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Slovenia

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Slovenia

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Quick Facts
CapitalLjubljana
Governmentparliamentary democratic republic
Currencytolar (SIT)
Areatotal: 20,273 sq km
water: 122 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
Population1,932,917 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageSlovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 6%, other 3%
ReligionRoman Catholic (Uniate 2%) 70.8%, Lutheran 1%, Muslim 1%, atheist 4.3%, other 22.9%

This article is an import from the CIA World Factbook 2002. It's a starting point for creating a real Wikitravel country article according to our country article template. Please plunge forward and edit it.

The Slovene lands were part of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria until 1918 when the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new nation, renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power of the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy make Slovenia a leading candidate for future membership in the EU and NATO.


Geography

Si-map.png
Map of Slovenia
Location 
Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia
Geographic coordinates 
46 07 N, 14 49 E
Map references 
Europe
Area 
total: 20,273 sq km
water: 122 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries 
total: 1,334 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Italy 232 km, Hungary 102 km
Coastline 
46.6 km
Maritime claims 
NA
Climate 
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain 
a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
Natural resources 
lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver, hydropower, forests
Land use 
arable land: 11.48%
permanent crops: 2.68%
other: 85.84% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
20 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
flooding and earthquakes
Environment - current issues 
Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note 
despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes

People

Population 
1,932,917 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 15.7% (male 155,989; female 147,707)
15-64 years: 69.8% (male 684,354; female 663,884)
65 years and over: 14.5% (male 103,790; female 177,193) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
0.14% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
9.27 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
10.07 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
2.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
4.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 75.29 years
female: 79.37 years (2002 est.)
male: 71.42 years
Total fertility rate 
1.28 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
0.02% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
200 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian
Ethnic groups 
Slovene 88%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Bosniak 1%, Yugoslav 0.6%, Hungarian 0.4%, other 5% (1991)
Religions 
Roman Catholic (Uniate 2%) 70.8%, Lutheran 1%, Muslim 1%, atheist 4.3%, other 22.9%
Languages 
Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 6%, other 3%
Literacy 
definition: NA
total population: 99%
male: NA%
female: NA%

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local short form: Slovenija
local long form: Republika Slovenija
Government type 
parliamentary democratic republic
Capital 
Ljubljana
Administrative divisions 
182 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine , singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik-Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos-Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola-Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Koper-Capodistria*, Kostel, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava-Lendva, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran-Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogasovci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveta Ana, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zuzemberk, Zrece
note: there may be 45 more municipalities
Independence 
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday 
Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Constitution 
adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991
Legal system 
based on civil law system
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch 
chief of state: President Janez DRNOVSEK (since 22 December 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Anton ROP (since 11 December 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
election results: Janez DRNOVSEK elected president; percent of vote - Janez DRNOVSEK 56.5%, Barbara BREZIGAR 43.5%; Anton ROP elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 63 to 24
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 10 November and 1 December 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2007); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held 6 December 2002 (next National Assembly elections to be held NA October 2004)
Legislative branch 
unicameral National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats, 40 are directly elected and 50 are selected on a proportional basis; note - the numbers of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - LDS 36%, SDS 16%, ZLSD 12%, SLS/SKD 10%, NSi 9%, SMS 4%, SNS 4%, DeSUS 5%, other 4%; seats by party - LDS 34, SDS 14, ZLDS 11, SLS/SKD 9, NSi 8, SMS 4, SNS 4, DeSUS 4, other 2
note: the National Council or Drzavni Svet is an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws and ask to review any National Assembly decisions; in the election of November 1997, 40 members were elected to represent local, professional, and socioeconomic interests (next election to be held in the fall of 2002)
elections: National Assembly - last held 15 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2004)
Judicial branch 
Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)
Political parties and leaders 
Democratic Party of Retired (Persons) of Slovenia or DeSUS [Janko KUSAR]; Liberal Democratic or LDS [Janez DRNOVSEK, chairman]; New Slovenia or NSi [Andrej BAJUK, chairman]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC, chairman]; Slovene People's Party or SLS (Slovenian People's Party or SLS and Slovenian Christian Democrats or SKD merged in April 2000) [Franc ZAGOZEN, chairman]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Peter LEVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Slovenia or SDS [Janez JANSA, chairman]; United List of Social Democrats (former Communists and allies) or ZLSD [Borut PAHOR, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
NA
International organization participation 
ABEDA, ACCT (observer), BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Davorin KRACUN
FAX: [1] (202) 667-4563
consulate(s) general: New York and Cleveland
telephone: [1] (202) 667-5363
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny YOUNG
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: P. O. Box 254, Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana; American Embassy Ljubljana, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
Flag description 
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is located in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands

Economy

Economy - overview 
Slovenia, with its historical ties to Western Europe, enjoys a GDP per capita substantially higher than that of the other transitioning economies of Central Europe. Privatization of the economy proceded at an accelerated pace in 2002, and steps were taken to bring down the budget deficit from 2.9% of GDP in 2002 to 1.2% in 2003. Despite the economic slowdown in Europe in 2001-02, Slovenia maintained 3% growth. Internal structural reforms to improve the business environment, encouragement of direct foreign investment, and measures to curb inflation are needed to prepare the way for EU membership.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $36 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
3% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $18,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 3%
industry: 36%
services: 61% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 23% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index 
28 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
7.4% (2002 est.)
Labor force 
857,400
Labor force - by occupation 
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate 
11% (2002 est.)
Budget 
revenues: $8.11 billion
expenditures: $8.32 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Industries 
ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum reduction and rolled products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Industrial production growth rate 
2.4% (2002)
Electricity - production 
12.816 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 35%
hydro: 29%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 35%
Electricity - consumption 
10.619 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
700 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry
Exports 
$10.3 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities 
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Exports - partners 
Germany 26.0%, Italy 12.4%, Croatia 8.6%, Austria 7.4%, France 6.7% (2001)
Imports 
$11.1 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports - commodities 
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
Imports - partners 
Germany 19.6%, Italy 18.0%, France 10.8%, Austria 8.5%, Croatia 4.0% (2001)
Debt - external 
$7.9 billion (2001)
Economic aid - recipient 
ODA, $62 million (1993) (2000 est.)
Currency 
tolar (SIT)
Currency code 
SIT
Exchange rates 
tolars per US dollar - 251.40 (January 2002), 242.75 (2001), 222.66 (2000), 181.77 (1999), 166.13 (1998), 159.69 (1997)
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
722,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
1 million (2000)
Telephone system 
general assessment: NA
domestic: 100% digital (2000)
international: NA
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 17, FM 160, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 
805,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
48 (2001)
Televisions 
710,000 (1997)
Internet country code 
.si
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
11 (2000)
Internet users 
600,000 (2001)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 1,201 km
standard gauge: 1,201 km 1.435-m gauge (489 km electrified) (2001)
Highways 
total: 19,586 km
paved: 17,745 km (including 249 km of expressways)
unpaved: 1,841 km (1998 est.)
Waterways 
NA
Pipelines 
crude oil 290 km; natural gas 305 km
Ports and harbors 
Izola, Koper, Piran
Airports 
14 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Slovenian Army (includes Air and Naval Forces)
Military manpower - military age 
19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 521,881 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 414,878 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
males: 14,513 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$370 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
1.7% (FY00)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
Slovenia and Croatia have not obtained parliamentary ratification of 2001 land and marine boundary treaty, which cedes villages on the Dragonja River and Sveta Gera (Trdinov Peak) to Croatia, and most of Pirin Bay to Slovenia but restricts Slovenian access to the open sea; Austria has minor dispute with Slovenia over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities
Illicit drugs 
minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals