country lies in South Central Europe in the Julian Alps at the northern end of the Adriatic Sea, bordered by Austria to the north, Italy to the west, Hungary to the northeast, and Croatia to the southeast. Despite its small size, this Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes.
Previously one of Yugoslavia's six constituent republics, present-day Slovenia seceded in 1991. Historical ties to Western Europe, and help from the European Union have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state.
Industry Slovenia's main industries include car parts, pharmacy, electronics, electrical appliances, metal goods, textiles and furniture. It has a Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers, and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east.
Slovenes are Slavic people. Slovenia was never a country till 1991. The Slovene lands were part of the Holy Roman Empire, and later they were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until its dissolution at the end of World War I in 1918 - when the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was formed, and turned into a multinational state named Yugoslavia in 1929. After Yugoslavia was occupied by the Axis powers and later liberated by the Partisans with the help of Western Allies in World War II, Slovenia became a socialist republic in the renewed Yugoslavia, which although communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in 2004, and joined the eurozone and the Schengen Area in 2007, completing the final steps of accession to the European Union.
Slovenia became the first 2004 European Union entrant to adopt the euro on 1 Jan 2007 and has experienced one of the most stable economic transitions in Central and Southcentral Europe. Slovenia has excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between Central and Southeastern Europe. Structural reforms to improve the business environment under the guidance of European Union have allowed for greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and helped to lower unemployment. Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank in March 2004 and became an OECD member in 2012. Despite its economic success, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia has lagged behind the regional average, and taxes remain relatively high. The labour market is inflexible, and legacy industries are losing sales to more competitive firms in China, India and elsewhere. The global recession caused the economy to contract - through falling exports and industrial production - by 8%, and unemployment to rise in 2009. The economic growth resumed in 2010, but dipped into negative territory with the unemployment rate approaching 12% in 2012.
Older Slovene cities have historic influences by baroque (Austrian) and Roman (Italian) architectures. Part of both, the countryside and city architecture in the northwest, shares many commonalities with neighbouring Austria, including countless baroque shrines and steeples. The Ljubljana capital was founded in Roman times; today its university has over 50,000 students.
The most famous Slovenes include the poet France Prešeren (1800-1849) who penned the Slovene national anthem, and the architect Jože Plečnik (1872-1957) who is credited with Ljubljana's iconic Triple Bridge.
Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps, the Dinaric area, the Pannonian plain and the Mediterranean. Slovenia's highest mountain, the three-peaked Triglav, is depicted on the national flag. Main tourist attractions include the famous caves with their decor of stalactites and stalagmites in Postojna.
Slovenia has a 46 km long coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east. Slovenia's highest point is Mount Triglav at 2,864 m. Natural resources include lignite coal, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower and forests.
Slovenia is a member of the Schengen Agreement.
There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented this treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union. This means that there may be spot customs checks but no immigration checks (travelling within Schengen but to/from a non-EU country) or you may have to clear immigration but not customs (travelling within the EU but to/from a non-Schengen country).
Please see the article Travel in the Schengen Zone for more information about how the scheme works and what entry requirements are.
The Ljubljana Bus Station (Avtobusna Postaja Ljubljana) provides composite information about international and airport bus services. Connections between the Italian city of Trieste and nearby Koper and Piran are frequent on weekdays. There's also a daily bus trip between Trieste and Ljubljana, and there are trips between Gorizia in Italy and its neighbor/twin town of Nova Gorica in Slovenia at least every hour throughout the day, although the trip can also be made on foot. This supplements the railway connection between the Italia and Slovenia, or an alternative entry point from either Trieste or Venice.
The Ljubljana Airport (formerly named Brnik) is Slovenia's primary international airport. The cheapest air connections are available via easyJet's daily flight from London Stansted Airport in England.
The Irish AerLingus runs flights from Dublin to Pula across the border in Croatia. Another convenient gateway to western Slovenia is via Italy's Trieste airport, which is an hour-long drive from Ljubljana via highway. The airport in Klagenfurt, Austria, is also an option. The Italian Treviso Airport, serving Venice and Treviso, offers alternative entry points to Slovenia.
Slovene railways are well connected to all neighbouring countries, except Italy where railway connections have gaps. The most popular routes connect from Vienna or Villach in Austria, from Budapest in Hungary, from Zagreb in Croatia. To get around the poorer railway connection to Italy, travelers can board a train from other points in Italy to Gorizia and then take a bus, or walk to its neighbouring town Nova Gorica in Slovenia, where there are regular train lines to Ljubljana. For entries from Trieste, it is advisable to take a bus or a taxi to Sežana where another train can be boarded.
Several international routes and special offers exist for some destinations. Some destinations have tickets on contingency basis that can run out fast, but are usually very cheap, such as Ljubljana - Prague line priced €58 for a return ticket (compared to a normal price of €200). For return trips originating in Slovenia, open-dated City Star tickets, which usually require a weekend stay, are usually the cheapest choice. With the Euro26 youth card, a discount can be received on most international lines (the discount does not stack up with other special deals). The same card also applies for all domestic lines, with a 30% discount.
The Slovene highway network is well connected to all neighbouring countries, with a few poorer connections to Croatia on the Slovenian side. Slovenia requires that all vehicles with a permissible gross weight less than 3.5 tonnes buy a vignette (road tax) before using motorways or expressways. For passenger vehicles, the vignette costs €15 for a week, €30 for a month, or €110 for a year. For motorcyclists, this costs €7.50 per week, €30 for 6 months, and €55 for a year. Using highways without a valid vignette can result in a fine of €300 or more. Vignettes are usually sold at borders and gas stations. There are posted signs advising a vignette purchase and border agents sometimes pass a flier advising travellers to buy one.
Venezialines runs another fast ferry each week between Venice and Piran. During the summertime, there is a fast craft service operated by Trieste Lines between Trieste in Italy, Piran in Slovenia, Poreč and Rovinj in Croatia. The portion of the journey between Piran and Trieste lasts 30 min, which is pretty much the same as a journey by car.
Hitchhiking may be your best option to move around for free. Maps can be bought at gas stations for about €10, or at book stores for a slightly lower price. Getting around by car is generally painless when using highways, but those require a purchase of a vignette. Travellers may experience tougher times off the highways, or when using public transport. Bus schedules in particular have been slashed, so some planning ahead is required. Services are sparse and limited on Saturdays and Sundays.
Hitchhiking in Slovenia works and is generally safe, but be aware that by hitchhiking you are playing a gambling game as some of the times you may not get a driver who doesn't expect you to kiss his ass for the favor of a free ride. The general rule is if the gut feeling is telling you to not take a ride when someone pulls over to pick you up, just ignore them and keep hitching. Hitchhikers may also have a better experience with female drivers, though they might not be the ones to offer you a ride as often as the male drivers.
The railway system has been relatively modernized. The railway station names are typically only visible on station building signs, so figuring out to which station the train is arriving means constantly looking outside the correct window (sometimes it's on the right side, other times it's on the left side). A few newer trains have a voice announcement system that announces to which station the train is arriving. Trains are punctual (except some of the international trains), so travellers should check the expected arrival time and previous station names to be sure where to get off. For figuring out the next train from a station (electronic signboards are rare, but printed schedules are always available): odhod (yellow) means departure, while prihod (white) means arrival, although this is usually also indicated in English.
The 38,925 km long Slovene road network is usually well maintained and signposted. Although travellers may encounter several roads being limited or blocked to traffic due to maintenance work or urgent repairs (especially in wintertime), travelling on main roads usually isn't problematic. The highway system requires a vignette, which, as of 2019, costs 15 euros per week for most passenger cars.
There are many taxi services in Ljubljana, as well as car rental services, some of which are offering older cars for a lower price.
The national Slovenian language is spoken natively by 91.1% of the population, only 4.5% are native speakers of Serbo-Croat, but it is widely understood. 4.4% (minority communities near the national borders) speak Italian and Hungarian. Spoken English is on the level of other European countries in the nearby region. Many Slovenes also have some knowledge of German, especially in the eastern region.
Slovene schools teach foreign languages from primary school onwards. Students can study two foreign languages (most commonly English and German) by the time they get to grammar school. Grammar schools often teach an optional third foreign language (French, Italian or Spanish). While most of the younger Slovenes speak English fluently, older residents are more skilled in Serbo-Croatian and German, while some of them can also read Cyrillic.
In conclusion, Slovenian language is a part of Southern-Slavic languages, so in case you don't speak English but do speak other Slavic languages (Especially Serbo-Croatian is widely understood) you can try it, as Slavic languages are very related to each other.
The National Museum of Slovenia in Ljubljana (Presernova 20, entrance from Muzejska Street), is the oldest and largest Slovene museum. It was founded in 1821. The museum building on the Museum Street was built in 1888. It was the first building assigned solely to Slovene culture. Today, the museum stores a rich collection of valuable objects. The oldest ones date back to the Stone Age, while there are also newer ones that are still used in today's modern times.
The new building of the National Museum of Slovenia on the (Metelkova, Maistrova Street 1), exhibits collections of the applied art heritage of Slovenia. The permanent exhibition brings together objects of applied arts from the 14th century to the present day.
In Savinja and Šalek Valley there are many Slovenian natural and cultural pearls:
The mountains and rivers of the Julian Alps and of the Kamnik-Savinja Alps provide the perfect location for skiing, hiking, mountain biking, rafting and kayaking.
The southern region is an area of numerous caves.
Travellers can enjoy different spa resorts in the eastern region, take a dive in the Adriatic Sea, visit cities, or enjoy the countryside cuisine and local wine.
Travellers can also visit Bled's alpine resort and its lake with an island, the massive stalactites and stalagmites in the Postojna caves where the graffiti indicate that the first tourists came there in 1213, pure, picturesque and nostalgic alpine world of Savinja and Šalek Valley, the lively coastal town of Piran, the Soča river, or the Trenta valley.
Stores are friendly and filling stations usually provide free access to toilets, water and quick washing necessities (by the sink).
Slovenia has the euro (€) as its sole currency along with 24 other countries that use this common European money. These 24 countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain (official euro members which are all European Union member states) as well as Andorra, Kosovo, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino and the Vatican which use it without having a say in eurozone affairs and without being European Union members. Together, these countries have a population of more than 330 million.
One euro is divided into 100 cents. While each official euro member (as well as Monaco, San Marino and Vatican) issues its own coins with a unique obverse, the reverse, as well as all bank notes, look the same throughout the eurozone. Every coin is legal tender in any of the eurozone countries.
Prices are generally high compared to the rest of the European Union. Some prices vary depending on location. For example, a half-litre beer is usually sold at half the price outside Ljubljana compared to pub sales inside the city.
A value-added tax (VAT) of 22% (with a reduced rate of 9.5% usually applied to foods and some soft drinks) is charged on most purchases, and is always included in the displayed price tags. Non-EU residents are entitled to get this tax back for purchases over a certain value when the goods are exported. Travellers can ask the cashier to write down their name on a bill, then they can show this bill for tax returns when leaving Slovenia through Ljubljana Airport or any of the main border crossings with Croatia.
Used not to be expected in Slovenia. However, in recent years, tips are becoming common, especially in some of the areas highly visited by American tourists. Common tip is up to 10%.
You can make relatively cheap purchases of groceries and other common supplies in several supermarkets, such as the Slovene supermarket chains of Mercator (international retailer with city-malls with various other smaller local and international stores) and Tus, or the foreign international supermarket chains of Dutch Spar, German Aldi (Hofer) and Lidl, Italian Eurospin, French E. Leclerc and Hungarian CBA.
The standard opening hours are M-Sa 8:00-20:00, with some stores also having opening Su 8:00-10:00 or 15:00.
The old saying "there is no free lunch" is true in Slovenia. Served foods can be expensive and are commonly not appropriate for vegans, so the best way to get cheap foods to your liking is buying it directly from the local supermarkets. Lunchtime is the cheapest time to eat in Slovenia. As a tourist, you will always be presented with the full menu, however the majority of restaurants and gostilnas offer something called "Malice" (pronounced 'mal-it-ze') which is a lunch menu typically of 2 - 3 courses at a fraction of the cost. In Ljubljana, this tends to be hidden from tourists, so make sure to ask.
At the top of the list of places to eat in Slovenia is the common restaurant (translated restavracija), followed by common bars (called gostilna and gostišče) and rustic inns in the countryside. The international McDonalds fast-food restaurants are available in larger cities. Hamburgers are also served in grills and smaller snack bars called okrepčevalnica.
Slovene cuisine is heavily influenced by that of its neighbours, including the Austrian Strudel and Wiener Schnitzel, the Italian risotto and ravioli (including pizza and several sorts of pasta), and the Hungarian goulash. Unique dishes include the air-dried ham (derived from the Italian prosciutto) called kraški pršut, potato dumplings (derived from the Italian gnocchi) called Idrian žlikrofi, a variant of Italian polenta called žganci and ajdovi žganci made of buckwheat, Austrian-derived dumplings štruklji (prepared in 70 different ways of stuffings with sweet fillings, meat or vegetables), and Italian-derived jota (a type of soup made of beans, sauerkraut, potatoes, bacon, spare ribs and garlic).
The traditional Slovene cake called potica, which is made by rolling up a layer of dough covered with walnuts, and a cake-like pastry called gibanica, which is made of poppy seeds, walnuts, apples, raisins and cheese, topped with cream.
Slovenes have also adopted several foreign fast foods, such as the Serbian spiced-up hamburger patty pljeskavica, the Bosnian/Serbian spicy meatballs ćevapi, the Bosnian variant of Turkish Börek that is a large flaky pastry stuffed with meat/cheese/apple called burek, and the Arab/Turkish Shawarma called doner kebab. Foreign food is more popular even among Slovenes. Pizza is Slovenia is as good as in Italy. Surprisingly, the best pizza is available in Mercator supermarket chain.
Slovene foods are generally heavy, meaty and plain. A typical three-course meal starts with a soup (often made of beef or chicken) broth with egg noodles, after which a meat dish is served with potatoes and salad with vinegar. Bread is often served on the side. Common mains include cutlets, a sausage and goulash, all usually prepared from pork, lamb and game, and there is also a large choice of fish and other seafood further away from the coast.
Other Slovene foods made of pig include blood sausage, roasts, stuffed tripe, smoked sausage, salami, ham and bacon. Recipes for the preparation of poultry, especially turkey, goose, duck and capon, have been preserved for many centuries. Foods made of chicken and squid are also commonly available.
Slovenia is not a good place for vegetarians. Although some places offer fresh salads and fried vegetables per request, the concept of vegetarianism is alien to Slavs, including Slovenes. Strict vegans won't find more than a handful of vegan restaurants in the country. However, even the smallest grocery store offers non-meat foods for sale. In the cities, the Mediterranean chickpea staple falafel and 'vegi-burger' can be found on some fast-food menus. Many restaurants in Slovenia offer a 'vegetarian plate', which includes potatoes and fresh or boiled vegetables with 'soya steak'. In coastal cities, local seafoods include fish, squids, mussels and octopus.
All restaurants and bars usually sell drinks like beers, wines and spirits. Tap water is drinkable.
The 'coffee culture' is widespread in Slovenia. 'Coffee' usually stands for a tiny cup of strong Turkish coffee. Coffee with milk or whipped cream is also commonly available.
Tea is not as popular, and only sorts of fruit-flavoured and herbal teas are usually available instead of the basic black cup. Tea can also be served with lemon or honey.
Beer is the most popular tipple in Slovenia. The main two Slovene beer brands are Laško and Union. Common beer amounts sold at pubs range from 'large' (0.5 L) to 'small' (0.3 L). The Union Radler Grapefruit is also good. There are also few Slovenian craft breweries that have rosen up in the past few years and you can try their beers in some pubs in Ljubljana and other towns.
Wines are usually ordered by the deciliter. The western region of Slovenia produces reds and the drier whites (in Italian/French style), while the eastern region produces semi-dry to sweet whites, which cater more to the German/Austrian-type of palate. Local wine specialities include Riesling, Teran (a very dry red from the southwestern Karst region), and Cviček (a very dry/light red from the southeast).
A brandy derived called žganje/rakija/šnops, distilled from various fruits, is very common. Other popular spirits include a honey-sweetened brandy called medeno žganje or medica.
Sleeping outside in a public area (outside of designated camping grounds) is not recommended. Aside from the climate's moisture posing a problem, not many Slovenes may be comfortable with seeing homeless people, and sleeping outside in a public place (especially inside a city and especially at night) can get you into trouble.
However, Slovenia has a wide variety of high-priced accommodations, including five star hotels, secluded cottages in the mountains, and 'tourist farms' in the countryside.
Sleeping in your car, though uncomfortable, is a cheap and viable option (especially during the summer season), and you usually won't get bothered in secluded public parking places, though you might not want to stay at the same place longer than a day or two. The free parking places of settlement areas are your best bet, as well as some parking places of restaurants, but you should avoid the more obvious parking areas such as the ones of supermarkets, as those are very often monitored by various securities (especially at night).
