Earth : Asia : Southeast Asia : Singapore
Singapore is a microcosm of Asia, populated by Malays, Chinese, Indians, and a large group of workers and expatriates from all across the world.
Singapore has a partly deserved reputation for sterile predictability that has earned it descriptions like William Gibson's "Disneyland with the death penalty" or the "world's only shopping mall with a seat in the United Nations". Nevertheless, the Switzerland of Asia is for many a welcome respite from the poverty, dirt, and chaos of much of the Southeast Asian mainland, and if you scratch below the squeaky clean surface and get away from the tourist trail you'll soon find more than meets the eye.
Singaporean food is legendary, with bustling hawker centres and 24-hour coffee shops offering cheap food from all parts of Asia, and shoppers can bust their baggage allowances in shopping centres like Orchard Road and Suntec City. In recent years some societal restrictions have also loosened up, and now you can bungee jump and dance on bar tops all night long, although alcohol is still very pricey and chewing gum can only be bought from a pharmacy for medical use.
Two casino complexes — or "Integrated Resorts", to use the Singaporean euphemism — opened in 2010 in Sentosa and Marina Bay as part of Singapore's new Fun and Entertainment drive, the aim being to double the number of tourists visiting and increase the length of time they stay within the country. See Do, Gambling, below.
The first records of Singapore date back to the second and third centuries where a vague reference to its location was found in Greek and Chinese texts, under the names of Savana (Σαβάνα) and Pu Luo Chung respectively.
According to legend, Srivijayan prince Sang Nila Utama landed on the island and, catching sight of a strange creature that he thought was a lion, decided to find a new city he called Singapura, Sanskrit for Lion City, c. 1299. Alas, there have never been any lions anywhere near Singapore (until the Singapore Zoo opened) or elsewhere on Malaya in historical times, so the mysterious beast was more probably a tiger or wild boar.
More historical records indicate that the island was settled at least two centuries earlier and was known as Temasek, Javanese for "Sea Town", and an important port for the Sumatran Srivijaya kingdom. However, Srivijaya fell around 1400 and Temasek, battered by the feuding kingdoms of Siam and the Javanese Majapahit, fell into obscurity.
As Singapura, it then briefly regained importance as a trading centre for the Melaka Sultanate and later, the Johor Sultanate. However, Portuguese raiders then destroyed the settlement and Singapura faded into obscurity once more.
The story of Singapore as we know it today began in 1819, when Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles made a deal with a claimant to the throne of the Sultanate of Johor: the British would support his claim in exchange for the right to set up a trading post on the island.
Though the Dutch initially protested, the signing of the Anglo-Dutch treaty in 1824, which separated the Malay world into British and Dutch spheres of influence (resulting in the current Malaysia-Indonesia and Singapore-Indonesia borders), ended the conflict. The Dutch renounced their claim to Singapore and ceded their colony in Malacca to the British, in exchange for the British ceding their colonies on Sumatra to the Dutch.
Well-placed at the entrance to the Straits of Malacca, straddling the trade routes between China, India, Europe, and Australia, Raffles' master stroke was to declare Singapore a free port, with no duties charged on trade. As traders flocked to escape onerous Dutch taxes, the trading post soon grew into one of Asia's busiest, drawing people from far and wide. Along with Penang and Malacca, Singapore became one of the Straits Settlements and a jewel in the British colonial crown. Its economic fortunes received a further boost when palm oil and rubber from neighbouring Malaya were processed and shipped out via Singapore.
In 1867, Singapore was formally split off from British India and became a directly ruled Crown Colony.
When World War II broke out, Fortress Singapore was seen as a formidable British base, with massive naval fortifications guarding against assault by sea. However, not only did the fortress lack a fleet, as all ships were tied up defending Britain from the Germans, but the Japanese wisely chose to cross Malaya by bicycle instead!
Despite hastily turning the guns around, this was something the sea-focused British commanders had not considered, and on 15 Feb 1942, with supplies critically low after less than a week of fighting, Singapore was forced to surrender. The British prisoners of war were packed off to Changi Prison. Tens of thousands perished in the subsequent brutal Japanese occupation. The return of the British in 1945 to one of their most favoured colonies was triumphalist.
Granted self-rule in 1955, Singapore briefly joined the Federation of Malaysia in 1963 when the British left, but was expelled because the Chinese-majority city was seen as a threat to Malay dominance. The island became independent on 9 August 1965, thus becoming the only country to gain independence against its own will in the history of the modern world!
The subsequent forty years rule by Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew saw Singapore's economy boom, with the country rapidly becoming one of the wealthiest and most developed in Asia despite its lack of natural resources, earning it a place as one of the four East Asian Tigers. Now led by Lee's son Lee Hsien Loong, the ruling People's Action Party (PAP) continues to dominate the political scene. Societal restrictions have been loosened up in recent years though, with the government trying to shake off its staid image, and it remains to be seen how the delicate balancing act between political control and social freedom will play out.
Singapore is a small island country. With a population size of over 5.5 million people it is a very crowded city, the world's second-most densely populated country behind only Monaco. However, unlike many other densely populated countries, Singapore - with more than 50% of its area covered by greenery and with over 50 major parks and 4 nature reserves - is an enchanting garden city. Additionally, large self-contained residential towns have mushroomed all over the island, around the clean and modern city centre.
The centre of the city is located in the south — consisting roughly of the Orchard Road shopping area, the Riverside, the new Marina Bay area and also the skyscraper-filled Shenton Way financial district known, in acronym-loving Singapore, as the CBD (Central Business District).
Despite its small size, Singapore has a diversity of languages, religions, and cultures. Former Prime Ministers of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew and Goh Chok Tong, have stated that Singapore does not fit the traditional description of a nation, calling it a society-in-transition, pointing out the fact that Singaporeans do not all speak the same language, share the same religion, or have the same customs. Each Singaporean's behaviours and attitudes are influenced by, among other things, his or her home language and religion. Singaporeans who speak English as their native language tend to lean toward Western culture, while those who speak Chinese as their native language tend to lean toward Chinese culture and Confucianism. Malay-speaking Singaporeans tend to lean toward Malay culture, which itself is closely linked to Islamic culture. Racial and religious harmony is regarded by Singaporeans as a crucial part of Singapore's success, and played a part in building a Singaporean identity.
When Singapore became independent from the United Kingdom in 1963, most Singaporean citizens were transient labourers who had no intention of staying permanently. There was also a sizeable minority of middle-class, locally born people—known as Peranakans or Baba-Nyonya—descendants of 15th- and 16th-century Chinese immigrants. With the exception of the Peranakans who pledged their loyalties to Singapore, most of the labourers' loyalties lay with their respective homelands of Malaysia, China and India. After independence, the government began a deliberate process of crafting a Singaporean identity and culture. Singapore has a reputation as a nanny state. The government also places heavy emphasis on meritocracy, where one is judged based on one's ability.
The national flower of Singapore is the hybrid orchid, Vanda 'Miss Joaquim', named in memory of a Singapore-born Armenian woman, who crossbred the flower in her garden at Tanjong Pagar in 1893. Many national symbols such as the Coat of arms of Singapore and the Lion head symbol of Singapore make use of the lion, as Singapore is known as the Lion City. Major religious festivals are public holidays.
Singapore consists of 63 islands, including the main island, Pulau Ujong. There are two-man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia: the Woodlands 1st Link in the north and the Tuas 2nd Link in the west. Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's smaller islands. The highest natural point is Bukit Timah Hill at 163.63 m (537 ft). Under British rule, Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands were part of Singapore, but both were transferred to Australia in 1957. Pedra Branca is the nation's easternmost point.
Land reclamation projects had increased Singapore's land area from 580 km2 (220 sq mi) in the 1960s to 710 km2 (270 sq mi) by 2015, an increase of some 22% (130 km2). The country is projected to reclaim another 766 km2 (300 sq mi) by 2030. Some projects involve merging smaller islands through land reclamation to form larger, more functional islands, as has been done with Jurong Island. The type of sand used in reclamation is found in rivers and beaches, rather than deserts, and is in great demand worldwide. In 2010 Singapore imported almost 15 million tons of sand for its projects, the demand being such that Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam have all restricted or barred the export of sand to Singapore in recent years. As a result, in 2016 Singapore switched to using polders for reclamation, in which an area is enclosed and then pumped dry.
The temperature hovers around a diurnal range of a minimum of 25 °C (77.0 °F) and a maximum of 33 °C (91.4 °F). May is the hottest month of the year in Singapore, followed by June. This is due to light winds and strong sunshine during those months. The highest recorded temperature is 37.0 °C (98.6 °F) on 17 April 1983. The lowest recorded temperature was 19.0 °C (66.2 °F) in 14 February 1989 at Paya Lebar. Temperature often goes above 33.2 °C (91.8 °F) and can reach 35 °C (95 °F) at times.
Relative humidity has a diurnal range in the high 90s in the early morning to around 60% in the mid-afternoon, but does go below 50% at times. During prolonged heavy rain, relative humidity often reaches 100%. Generally, there is much more rainfall on the western side of the island than on the eastern portion of Singapore, owing to a rain shadow effect.
Thus, the eastern side of Singapore is much drier and slightly hotter than western Singapore. This can cause slight weather disparities from one side of the island to the other. This is significant to note because even a small hill such as Bukit Timah Hill can cause this phenomenon. Despite Singapore's small size, there may be sunshine on one side while there is rain on the other.
Further contrasts that prevent true all-year uniformity are the monsoon seasons which happen twice each year. The first one is the Northeast Monsoon which occurs from mid-November to early March. The second is the Southwest Monsoon season which occurs from June to September. Periods between monsoon seasons receive less rain and wind. During the Northeast Monsoon, northeast winds prevail, sometimes reach 20 km/h (12 mph). There are cloudy conditions in December and January with frequent afternoon showers.
Spells of widespread moderate to heavy rain occur lasting from 1 to 3 days at a stretch. It is relatively dry in February till early March although rainfall still exceeds 120mm. It is also generally windy with wind speeds sometimes reaching 30 to 50 km/h (19 to 31 mph) in the months of January and February. During the Southwest Monsoon season, southeast winds prevail. Isolated to scattered showers occur in the late morning and early afternoon. Early morning "Sumatras" – squall lines that originate over nearby Sumatra – are common.
There are eleven public holidays in Singapore. Each major local race and religion have two holidays each in addition to the secular holidays of New Year's Day, Labour Day and National Day. For the Chinese, Chinese New Year (two days) and the Buddhist holiday Vesak Day (one day) are also observed. For the Hindus, Deepavali (one day) is celebrated. For the Muslims, the two Islamic holidays of Hari Raya Aidil Fitri (one day on 1 Syawal) and Hari Raya Aidil Adha (one day on 10 Zulhijah) are celebrated. As for the Christians, the two Christian holidays of Good Friday and Christmas Day (25 December) are celebrated. These public holidays have been recognised since Singapore's 1966 Holidays Act.
There are generally 11 public holidays a year. However, due to the differences between the Islamic calendar and the Gregorian calendar, Hari Raya Aidil Fitri and Hari Raya Aidil Adha are respectively celebrated twice in a Gregorian calendar year every 32 or 33 years. This occurred in 1968 and 2000 for Hari Raya Puasa as well as 1974 and 2006 for Hari Raya Haji, giving Singaporeans 12 public holidays in those years.
If any public holiday falls on a Sunday in Singapore, the following day is declared to be a public holiday if it is not itself already a public holiday. Thus, since National Day (9 August) in 2015 landed on a Sunday, two additional holidays were given (on August 7 and August 10). The president is empowered to declare any day to be observed as a public holiday in addition to or substitution for any day specified in the schedule to the Holidays Act, and may also declare any day in a year to be observed as an additional public holiday when in that year two public holidays fall on the same day.
If any public holiday falls on a Saturday in Singapore, the following Monday is declared as a school holiday for students in primary & secondary schools, only if that Monday is not a public holiday itself.
The year kicks off with a bang on 1 Jan and New Year, celebrated in Singapore just as in the West with a fireworks show and parties at every nightspot in town. Particularly famous are the wet and wild foam parties on the beaches of resort island Sentosa.
Due to the influence of the Chinese majority, arguably the largest event is Chinese New Year (农历新年) or, more politically correctly, Lunar New Year, usually held in February. While this might seem to be an ideal time to visit, many smaller shops and eateries close for 2-3 days during the period, though supermarkets, department stores and high-end restaurants remain open. The whole festival stretches out for a full 15 days, but the frenzied buildup to the peak occurs just before the night of the new moon, with exhortations of gong xi fa cai (恭喜发财 "congratulations and prosper"), red tinsel, mandarin oranges and the year's zodiac animal emblazoned everywhere and crowds of shoppers queuing in Chinatown, where there are also extensive street decorations to add spice to the festive mood. The two following days are spent with family and most of the island comes to a standstill, and then life returns to normal... except for the final burst of Chingay, a colourful parade down Orchard Road held ten days later.
On the fifth day of the fifth month of the Chinese calendar, the Dragon Boat Festival (端午节) is celebrated to commemorate a Chinese folk hero. As part of the celebrations, rice dumplings, which in Singapore are sometimes wrapped in pandan leaves instead of the original bamboo leaves, are usually eaten. In addition, dragon boat races are often held at the Singapore River on this day. The seventh month of the Chinese lunar calendar — usually August — starts off with a puff of smoke, as "hell money" is burned and food offerings are made to please the spirits of ancestors who are said to return to earth at this time. This is the Hungry Ghost Festival (中元节), when the living get together to stuff themselves and watch plays and Chinese opera performances. Following soon afterwards, the Mid-Autumn Festival (中秋节) on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month (Sep/Oct) is also a major event, with elaborate lantern decorations — particularly in Jurong's Chinese Garden — and moon cakes filled with red bean paste, nuts, and more consumed merrily.
The Hindu festival of lights, Diwali, known locally as Deepavali, is celebrated around October or November and Little India is brightly decorated for the occasion. At around January-February, one may witness the celebration of Thaipusam, a Tamil Hindu festival in which male devotees would carry a kavadi, an elaborate structure which pierces through various parts of his body, and join a procession from the Sri Srinivasa Perumal Temple in Little India to the Sri Thandayuthapani Temple in Tank Road. Female devotees usually join the procession carrying pots of milk instead. About one week before Deepavali is Thimithi, the fire-walking festival where one can see male devotees walking on burning coals at the Sri Mariamman Temple in Chinatown.
The Islamic month of Ramadan and Eid-ul-Fitr or Hari Raya Puasa as it is called here, is a major occasion in Malay parts of town, particularly Geylang Serai on the East Coast, which is lit up with extensive decorations during the period. Another festival celebrated by the Malays is Eid-ul-Adha, known locally as Hari Raya Haji, which is the period when Muslims make the trip to Mecca to perform in Hajj. In local mosques, lambs contributed by the faithful are sacrificed and their meat is used to feed the poor.
The Buddhist Vesak Day, celebrating the birthday of the Buddha Sakyamuni, plus the Christian holidays of Christmas Day, for which Orchard Road is extensively decorated, and Good Friday round out the list of holidays.
A more secular celebration occurs on 9 Aug, National Day, when fluttering flags fill Singapore and a spectacular National Day Parade is held to celebrate Singapore's independence.
In the centre, Singapore's addressing system is fairly similar to Western countries (such as 17 Orchard Road), but the new housing developments on the outskirts may appear more intimidating: a typical address might be "Blk 505 Jurong West St 51 #01-186". Here, "Blk 505" is the housing block number (Blk = Block), "Jurong West" is the area, while "St 51" is the street name/number, and "#01-186" means floor 1 unit number 186, stall or shop 186. The first digit of both housing block and street number is the neighbourhood's number (in this case 5), making it easier to narrow down the right location. There are also 6-digit postal codes, which, considering the small size of the island, generally correspond to exactly one building. For example, "Blk 9 Bedok South Ave 2" is "Singapore 460009". Finally, you will also encounter Malay terms in addresses: the most common are Jalan (Jln) for "Road", Lorong (Lor) for "Lane", Bukit (Bt) for "Hill" and Kampong (Kg) for "Village".
Singapore holds numerous events each year. Some of its famous festivals and events include the Singapore Food Festival, the Singapore Grand Prix, the Singapore Arts Festival, the Chingay Parade, the World Gourmet Summit and ZoukOut.
The Ultra Singapore (客路新加坡ULTRA电音节) Musical Festival is another popular festival in Singapore, and 2017's line-up featured renowned acts such as Kygo and Afrojack. Christmas is also widely celebrated in Singapore, a season where the city streets and shopping malls along its famous shopping belt Orchard Road are lit up and decorated with vibrant colours. In addition, the Singapore Jewel Festival attracts numerous tourists every year, and is a display of precious gems, famous jewels and masterpieces from international jewellers and designers.
Each time you enter Singapore you will need to fill an immigration card. Carefully keep it after immigration clearance, for you have to return it when you exit. If you plan to visit nearby Malaysia or Indonesia, you have to repeat this process for each time you exit and re-enter. Do not worry on what to put in the "exit port", just put the city you will return to on your final flight.
Singapore has a relatively-easy visa policy: most nationalities can enter Singapore without a visa for up to 30 days. Exceptions and modifications to the rule are listed below:
Nationals of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, China (PRC), Georgia, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, North Korea, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan will need to apply for a visa online (E-visa) or at the nearest Singaporean diplomatic mission or one of its authorised visa agents outside Singapore. E-visas must be printed out and shown to the immigration officials upon arrival in Singapore.
Nationals of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Georgia, India, China (PRC), Turkmenistan and Ukraine may now enter Singapore for up to 96 hours (4 days) without a visa, provided they have a valid onward air ticket. Additional requirements are imposed for India and China, see the Visa Free Transit Facility section of the ICA website for more information.
Nationals of Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen will need to apply for a visa at the nearest Singaporean diplomatic mission or one of its authorised visa agents outside Singapore.
Refer to the Immigration and Checkpoints Authority website for current guidelines.
Singapore has very strict drug laws, and drug trafficking carries a mandatory death penalty — which is applied to locals and travelers. Whether Singapore is your final destination or if you are connecting if drugs are found you still could face the death penalty. It is also illegal to have drugs inside your body even consumed outside Singapore as it is still considered drug trafficking. Bringing explosives or firearms without a permit is also a capital offence. Therefore, REFUSE if asked by anyone you don't know or barely know (such as a new "friend" or travel partner you met while staying in a hostel) to transport their luggage or package or to check it in (to an airline, bus company or the train to Malaysia) for them on your luggage allowance. If caught you will be the one who will be penalized for any contraband found inside. Definite red flag if offered a hefty compensation to transport the unknown item. No amount of money offered is worth the chance. Malaysia also has very strict drug laws which carry the mandatory death penalty, similar to Singapore.
Bring prescriptions for any medicines you may have with you, and obtain prior permission from the Health Sciences Authority before bringing in any sedatives (eg Valium/diazepam) or strong painkillers (eg codeine). Hippie types may expect a little extra attention from Customs, but getting a shave and a haircut is no longer a condition for entry.
Duty free allowances for alcohol are 1L each of wine, beer and spirits, and the 1L of spirits may be substituted with 1L of wine or beer, unless you are entering from Malaysia. Travellers entering from Malaysia are not entitled to any duty free allowance. Alcohol may not be brought in by persons under the age of 18. There is no duty free allowance for cigarettes: all cigarettes legally sold in Singapore are stamped "SDPC", and smokers caught with unmarked cigarettes may be fined $500 per pack. (In practice, though, bringing in one opened pack is usually tolerated.) If you declare your cigarettes or excess booze at customs, you can opt to pay the tax or let the customs officers keep the cigarettes until your departure. The import of chewing gum for resale is technically illegal, and in practice customs officers would not bother with a reasonable quantity brought in for personal consumption.
Pornography, pirated goods and publications by the Jehovah's Witnesses and the Unification Church may not be imported to Singapore, and baggage is scanned at air, land and sea entry points. In theory, all entertainment media including movies and video games must be sent to the Board of Censors for approval before they can be brought into Singapore, but that is rarely if ever enforced for original (non-pirated) goods. Pirated CDs or DVDs, on the other hand, can land you fines of up to $1000 per disc.
Singapore is Southeast Asia's largest aviation hub, so unless you're coming from Peninsular Malaysia or Batam/Bintan in Indonesia, the easiest way to enter Singapore is by air. In addition to flag-carrier Singapore Airlines  and its regional subsidiary SilkAir, Singapore is also home to low-cost carriers Tiger Airways, Jetstar Asia and Scoot.
In addition to the locals, every carrier of any size in Asia offers flights to Singapore, with pan-Asian discount carrier AirAsia and Malaysian regional operator Firefly operating dense networks from Singapore. There are also direct services to Europe, the Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, North America, and even South Africa. Singapore is particularly popular on the "Kangaroo Route" between Australia and Europe, with airlines like KLM, Mann Travel, British Airways, Etihad Airways and Emirates using Singapore as the stopover point.
As befits the country's main airport's major regional hub status, Changi Airport (IATA: SIN) and officially the 'best airport in the world' (see Skytrax) is big, pleasant and well organized, with immigration and baggage distribution remarkably fast. The airport is split into three main terminals (T1, T2 and T3) and a new fourth terminal, T4. T4 serves mainly budget carriers and airlines with point-to-point (non-transit) flights.
Figuring out which terminal your flight arrives in or departs from can be complicated: for example, Singapore Airlines uses both T2 and T3, and only announces the arrival terminal two hours before landing. Fortunately, transfers are quite easy, as the three main terminals are connected with the free Skytrain service, which can be used without passing through immigration. All three main terminals are also physically connected to each other, and by walking that you will not notice you're in a different terminal except by reading the signs. Your departing terminal is more straightforward as Singapore Airlines designates T2 as departures for destinations in South East Asia, the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and Africa while all other destinations will use T3. When you return to the airport and are leaving Singapore via Singapore Airlines, be sure to at least tell the driver your destination so he knows which terminal to take you to.
Unlike most other airports, there are no separate zones for departing and arriving passengers in the main terminals prior to passport control hence arriving passengers are free to shop and eat at the airside establishments if they are not in a hurry to meet someone or catch prearranged transportation. In addition, if they have no luggage checked-in from their point of origin, they can clear passport control at any other terminal.
An exception to this is the new fourth terminal, T4. Built mainly for budget carriers like AirAsia, Cebu Pacific and Spring Airlines, the terminal is physically separate from the other three main terminals and has separate zones for departing and arriving passengers. A complimentary 24-hour Airport Shuttle Bus service plies between Terminal 2 and Terminal 4, with the journey taking approximately 10 minutes. Passengers can then use the free Skytrain service or walk using the inter-terminal travellators to continue onwards to Terminal 1 and Terminal 3.
If you have over 5h to spare there are free city tours five times a day departing from the airport. To register for any of the tours, simply approach the staff at the Free Singapore Tours (FST) Registration Booth located in:
Even if stuck in the airport, there are plenty of ways to kill time, as each terminal has a unique design and the airside areas of T1, T2, and T3 are attractions in themselves. T2, arguably the most interesting, has an indoor garden, a music listening area with couches and mood lighting, a computer gaming room, a small movie theatre, paid massage services, and of course plenty of duty-free shops. T3 has a butterfly garden and plenty of natural light, but fewer entertainment options. T1 has a swimming pool for $13.91 and jacuzzi, both open until 23:00. T4, the newest, features a 'Heritage Zone' with a mini theatrical performance titled 'Peranakan Love Story' and a free-to-play arcade located near gate G17. You can travel between the three main terminals without passing through immigration and, if you have no checked-in luggage to collect, you can clear passport control and customs at any terminal. As noted above, Terminal 4 is an exception to this, and you can travel to this terminal only if you have a flight departing from here.
In all terminals, internet access is provided free of charge, both wirelessly and via some 200 terminals and kiosks, there are some Xbox systems set up to keep gamers entertained, and there's live lounge music at times. There are also SingTel and Starhub payphones that offer unlimited free local calls. ATMs abound and money changers offer reasonable rates as well, although you pay a small premium compared to the city. Food options are varied and generally reasonably priced, with some choice picks including the Peranakan-themed Soup Restaurant (T2 landside), which serves much more than just soup, and Sakae Sushi (T2 airside). If you're up for a little adventure, seek out the staff canteen at level 3M of the car park next to T2, it's open to the public (with discounts for airport staff) and serves local food. It is relatively cheap compared to other food options in the airport but not exactly cheap compared to elsewhere in Singapore. There are also staff canteens in Terminals 1 and 3.
Terminals T1, T2 and T3 all have airside (ie accessible without passing through immigration) transit hotels. ☎ +65 6541 9106 or book on-line via the Ambassador Transit Hotel website. A 6h "block" for a single/double/triple costs $73.56/82.39/110.35, budget singles (shared bathroom) $51.50, extensions $17.65 per hour. You can rent a shower (without a room) to freshen up for $8.40. The Plaza Premier Lounges also offer a basic but functional gym with shower for $8.40 with a Singapore Airlines boarding pass.
Jewel Changi Airport was announced in August 2013 - a new terminal structure intended as a mix-use complex situated on a 3.5 hectare site where the Terminal 1 car park now resides. Essentially a new multi-storey underground car park will replace the existing facilities, while an indoor garden, with a waterfall, is built above. Once completed in 2019, the new building will sit between the three existing terminal buildings, enabling passengers to transfer via the new complex, whilst being an attraction and shopping destination in itself. The design will consist of a circular structure, reminiscent of a doughnut, with a large garden located at the centre and water falling from the edge of the circular atrium opening.
As part of the project, Terminal 1 will be expanded to allow more space for the arrival hall, baggage claim areas and taxi bays. These enhancements will increase T1’s passenger handling capacity to 24 million passenger movements per annum.
From the airport there are a number of ways to get into the city:
Seletar Airport (IATA: XSP), completed in 1928 and first used for civil aviation in 1930, is Singapore's first airport. While later airports like Kallang and Paya Lebar have been closed and turned into a military airbase respectively, Seletar is still in use to this day. Singapore Air Charter offer access to private planes based at the airport available for charter, and companies such as Air Charter Advisors offer charter flights to Seletar with access to business jet rentals around the world.
Currently, Seletar Airport is mostly used by General Aviation aircraft and some commercial flights (e.g. see Firefly flights from Singapore Seletar - Kuala Lumpur Subang) so be extra cautious when booking flights. Arriving via Seletar Airport is only recommended if you are arriving from Kuala Lumpur and travelling via Subang Airport would make more sense for you. Travel by road and public transportation from Changi Airport takes about 30-45 minutes, but allow for more time as it is difficult to navigate and find Seletar's commercial terminal as it is located far from the Central touristy area.
From the airport you would need to take bus service 102 to Sengkang, Buangkok and Hougang, before continuing their journey anywhere by bus or MRT, which is North East Line towards the city and HarbourFront area. You can make interchanges towards the Circle Line at Serangoon and Dhoby Ghaut, Downtown Line at Little India and Chinatown, North South Line at Dhoby Ghaut and East West Line at Outram Park.
If you are heading to Changi Airport, take service 102 until you reach the Jalan Kayu roundabout. Transfer to service 858 bound for Changi Airport. Do note that service 858 does not serve Changi Airport Terminal 4 at the point of time of writing this article.
Singapore is linked by two land crossings to Peninsular Malaysia:
The Causeway is a very popular and thus terminally congested entry point connecting Woodlands in the north of Singapore directly into the heart of Johor Bahru. While congestion isn't as bad as it once was, the Causeway is still jam-packed on Friday evenings (towards Malaysia) and Sunday evenings (towards Singapore). The Causeway can be crossed by bus, train, taxi or car, but it is no longer feasible to cross on foot after Malaysia shifted their customs and immigration complex 2km inland.
A second crossing between Malaysia and Singapore, known as the Second Link, has been built between Tuas in western Singapore and Tanjung Kupang in the western part of Johor state. Much faster and less congested than the Causeway, it is used by some of the luxury bus services to Kuala Lumpur and is strongly recommended if you have your own car. There is only one infrequent bus across the Second Link, and only Malaysian "limousine" taxis are allowed to cross it (and charge RM150 and up for the privilege). Walking across is also not allowed, not that there would be any practical means to continue the journey from either end if you did.
Driving into Singapore with a foreign-registered car is rather complicated and expensive; see the Land Transport Authority's Driving Into & Out of Singapore guide for the administrative details. Peninsular Malaysia-registered cars need to show that they have valid road tax and Malaysian insurance coverage. Other foreign cars need a Vehicle Registration Certificate, customs document (Carnet de Passages en Douane), vehicle insurance purchased from a Singapore-based insurance company and an International Circulation Permit. All foreign registered cars and motorcycles can be driven in Singapore for a maximum of 10 days in each calendar year without paying Vehicle Entry Permit (VEP) fees, but after the 10 free days have been utilised, you will need to pay a VEP fee of up to $35/day.
Go through immigration first and get your passport stamped. Then follow the Red Lane to buy the AutoPass ($10) from the LTA office. At the parking area, an LTA officer will verify your car, road tax and insurance cover note and issue you a small chit of paper which you take to the LTA counter to buy your AutoPass and rent an In-vehicle Unit (IU) for road pricing charges (or opt to pay a flat $5/day fee instead). Once that is done, proceed to customs where you will have to open the boot for inspection. After that, you are free to go anywhere in Singapore. Any VEP fees, road pricing charges and tolls will be deducted from your AutoPass when you exit Singapore. This is done by slotting the AutoPass into the reader at the immigration counter while you get your passport stamped.
Driving into Malaysia from Singapore is relatively uncomplicated, although small tolls are charged for both crossing and (for the Second Link) the adjoining expressway. In addition, Singapore-registered vehicles are required to have their fuel tanks at least 3/4 full before leaving Singapore. Do be sure to change some ringgit before crossing, as Singapore dollars are accepted only at the unfavourable rate of 1:1. Moreover, be prepared for longer queues as Malaysia introduced a biometric system for foreigners wishing to enter that country (see Malaysia article).
In both directions, car hire agencies often prohibit their vehicles from crossing the border or charge extra.
Direct to/from Malaysian destinations There are buses to/from Kuala Lumpur (KL) and many other destinations in Malaysia through the Woodlands Checkpoint and the Second Link at Tuas. Unfortunately, there is no central bus terminal and different companies leave from all over the city. Major operators include:
Most other operators have banded together in two shared booking portals. Many, but by no means all, use the Golden Mile Complex shopping mall near Bugis as their Singapore terminal.
In general, the more you pay, the faster and more comfortable your trip. More expensive buses leave on time, use the Second Link, and don't stop along the way; while the cheapest buses leave late if at all, use the perpetually jammed Causeway and make more stops. Book early for popular departure times like Friday and Sunday evening, Chinese New Year, etc, and factor in some extra time for congestion at the border.
An alternative to taking a direct "international bus" is to make the short hop to Johor Bahru to catch domestic Malaysian long-distance express buses to various Malaysian destinations from the Larkin Bus Terminal. Besides having more options, fares may also be lower because you will be paying in Malaysian ringgit rather than Singaporean dollars. The downside is the time-consuming hassle of first getting to Johor Bahru and then getting to Larkin terminal on the outskirts of town.
To/from Johor Bahru
The most popular options to get to/from Johor Bahru are the buses listed in the table. There's a pattern to the madness: Singaporean-operated buses (SBS, SMRT, SJE) can only stop at one destination in Malaysia, while the Malaysian-operated Causeway Link buses can only stop at one destination in Singapore. Terminals aside, all buses make two stops at Singapore immigration and at Malaysian immigration. At both immigration points, you must disembark with all your luggage and pass through passport control and customs, then board the next bus by showing your ticket. Figure on one hour for the whole rigmarole from end to end, more during rush hour.
Malaysia's Keretapi Tanah Melayu (Malayan Railway or KTMB) operates a shuttle train service between Woodlands Train Checkpoint in Singapore and JB Sentral in Johor Bahru. While less frequent and more expensive than buses, and the Woodlands KTMB station is a bus ride away from the MRT system, the trains have dedicated immigration and custom checks areas separated from the very busy road checkpoints, and get you across the Causeway without getting stuck in traffic. For trains to various destinations in Malaysia, see Johor Bahru#By train and Malaysia#By train.
The Shuttle Tebrau service runs 17 trips per day from JB Sentral, and 14 trips per day from Woodlands:
Gates open 30 minutes before each departure for immigration clearance and boarding, and close 10 minutes before departure. For departures from Woodlands Train Checkpoint, avoid arriving very early as there are very limited facilities, and toilets are only available after immigration. Photography and video recording are prohibited at the train checkpoint.
Tickets are priced at RM5 (S$1.67) for JB-Woodlands and S$5 for Woodlands-JB. Return tickets are priced double in the currency of the point of origin, making JB-Woodlands-JB RM10 (S$3.33) and Woodlands-JB-Woodlands S$10. Tickets can be bought up to 30 days in advance, either in person at KTMB ticket counters or online through the KTMB e-ticketing website, and sold up to 15 minutes before departure if still available. Booking in advance is recommended, as the service is popular among commuters and weekend shoppers, in particular weekday mornings departures from JB Sentral (usually snatched up as soon as tickets are released for booking 30 days in advance) and weekend evenings departures from JB Sentral (usually sold out on the morning of departure).
For JB Sentral-Woodlands, at JB Sentral there are turnstiles installed at the departure gate (Gate A); scan the barcode or QR code on your ticket (can be one stored on a mobile device) to activate the turnstile. For Woodlands-JB Sentral, tickets bought online must be exchanged at the KTMB ticket counter before departure.
Going to Malaysia, both Singapore and Malaysia immigration checks are conveniently done at Woodlands before boarding. Firstly Singapore stamps you out, then walk over to the adjacent hall to get stamp in by Malaysia. In the reverse direction, Malaysian exit immigration checks are carried out at JB Sentral before boarding, and Singapore immigration checks are done upon arrival at Woodlands.
Getting to/from Woodlands Train Checkpoint
There is a bus stop and a taxi stand right outside the train checkpoint.
Despite being located in the same immigration checkpoint complex and having similar names, Woodlands Train Checkpoint is a separate facility from the much larger and busier Woodlands Checkpoint for road vehicles. If you mistakenly end up in Woodlands Checkpoint and see immigration counters in front of you, you are better off proceeding with immigration clearance and taking a bus across the border, giving the train a miss. Backtracking is not normally allowed without a strong reason, you will be interviewed by immigration officers before being escorted out of the checkpoint, wasting time and you will still miss the train anyway.
There is also the option of taking a taxi between Singapore and Johor Bahru. The main advantage is that you do not need to lug your stuff (or yourself) through Immigration and Customs at both ends; you can just sit in the car.
While normal taxis are not allowed to cross the border, specially licensed taxis can be taken from Larkin Bus Terminal in Johor Bahru (RM80 per taxi, or RM20 per person if you share with others), and Ban San St Taxi Kiosk (same place as Queen St Bus Terminal) in Singapore ($48 per taxi or $12 per person). Both Singapore-registered and Malaysian-registered taxis are available. Singapore-registered taxis can bring you to anywhere in Singapore but can only go to Larkin in Johor Bahru, while Malaysian-registered taxis can bring you to anywhere in Malaysia but can only go to Ban San St in Singapore. Drop-off points other than the taxi terminal in the destination country may incur additional charges; check with the driver before boarding. Booking is available by phone from Pengurusan Terminal Teksi Johor Bahru-Singapore (Malaysian taxis) at ☎ +60 7 222 5898 or +60 7 224 6986, and Singapore-Johore Taxi Operators’ Association (Singapore taxis) at ☎ +65 6296 7054.
A combination ride from anywhere in Singapore to anywhere in Malaysia can also be arranged, but you'll need to swap taxis halfway through: this will cost $55 and up, paid to the Singaporean driver. The most expensive option is to take a limousine taxi specially licensed to take passengers from any point to any destination, but only a few are available and they charge a steep RM150 upwards per trip starting from Malaysia, or $130 upwards per trip starting from Singapore. Advance booking is highly recommended, ☎ +60 7 599 1622.
Singapore has five ferry terminals which handle international ferries: HarbourFront (formerly World Trade Centre) near Sentosa, Marina Bay Cruise Centre in Marina Bay, Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal on the East Coast, as well as Changi Ferry Terminal and Changi Point Ferry Terminal, both at the eastern side of the island near the airport.
Getting to/away from the ferry terminals:
To/from Batam: Ferries to/from Batam Centre, Batu Ampar (Harbour Bay), Sekupang and Waterfront City (Teluk Senimba) use HarbourFront FT, while ferries to/from Nongsapura use Tanah Merah FT. Operators at Harbourfront include:
At Tanah Merah:
To/from Bintan: All ferries for Bintan use Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal. For Tanjung Pinang, there are total of 6 ferries a day, increasing to 9 during weekends. $25/35 one-way/return before taxes and surcharges. Operators include:
For Bintan Resorts (Bandar Bentan Telani), Bintan Resort Ferries, ☎ +65 6542 4369,  operates five ferries from Tanah Merah FT on weekdays, increasing to 7 during weekends. $34.60/50.20 one-way/return peak period, $26.60/39.20 one-way/return off-peak including taxes and fuel surcharge.
To/from Karimun: Tanjung Balai is served by Penguin and IndoFalcon from Harbourfront, with six ferries total on weekdays, increasing to 8 during weekends. $24/33 one-way/return including taxes and fuel surcharge.
Star Cruises offers multi-day cruises from Singapore to points throughout Southeast Asia, departing from HarbourFront FT. Itineraries vary widely and change from year to year, but common destinations include Malacca, Klang (Kuala Lumpur), Penang, Langkawi, Redang and Tioman in Malaysia, as well as Phuket, Krabi, Ko Samui and Bangkok in Thailand. There are also several cruises every year to Borneo (Malaysia), Sihanoukville (Cambodia), Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) and even some 10 night long hauls to Hong Kong. An all-inclusive 2 night cruise may cost as little as $400 per person in the cheapest cabin class if you book early, but beware the numerous surcharges and note that non-residents may be charged significantly higher rates.
Singapore is also a popular stop for round-the-world and major regional cruises including those originating from as far as Japan, China, Australia, Europe and North America. Many of those cruises embark/disembark passengers here, while others pay port visits. Check with cruise companies and sellers for details.
Getting around Singapore is easy: the public transportation system is extremely easy to use and taxis are reasonably priced when you can get one. Very few visitors rent cars. CityMapper Singapore and Google Maps does a pretty good job of figuring out the fastest route by MRT and bus and even estimating taxi fares between any two points.
If you are staying in Singapore for some time or are planning to return to Singapore several times in the future, the EZ-link contactless RFID farecard or a Nets Flash Pay card might be a worthwhile purchase. Those who are familiar with Hong Kong's Octopus card, London Underground's Oyster card, Washington DC's SmarTrip card or Japan Railway's IC cards will quickly understand the concept of the EZ-link and NETS FlashPay card. You can store value on it and use it on the MRT trains as well as all city buses at a 15% discount. The card costs $12, including $7 stored value, and the card can be "topped up" in increments of at least $10 at the farecard vending machines or 7-Eleven stores (the latter will allow a top-up for a convenience fee). You can use the same card for 5 years. You can return the card to get unused credit out but not the $5 non refundable card fee. The card technology was changed in 2009, but if you have any old cards lying around, they can be exchanged for free with value intact at TransitLink offices in all MRT stations. You can now also use your Visa or MasterCard that has Paywave on public transport. You can also link your Visa/MasterCard to Apple Pay or Google Pay on your phone to enter the buses/MRT. Be careful, there's a 50c fee applied for each transaction for foreign Visa/MasterCard/Apple Pay/Google Pay. There are no fees for Singaporean cards though.
Alternatively, the Singapore Tourist Pass available at selected major MRT stations (including Changi Airport and Orchard) also includes ez-link card functionality and a variety of discounts for attractions. The pass includes unlimited travel on MRT and non-premium buses, and costs $10 for 1 day, $16 for 2 days, or $20 for 3 days (together with a $10 rental deposit refunded if this card is returned within 5 days after purchase). The passes are valid until the end of operating hours on the day they expire.
Single tickets can be purchased for both MRT and buses. In the case of buses it delays everyone else because the driver has to count fare stages to tell you how much you need to pay. In addition, no change is given for the bus and you will need to buy a separate ticket if you intend to transfer to another bus later in your journey.
Distance based fares have been available since July 2010. All commuters will be charged a fare according to the total distance travelled, on the bus, LRT and MRT, and make transfers without incurring additional cost.
The MRT (Mass Rapid Transit) and LRT (Light Rail Transit) are trains that are the main trunk of Singapore's transit system. They are a cheap and very reliable mode of transportation, and the network covers most points of interest for the visitor. EZ-link or Nets FlashPay farecards (described above) are the easiest and most popular ways to use the MRT. All lines are seamlessly integrated, even if the lines are operated by different transport companies, so you do not need to buy a new ticket to transfer. All train lines use contactless RFID tickets. Just tap to scan your train ticket at the gantry when entering and exiting the train service area. Single-trip tickets are purchased from ticket machines located before the gantries and cost from $0.80 to $2.20. A $0.10 deposit is charged when purchasing a new ticket card. The deposit is refunded in double through a $0.10 fare reduction each on the 3rd and 6th trip made with the card. To load a new ticket onto an existing card at a ticket machine, just place it on the designated spot and follow the on-screen instructions.
As of October 2017, a Downtown Line extension connects the Chinatown Station with the Expo Station on the Changi Airport Extension, providing travellers with an alternative route to get between Changi Airport and the city.
Buses connect various corners of Singapore, but are slower and harder to use than the MRT. The advantage though of this is you get to see the sights rather than a dark underground tunnel at a low price. You can pay cash (coins) in buses, but the fare stage system is quite complex (it's easiest to ask the driver for the price to your destination), you are charged marginally more and there is no provision for getting change. Payment with ez-link or Nets Flashpay card is thus the easiest method: tap your card against the reader at the front entrance of the bus when boarding, and a maximum fare is deducted from the card. When you alight, tap your card again at the exit, and the difference is refunded. Make sure you tap out, or you'll end up paying the maximum fare! Inspectors occasionally prowl buses to check that everybody has paid or tapped, so those who are on tourist day passes should tap before sitting down. Dishonest bus commuters risk getting fine $20 for not paying or underpaying fares (by premature tapping-out) and $50 for improper use of concession cards. Another advantage of ez-link or Nets Flashpay cards is that you will be able to enjoy distance-based fares and avoid the boarding fee.
After midnight on Fridays, Saturdays and before public holidays only, the NightRider services are a fairly convenient way of getting around, with seven lines running every 20min. All services drive past the major nightlife districts of Boat Quay, Clarke Quay, Mohamed Sultan and Orchard before splintering off. There's a flat fare of $4.00, the EZ-link card is accepted but the Singapore Tourist Pass is not valid on this line.
As mentioned earlier, gothere.sg will give you options as to which buses will take you from your origin or destination.
Taxis use meters and are reasonably priced and honest, however, a shortage of taxis in Singapore means that they are often unavailable for hours at a time. Outside weekday peak hours, trips within the city centre should not cost you more than $10 and even a trip right across the island from Changi to Jurong will not break the $35 mark. If you are in a group of 3 or 4, it's sometimes cheaper and faster to take a taxi than the MRT. Be aware, however, that taxis are often remarkably difficult to secure, especially during peak commute or shopping hours, or when there is inclement weather. The advent of ride-sharing apps (see below) has mitigated this somewhat, though do expect surcharges during periods of high demand.
Taxi pricing is largely identical across all companies at $3.00-$3.20 as a flag down rate (depending on the type of vehicle used), which lasts you 1km before increments of $0.22 per 400m (for the first 10km) or $0.22 per 350m (after the first 10km). (The sole exception is SMRT's giant black Chryslers, which charge $5 and then $0.30 per 385m.) Watch out for surprises though: there are a myriad of peak hour (25%), late night (50%), central business district ($3), trips from airport or the IRs ($3-$5 during peak hours), phone booking ($3.00 and up) and Electronic Road Pricing surcharges, which may add a substantial amount to your taxi fare. All such charges are shown on the bottom right-hard corner of the meter, recorded in the printed receipt and explained in tedious detail in a sticker on the window; if you suspect the cab driver is trying to pull a fast one, call the company and ask for an explanation. Note that there is no surcharge for trips to the airport. While all taxis are equipped to handle (and are required to accept) credit cards, in practice many cabbies do not accept electronic payment. Always ask before getting in. Paying by credit card will incur an additional surcharge of 17%. During rush hour in the city centre, or late at night on the weekends, it's wise to call for a taxi from the unified booking system at ☎ +65 6342 5222 (6-DIAL-CAB). Some taxi companies offer booking via SMS, online and mobile app.
Despite the costs involved, taxis may sometimes take you to distant locations outside the CBD faster than mass transport. An airport trip from the city centre may take less than 20min on a taxi but more than 30min on an MRT.
In the Central Business District, taxis may pick up passengers only at taxi stands (found outside any shopping mall) or buildings with their own driveways (including virtually all hotels). Outside the centre, you're free to hail taxis on the street or call one to your doorstep. At night spots featuring long queues, such as Clarke Quay, you may on occasion be approached by touts offering a quick flat fare to your destination. This is illegal and very expensive but reasonably safe for you. (Drivers, on the other hand, will probably lose their job if caught.)
Some Singapore taxi drivers have very poor geographical knowledge and may expect you to know where they should go, so it may be helpful to bring a map of your destination area or directions on finding where you wish to go. It may also be helpful to write down the address of your destination. Some cabbies may also ask you which route you want to take; most are satisfied with "whichever way is faster".
Beginning April 2018, the major rideshare competitors Uber and Grab have consolidated into a single Grab app with complete coverage and presence in Singapore; Uber will cease to operate in the country. Before arriving, download the Grab ride-hailing app. Rides are reasonably priced and the app also allows users to hail conventional taxis. Grab also has a cheaper Grabhitch option which is like Uber Pool where you share the car with strangers. Most international credit/debit cards are accepted on the app, and Grab notably allows you to pay using cash as well. Other options include Ryde and Go Jek which offers competitive prices as well.
Trishaws(like rickshaws) are less popular these days in Singapore, but you’ll find them along most of the tourist routes. They’re now managed by a queue system called Trishaw Uncle. You’ll pay about $40 SGD ($30 USD) for a 30-minute run.
Tourist-oriented bumboats cruise the Singapore River, offering point-to-point rides starting from $3 and cruises with nice views of the CBD skyscraper skyline starting from $13.
Bumboats also shuttle passengers from Changi Village to Pulau Ubin ($2.50 one-way), a small island off Singapore's northeast coast which is about as close as Singapore gets to unhurried rural living.
Car rental is not a popular option in Singapore. It is also hardly necessary for tourists since public transport sufficiently covers all areas of the island with a significant population base. You will usually be looking at upwards for $100 per day for the smallest vehicle from the major rental companies, although local ones can be cheaper and there are sometimes good weekend prices available. This does not include gas at around $1.80/litre or electronic road pricing (ERP) fees, and you'll usually need to pay extra to drive to Malaysia. If planning on touring Malaysia by car, it makes much more sense to head across the border to Johor Bahru, where both rentals and petrol are half price, and you have the option of dropping your car off elsewhere in the country. This also avoids the unwelcome extra attention that Singapore-registered plates tend to get from thieves in Malaysia.
One rental company called smove offers electric vehicle rentals. With a $19 registration fee, you can rent the electric car from 15 minutes to a full day. Since the cars are battery powered, you save on the cost of gas. They offer their service in the Buona Vista area of Singapore.