Camping is not permitted in the national parks of Slovenia, but there are various designated camping grounds. It's advisable to come with a camping mat, as travellers will more likely find pitches consisting of small stones instead of comfortable grass.
There are hostels in all of the high-tourist areas in Slovenia. The average price for a basic bed in a dorm ranges from €10 to €20. Some of the student dormitories are converted into hostels in summertime, but these tend to be poorly located and badly maintained.
Mountain Huts can be found in Triglav National Park. Information about these huts can be found at tourist information offices that will also help tourists plan their walks around the area and phone the hostels to book them. The only way to get to these huts is by foot, and the lowest huts are at around 700 m altitude. There are clear informational signs stating how long it will take to travel between the huts indicated.
Slovenia has a large number of universities, mostly located in Ljubljana, Maribor, Nova Gorica and Koper, as well as business schools like IEDC Bled,DOBA Maribor and VPŠ ERUDIO. The university in Ljubljana is the oldest and largest educational institution in the country, offering three art academies: Theatre and Film; Music; and Fine Arts.
Citizens of the European Union, Norway, Iceland and Switzerland can work in Slovenia without the need to apply for a visa. Citizens of some non-EU countries are permitted to work in Slovenia without the need to obtain a visa or any further authorization for the period of their 90-day visa-free stay (see the 'Entry requirements' section above).
In general, finding a job around Slovenia is next to impossible. Slovene like other Slavic languages is difficult to learn. since it is spoken by just 2 million people, it is not considered worthwhile learning it as a second language by foreigners. On the other hand, many Slovenes often work in other EU countries where salaries are higher.
Slovenia is a relatively safe country to visit. LGBT+ travellers are generally not in danger, although there have been reported attacks in the past. Be cautious in the evening and at night, especially in bigger towns. Some aggression in crowded bars has also been noted.
To call police, dial 113. There are emergency phones stationed along highways and some main roads. The closest SOS phones can be found by following the signposts, which are usually put right in front of the phone station, so driving slowly is advisable.
Hygiene standards are high and tap water is generally clean and drinkable. The nationwide emergency number is 112.
It's advisable to use tick repellents in the woods due to the dangers of widespread Lyme disease and Meningitis. If bitten by one of the two known species of venomous adders in the Julian Alps, you should seek medical help to provide you with antiserums (although these are seldom administered). Tourists may encounter a bear in the forests to the south, though actual attacks are rare.
Slovenes in general are very friendly and hospitable to tourists, sometimes to a fault. The same does not apply to immigrants.
The international calling code for Slovenia is 386, the prefix for international calls is 00, and the area code prefix is 0. Some number blocks are reserved for special use: 080 are toll-free numbers, and 090 are expensive commercial services.
Telecom Slovenia (Telekom Slovenije) operates around 3500 phone booths. These require the use of smart cards, which are sold for €3 - €15.
Mobile networks use the common European frequencies (900 and 1800 MHz). Three mobile companies, the Slovene Telekom Slovenije (formerly Mobitel) (major) and Telemach (formerly Tusmobil), as well as A1, provide good GSM/HSDPA and LTE coverage. Roaming between European phone companies is free due to the EU regulation, while calls to or from non-EU providers remain expensive. Pre-paid GSM SIM cards are widely available in supermarkets, post offices and gas stations.
Slovenia is covered by over 415,580 internet hosts from several companies, offering services to 1.298 million internet users. WiFi is common in cafes and bars; the service is usually free of charge, however guests may need to ask staff for login details. Some cities such as Ljubljana offer limited free WiFi throughout central areas. Internet cafes are less common, however can be found in cities, and internet access is offered by most hotels and hostels.
TV and Radio broadcasts are in Slovene. Pay channels like BBC and CNN are available at many places. The national Radio-television Slovenia (Radiotelevizija Slovenija (RTV)) is a public radio and TV broadcaster that operates a system of national and regional radio and TV stations. Slovenia has 35 domestic commercial TV stations (operating nationally, regionally and locally), and more than 75 regional and local commercial and noncommercial radio stations. About 60% of households are connected to multichannel cable TV.
The offices of Post Service Slovenia (Pošta Slovenije) are very common. They can be found by spotting a black French horn-like sign on a yellow background. Mail delivery takes one day within Slovenia, a few days within Europe, and usually less than two weeks worldwide. DHL is also available.