Roads in Singapore are in excellent condition and driving habits are generally good with most people following the traffic rules due to stringent enforcement, though road courtesy tends to be sorely lacking. Compared to other major cities around the world like Sydney, Tokyo or Hong Kong, parking spaces are comparatively easier to find in the city centre of Singapore, although peak hour congestion can be quite severe. Foreign licences in English are valid in Singapore for up to a year from your date of entry, after which you will have to convert your foreign license to a Singapore one. Foreign licences not in English must be accompanied by an International Driving Permit (IDP) or an official English translation (usually available from your embassy) for them to be valid.
Singaporeans drive on the left (UK style) and the driving age is 18. The speed limit is only 90km/h on expressways and 60km/h on other roads.
ERP payments require a stored-value CashCard, which is usually arranged by the rental agency, but it's your responsibility to ensure it has enough value. ERP gantries are activated at different times, usually in the expected direction of most cars. As a rule of thumb, gantries found in roads leading to the CBD are activated during the morning rush hour while gantries found in roads exiting the CBD are activated during the evening rush hour. Passing through an active ERP gantry with insufficient value will mean that an alert is sent to your registered address. You will need to pay an administrative fee in addition to the difference between the remaining amount and the actual charge. You have a limited time to settle this otherwise your penalty becomes heavier.
All passengers must wear seatbelts and using a phone while driving is banned. Drink-driving is not tolerated: the maximum blood alcohol content is 0.08%, with roadblocks set up at night to catch offenders, who are heavily fined and possibly jailed. Even if your blood alcohol level does not exceed the legal limit, you can still be charged with drink driving if the police are convinced that your ability to control the vehicle has been compromised by the presence of alcohol (i.e. if you get involved in an accident). The police do conduct periodic roadblocks and speed cameras are omnipresent. Fines will be sent by mail to you or your rental agency, who will then pass on the cost with a surcharge. If stopped for a traffic offense, don't even think about trying to bribe your way out.
Hitchhiking is virtually unheard of in Singapore, and given the size of the country and its cheap, ubiquitous public transport, it's hardly necessary. Plus, it's also highly illegal.
Bicycles are more commonly used in Singapore as a form of recreation rather than as a substitute for public transportation. While the city is small and its landscape is flat, it can be difficult to predict how ridable a route will be without scoping it out first. Weather can also be a problem, as the tropical humidity and heat make it unpleasant to engage in physical activity outdoors. The air quality also plummets when the thick smoke from Indonesian fires descends on Singapore. This period usually arrives during the mid-year when Indonesia farmers perform the "slash and burn" method of removing waste crops.
However, bicycling is gradually becoming a more common mode of transportation, especially with the advent of station-free bike-sharing services like ofo and Mobike Singapore. These bikes can be easily found at major pedestrian-transit areas like bus stops and outside shopping malls, and can be rented using a simple smartphone app for a very low price.
Small folding bicycles may be taken on the MRT during certain times of the day, but large bicycles are a no-no. Bicycles may cross the Causeway to Malaysia (on motorbike lanes), but are not allowed on expressways.
Alternatively, consider cycling in the many nature reserves and parks that dot the island.
List of cycling friendly lanes Cycling in the East Coast Park is a favourite pastime for many of the locals on weekends and is also a very good way to see the eastern coast of Singapore. Parks are connected by an extensive park connector network. Cycles are available for rental at one of the many pit stops along the network. The cycles can be rented at any one of the pit stops and returned at any of the other shops.
Singapore is very 'pedestrian-friendly'. In the main business district and on main roadways, pavements and pedestrian crossings are in good shape and plentiful. Drivers are mindful of marked crossing zones, but are less likely to be aware or respectful of pedestrians crossing at street corners on less busy streets where pedestrian crossings are not marked, even though by law any accident between a pedestrian and a vehicle is presumed to be the driver's fault. Jaywalking is illegal and punishable with fines of $25 and up to three months in jail. This is, however, rarely (if ever) enforced.
An unavoidable downside, though, is the tropical heat and humidity, which leaves many visitors sweaty and exhausted, so bring along a handkerchief and a bottle of water. It's best to get an early start, pop into air-conditioned shops, cafes, and museums to cool off, and plan on heading back to the shopping mall or hotel pool before noon. Alternatively, after sundown, evenings can also be comparatively cool.
A useful tip to combat the tropical weather is to look out for air-conditioned underground pedestrian crossings. These climate-controlled walkways are plentiful and often located between shopping malls and high-rise office buildings. In addition, look out for the pedestrian walkways connecting to underground MRT stations. Some stations can have up to 25 different walkways connecting to different entrances/exits in the area, creating an extensive network of walkways around the downtown core that gives one the impression of a city underneath the city.
In recent years, there have been a number of fatal pedestrian accidents due to e-bikes or kick scooters riding on sidewalks. E-bike users in Singapore often ride directly on sidewalks at very high speeds, some with little regard for pedestrian safety. Families with small children should be especially watchful of e-bikes when walking in Singapore.
On kick scooter
Kick scooters are a good alternative to walking, taking less than a quarter of the time depending on the distance you are going. They're especially useful for getting around the Riverside area visiting places like Clarke Quay, Boat Quay, Parliament House, Supreme Court, the Merlion and the War Memorial Park, where everything is in walking distance but walking feels a little dreadful.
Kick scooters are a convenient way of getting around, especially when combined with public transport. It's much easier to take a kick scooter on the MRT, compared to a foldable bicycle. As opposed to bicycles, kick scooters are allowed on pedestrian walkways, as long as you are mindful of other pedestrians around you.
You can also rent motorcycles to ride around the city and even to Malaysia. Find those rentals with comprehensive insurance in Singapore and Malaysia. Do take note that your driving licence from your home country is in English, otherwise an international driver's licence is needed. Helmets are compulsory when riding motorcycles in Singapore.
By autonomous (driverless) vehicle
In 2016, Singapore became the first country in the world to trial on-demand driverless taxis, allowing passengers to book a ride in a self-driving vehicle through the Grab ride-hailing app by selecting the "robo-car" fleet icon during booking. This partnership between nuTonomy and Grab has proven to be successful and popular with riders. However, tourists may find it challenging to access these driverless taxis as the current trial is limited to the one-north business district in Singapore.
A tourist-friendly alternative is the AutoRider at the Gardens by the Bay, Asia's first fully operational self-driving vehicle. Tourists can ride the driverless vehicle between Bayfront Plaza and the Flower Dome to see more of the Gardens. On-board commentary is also provided so passengers can learn more about self-driving vehicle technology and the garden surroundings. Visitors need to collect a timeslot coupon from the AutoRider counter at Bayfront Plaza before purchasing tickets. Tickets ($5 per individual) are sold on a time-allocated basis.
English is the lingua franca and the main language used in business, government, law and education. The Constitution of Singapore and all government legislations are written in English, and interpreters are required if a language other than English is used in the Singaporean courts.Statutory corporations conduct their businesses in English, while any official documents written in a non-English official language such as Malay, Mandarin, or Tamil are typically translated into English to be accepted for use.
Malay was designated as a national language by the Singaporean government after independence from Britain in the 1960s to avoid friction with Singapore's Malay-speaking neighbours of Malaysia and Indonesia. It has a symbolic, rather than functional purpose. It is used in the national anthem ‘’Majulah Singapura’’, in citations of Singaporean orders and decorations and in military commands. Singaporean Malay is officially written in the Latin-based Rumi script, though some Singaporean Malays also learn the Arabic-based Jawi script.Jawi is considered an ethnic script for use on Singaporean identity cards.
Singaporeans are mostly bilingual, typically with English as their common language and their mother-tongue as a second language taught in schools, in order to preserve each individual's ethnic identity and values. English is the most spoken language at home at 36.9% of the population, just ahead of Mandarin. Nearly half a million speak other varieties of Chinese, mainly Hokkien, Teochew, and Cantonese, as their home language, although the use of these is declining in favour of Mandarin or just English. Singapore Chinese characters are written using simplified Chinese characters. Singaporean English is largely based on British English, owing to the country's status as a former crown colony. However, forms of English spoken in Singapore range from Standard Singapore English to a colloquial form known as Singlish, which is discouraged by the government as it claims it to be a substandard English creole that handicaps Singaporeans, presenting an obstacle to learning standard English and rendering the speaker incomprehensible to everyone except to another Singlish speaker.
Singlish is a very colloquial version of English that borrows heavily from Chinese and Malay. The structure appears extremely rudimentary at times – lots of grammar is abandoned and articles are dropped often.
The vocabulary is very eclectic as well. Spoken Singlish can sound very jumbled and somewhat messy as everything seems shortened and sort of incomplete.
When asking for help or directions, it should be noted that due to an influx of foreign workers and immigrants in recent years, there is a chance you might be asking somebody who has not been in Singapore for all that long. In extreme cases, one might even encounter a person who barely speaks any English or is downright unfriendly. Unfortunately it is difficult to determine at a glance who you should or should not ask for directions, but do not be afraid to try asking another person if the first answer you get is not satisfactory. A guaranteed way of finding someone willing to help would be to ask a teenager. As a result of compulsory English education, all teenagers speak English and will definitely be able to help. Rest assured that most bona fide Singaporeans would also be more than happy to help.
Western television shows and films are shown in their original language with occasional subtitles into Mandarin. News interviews in a different language are also subtitled into the main language of the channel/programme. Television programmes and films that originate in other parts of Asia however, are dubbed into the language of the channel they will be shown at. This especially applies to programmes and films originally in the Hong Kong Cantonese language and Taiwanese Minnan language, in which case government policy mandates them to be dubbed into Mandarin (English subtitles are shown during primetime hours).
Sights in Singapore are covered in more detail under the various districts. Broadly speaking:
Useful to carry:
Carry around with you a copy of the train network so you know how to get to places without having to go to the train station or look online. The train network is quite complicated and there can be a number of different routes to get to 1 place.
Book a backpacker's place to stay if you do not want to pay exorbitant prices in hotels. Singapore is notoriously expensive for hotel accommodation. Backpacker options are affordable and clean.
While you can find a place to practice nearly any sport in Singapore — golfing, surfing, scuba diving, even ice skating and snow skiing — due to the country's small size your options are rather limited and prices are relatively high. For water sports in particular, the busy shipping lanes and sheer population pressure mean that the sea around Singapore is murky, and most locals head up to Tioman (Malaysia) or Bintan (Indonesia) instead. On the upside, there is an abundance of dive shops in Singapore, and they often arrange weekend trips to good dive sites off the East Coast of Malaysia, so they are a good option for accessing some of Malaysia's not-so touristy dive sites.
Singapore may be a young country but it has a constantly evolving artistic landscape that draws its influences from its unique heritage of East and Southeast Asian culture, with a good mix of western touch.
The Renaissance City Project was initiated in 2000 by the Singaporean Government to establish Singapore as a regional city of the arts to cultivate artistic interest and culture. Today, Singapore sees itself flourishing in the third phase of the renaissance city project with new museums, international galleries and art fairs entering the local artistic landscape.
In 2011, Singapore saw the opening of the ArtScience Museum at The Marina Bay Sands, a museum dedicated to design and technology. And in 2012, fourteen international galleries arrived at the shore of Singapore housed at The Gillman Barracks, a new artistic area. The National Art Gallery opened in 2015, and housed in two national monuments - the former Supreme Court Building and City Hall, is the largest visual arts institution in Singapore and also one of the largest regionally, focusing on modern Southeast Asian art through its collections.
Singapore's art district, located around the Dhoby Ghaut and City Hall area have a concentration of art institutions, museums and galleries. Notable museums and art venues include, the National Museum of Singapore, Singapore Art Museum, The Substation (Singapore's first independent contemporary art centre) and Art Plural Gallery, Singapore's largest art gallery.
Singapore has two integrated resorts with casinos. Marina Bay Sands at Marina Bay is the larger and swankier of the two, while Resorts World Sentosa at Sentosa aims for a more family-friendly experience (but offers No Limit Holdem from $5/$10). While locals (citizens and permanent residents) have to pay $100/day or $2,000/year to get in, foreign visitors can enter for free after presenting their passport. A driver license from your home country will not work.
Besides the casino, there are other forms of legalised betting which are more accessible to the locals. This includes horse racing, which is run by the Singapore Turf Club on weekends, as well as football (soccer) betting and several lotteries run by the Singapore Pools.
Mahjong is also a popular pastime in Singapore. The version played in Singapore is similar to the Cantonese version, but it also has extra "animal tiles" not present in the original Cantonese version. However, this remains pretty much a family and friends affair, and there are no mahjong parlours.
Despite its small size, Singapore has a surprisingly large number of golf courses, but most of the best ones are run by private clubs and open to members and their guests only. The main exceptions are the Sentosa Golf Club, the famously challenging home of the Barclays Singapore Open, and the Marina Bay Golf Course, the only 18-hole public course. See the Singapore Golf Association for the full list; alternatively, head to the nearby Indonesian islands of Batam or Bintan or up north to the Malaysian town of Malacca for cheaper rounds.
The inaugural F1 Singapore Grand Prix  was held at night in September 2008, and is a fixture on the local calendar.The F1 Organizers have confirmed that the night race will be extended till 2021. Held on a street circuit in the heart of Singapore and raced at night, all but race fans will probably wish to avoid this time, as hotel prices especially room with view of the F1 tracks are through the roof. Tickets start from $150 but the thrilling experience of night race is definitely unforgettable for all F1 fans and photo buffs. Besides being a uniquely night race, the carnival atmosphere and pop concert held around the race ground as well as the convenience of hotels and restaurants round the corner, distinguish the race from other F1 races held remotely away from urban centres.
The Singapore Turf Club in Kranji hosts horse races most Fridays, including a number of international cups, and is popular with local gamblers. The Singapore Polo Club near Balestier is also open to the public on competition days.
Singapore has recently been experiencing a 'spa boom', and there is now plenty of choice for everything from holistic Ayurveda to green tea hydrotherapy. However, prices aren't as rock-bottom as in neighbours Indonesia and Thailand, and you'll generally be looking at upwards of $50 even for a plain one-hour massage. Premium spas can be found in most 5 star hotels and on Orchard, and Sentosa's Spa Botanica also has a good reputation. There are also numerous shops offering traditional Chinese massage, which are mostly legitimate. The less legitimate "health centres" have been shut down. Traditional asian-style public baths are non-existent.
When looking for beauty salons on Orchard Road, try out the ones on the fourth floor of Lucky Plaza. They offer most salon services like manicures, pedicures, facials, waxing and hair services. A favorite of flight crew and repeat tourists due to the lower costs as compared to the sky high prices of other salons along the shopping belt. Shop around for prices, some of the better looking ones actually charge less.
When in the Bugis or Kampong Glam walking belt, a good stop to rest weary feet would be at one of the many nail parlours in the area. Manicures or pedicures are very affordable in Singapore and most salons maintain a high level of hygiene. A few popular options in the area include Manicurious, The Nail Artelier and The Nail Social.
Forget your tiny hotel pool if you are into competitive or recreational swimming: Singapore is paradise for swimmers with arguably the highest density of public pools in the world. They are all open-air 50m pools (some facilities even feature up to three 50m pools), accessible for an entrance fee of $1.00-1.50. Some of the visitors don't swim at all. They just come from nearby housing complexes for a few hours to chill out, read and relax in the sun. Most are open daily from 08:00-20:00, and all feature a small cafe. Just imagine swimming your lanes in the tropical night with lit up palm trees surrounding the pool.
Experience world-class Olympics-standard swimming pool at the OCBC Aquatic Centre near Stadium MRT. It opens all day 07:00-22:00 unless they're hosting swimming championship. Entrance is $2.60-2.90 and include access to Training Pool anytime of the day and Competition Pool at certain hours. Check their website for lane availability.
ActiveSG maintains a list of pools, most of which are part of a larger sports complex with gym, tennis courts etc, and are located near the MRT station they're named after. Perhaps the best is in Katong (111 Wilkinson Road, on the East Coast): after the swim, stroll through the villa neighbourhood directly in front of the pool entrance and have at look at the luxurious, original architecture of the houses that really rich Singaporeans live in. If you get bored with regular swimming pools, head to the Jurong East Swimming Complex where you get the wave pool, water slides and Jacuzzi at an insanely affordable entrance fee of $1.50 on weekdays and $2 on weekends.
For those who feel richer, visit the Wild Wild Wet water theme park with $19 and get yourself wet with various exciting water slides and a powerful tidal wave pool.
For those who don't like pools, head out to the beaches. The East Coast Park has a scenic coastline that stretches over 15km. It's a popular getaway spot for Singaporeans to swim, cycle, barbeque and engage in various other sports and activities. Sentosa island also has three white, sandy beaches - Siloso Beach, Palawan Beach and Tanjong Beach - each with its own distinct characteristics, and also very popular with locals.
Canoeing and dragon-boating are popular water-sports in Singapore, and there are many beautiful reservoirs and rivers where one can partake in such physical activity. Check out the MacRitchie Reservoir, Kallang River and Marina Bay for reasonably priced options. Besides these more regular water sports, Singapore also offers water sports fans trendy activities such as cable-Skiing and wave surfing in specially created environments.
While obviously not the best place on Earth for skiing, sunny Singapore still has a permanent indoor snow centre — Snow City offers visitors to the region a chance to experience winter. Visitors can escape from the hot and humid tropical weather to play with snow or even learn to ski and snowboard with internationally certified professional instructors.
Off the beaten track
There are several enjoyable things that not even many locals know about. Do look up places like Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve, Old Rail Corridor, Labrador Park, Istana Woodneuk, etc. If you are in the mood of doing sport, consider the MacRitchie Reservoir, featuring 11km of jungle running trails with monkeys, reptiles and turtles. If you're an avid fisherman, you can also try your hand at prawning, or prawn fishing. The sport of prawn fishing has grown tremendously in recent years across South East Asia and can also be found in Singapore.
The Singaporean currency is the Singapore dollar, symbolised SGD, S$ or just $ (as used throughout this guide), divided into 100 cents. There are coins of $0.05 (gold), $0.10 (silver), $0.20 (silver), $0.50 (silver) and $1 (gold), plus notes of $2 (purple), $5 (green), $10 (red), $50 (blue), $100 (orange), $1000 (purple) and $10000 (gold). (As of 1 October 2014, the SGD10,000 note is no longer being printed but it's still legal tender. The Brunei $10,000 is still being printed, however.) The Brunei dollar is pegged at par with the Singapore dollar and the two currencies can be used interchangeably in both countries, so don't be too surprised if you get a Brunei note as change. You can safely assume that the '$' sign used in this island-nation refers to SGD unless it clearly states otherwise.
Goods and services tax (GST), where applicable, is required by law to be included in the listed price of goods except for major hotels and some restaurants. You will know this as restaurants and hotels often display prices like $19.99++, where the "++" means that service charge (10%) and GST (7%) are not yet included in the listed price and will be added to your bill later. When you see NETT, it means it includes all taxes and service charges. The GST is refundable only in the departure area of the main Changi airport. The actual terms and documentation requirements are long and include a large fee and that you must remain outside of Singapore for a full year. Check here before the big splurge and allow time before your departure flight.
Tipping is generally not practised in Singapore, and is officially frowned upon by the government, although bellhops still expect $2 or so per bag. Taxis will usually return your change to the last cent, or round in your favor if they can't be bothered to dig for change.
ATMs are ubiquitous in Singapore and credit cards are widely accepted (although some shops may levy a 3% surcharge, and taxis a whopping 15%). Travellers cheques are generally not accepted by retailers, but can be cashed at most exchange booths. eZ-Link and Nets Flash Pay cards are accepted in some convenience stores and fast food chains. Cash withdrawal with foreign cards could incur a fee with some ATMs. As of Jan 2020, UOB doesn't have a fee for foreign card cash withdrawals.
Currency exchange booths can be found in every shopping mall and usually offer better rates, better opening hours and much faster service than banks. The huge 24 hr operation at Mustafa in Little India accepts almost any currency at very good rates, as do the fiercely competitive small shops at the aptly named Change Alley next to Raffles Place MRT. For large amounts, ask for a quote, as it will often get you a better rate than displayed on the board. Rates at the airport are not as good as in the city, and while many department stores accept major foreign currencies, their rates are often terrible.
Singapore is famous for being moderately expensive by Asian standards but affordable compared with some industrialized countries, with budget options and more luxurious options being easily available in Singapore City. $10-$50 SGD is a perfectly serviceable daily backpacker budget if you are willing to cut some corners, though you may wish to double that for comfort. Food in particular is a steal, with excellent hawker food available for between $1.5-$5 SGD for a generous serving. Accommodation is a little pricier, but a bed in a hostel can cost as low as $10 SGD a night, an average 3-4 star hotel in the city centre would typically cost anywhere from $40-$300 per night for a basic room, and the most luxurious hotels on the island (except maybe the Raffles) can be yours for $300 with the right discounts during the off-peak season. Compare room prices in Johor Bahru, just across the border and consider seeing Singapore from your base in Johor. Read wikitravel, Johor Bahru: By Bus, There and back again, a day trip to Singapore.
If you really want to go backpacking in Singapore on a budget, then I highly recommend couchsurfing. The locals are friendly with foreigners and would love to host a backpacker like yourself. Budget travellers should note that Singapore is much more expensive than the rest of Southeast Asia and should budget accordingly if planning to spend time in Singapore. In general, prices in Singapore are about twice as high as in Malaysia and Thailand and 3-5 times as high as in Indonesia and the Philippines.
If you’re still feeling a little budget conscious, try eating out once maybe twice a day and then cook your remaining meals at the lodge. Groceries can be cheap at the local markets, but be wary of the convenience stores and supermarkets, which are usually more expensive. Also free entertainment is also available at certain events and cultural centers.
Except in off the beat markets, haggling is not common in Singapore except in Singapore/Little India and Singapore/Chinatown, but this practice may be frowned upon in larger businesses in Downtown. While at a smaller shack haggle away. However, keep in mind the guidelines for Haggle. Also, know that the employee working behind the counter is not in control of prices. He is only a low end sales associate being instructed on the lowest sales price the company offers and is only fulfilling the instructions of his boss. Bring mad at him for not giving you the price you want is not only rude and will close doors for you, but will not achieve anything as he can't make the final call on it. You can ask about discounts anywhere in Singapore without issues.
There are various shopping belts in Singapore, Marina Bay, Bugis Street, Chinatown, Geylang Serai, Kampong Gelam & Arab Street, Little India, North Bridge Road, Orchard Road, and The Suburbs. These all are very famous in singapore for shopping. Shopping is second only to eating as a national pastime, which means that Singapore has an abundance of shopping malls, and low taxes and tariffs on imports coupled with huge volume mean that prices are usually very competitive. While you won't find any bazaars with dirt-cheap local handicrafts (in fact, virtually everything sold in Singapore is made elsewhere), goods are generally of reasonably good quality and shopkeepers are generally quite honest due to strong consumer protection laws. Most shops are open 7 days a week from 10AM-10PM, although smaller operations (particularly those outside shopping malls) close earlier — 7PM is common — and perhaps on Sundays as well. Mustafa in Little India is open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Keep an eye out for the Great Singapore Sale , usually held in June-July, when shopping centres pull out all stops to attract punters. Many shops along Orchard Road and Scotts Road now offer late night shopping on the last Friday of every month with over 250 retailers staying open till midnight.
Even with her young age, Singapore has a wide range of souvenirs available for tourists due to the rich multi-cultural history. While you can find Merlion Keychains, Chocolates, T-shirts & Postcards around Chinatown & Little India, there are plenty of unique souvenirs that are homegrown labels & represent Singapore.
Fashion label Charles & Keith (started out as Shoe Heaven), has got you covered if you're looking for a pair of perfect shoes & has evolved into handbags & accessories. Grab the mini Singapore sling cocktail set at Raffles Hotel and Changi Airport for the true heritage flavour. With their luxurious gold plating technology, RISIS provides beautiful gifts like gold-plated Orchids and brooches.
One of the popular snack souvenirs - Bak Kwa from Bee Cheng Hiang (Smoked Barbecue Pork) is a well-loved snack especially popular during Lunar New Year. Kaya is a savoury coconut milk, eggs, and sugar, usually spread on toast where locals consume for their breakfast. Depending on the brand, it can taste rich & sweet to having a light pandan flavour. Ya Kun Kaya is readily available in their nationwide outlets and Changi Airport.
For those who will miss Singapore's rice dishes, you can get Instant rice meals from Yamie, where local favourites like Chicken Rice & Briyani Rice are pre-made, easy to prepare. A must-get, Chilli crab & Laksa sauce kits from Prima Taste are also saliva-inducing souvenirs available to purchase at supermarkets. These are Halal.
Bak Kut Teh (literally translated as Meat Bone Tea) Spices are also a fine choice to bring back a taste of Singapore, and one can choose from ranges like A1 Bak Kut Teh to celebrity-favourite Outram Park Ya Hua Bak Kut Teh. Speaking about Tea, Singapore also has her own luxury tea collection from TWG which offers an impressive selection of over 800 teas, specially harvested from all around the world.
Local Designers like SUPERMAMA have also came up with Singaporean omiyage (contemporary giftware) ranging from procelain tableware to quirky socks. Most of these souvenirs can be found in their own store outlets, Changi Airport or Singapore Souvenir curator - SG Style, who does same-day delivery to your hotel.
For purchases of over $100 per day per participating shop, you may be able to get a 6% refund of your 7% GST at Changi Airport or Seletar Airport, but the process is a bit of a bureaucratic hassle. At the shop you need to ask for a tax refund cheque. Before checking in at the airport, present this cheque together with the items purchased and your passport at the GST customs counter. Get the receipt stamped there. Then proceed with check-in and go through security. On the air side, bring the stamped cheque to the refund counter to cash it in or get the GST back on your credit card. See Singapore Customs  for the full scoop.
Singapore is a melting pot of cuisines from around the world, and many Singaporeans are obsessive gourmands who love to makan ("eat" in Malay). You will find quality Chinese, Malay, Indian, Japanese, Thai, Italian, French, American and other food in this city-state.
Eating habits run the gamut, but most foods are eaten by fork and spoon: push and cut with the fork in the left hand, and eat with the spoon in the right. Noodles and Chinese dishes typically come with chopsticks, while Malay and Indian food can be eaten by hand, but nobody will blink an eye if you ask for a fork and spoon instead. If eating by hand, always use your right hand to pick your food, as Malays and Indians traditionally use their left hand to handle dirty things. Take note of the usual traditional Chinese etiquette when using chopsticks, and most importantly, do not stick your chopsticks vertically into a bowl of rice. If eating in a group, serving dishes are always shared, but you'll get your own bowl of rice and soup. It's common to use your own chopsticks to pick up food from communal plates, but serving spoons can be provided on request.
Keep an eye out for the Singapore Food Festival , held every year in July. During the last three festivals, all visitors to Singapore smart enough to ask for them at any tourist information desk received coupons for free chilli crab, no strings attached!
Singapore is justly famous for its food, a unique mix of Malay, Chinese, Indian and Western elements. The following is only a brief sampler of the most popular dishes.
Besides these dishes, the Peranakans are also known for their kueh or snacks, which are somewhat different from the Malay versions due to stronger Chinese influences.
The Malays were Singapore's original inhabitants and despite now being outnumbered by the Chinese, their distinctive cuisine is popular to this day. Characterized by heavy use of spices, most Malay dishes are curries, stews or dips of one kind or another and nasi padang restaurants, offering a wide variety of these to ladle onto your rice, are very popular.
Malay desserts, especially the sweet pastries and jellies (kuih or kueh) made largely from coconut and palm sugar (gula melaka), bear a distinct resemblance to those of Thailand. But in the sweltering tropical heat, try one of many concoctions made with ice instead:
Chinese food as eaten in Singapore commonly originates from southern China, particularly Fujian and Guangdong. Noodles can also be served not just in soup (湯 tang), but also "dry" (干 kan), meaning that your noodles will be served tossed with chilli and spices in one bowl, and the soup will come in a separate bowl.
The smallest of the area's big three ethnic groups, the Indians have had proportionally the smallest impact on the local culinary scene, but there is no shortage of Indian food even at many hawker centres. Delicious and authentic Indian food can be had at Little India, including south Indian typical meals such as dosa (thosai) crepes, idli lentil-rice cakes and sambar soup, as well as north Indian meals including various curries, naan bread, tandoori chicken and more. In addition, however, a number of Indian dishes have been "Singaporeanized" and adopted by the entire population, including:
The cheapest and most popular places to eat in Singapore are hawker centres, essentially former pushcart vendors directed into giant complexes by government fiat. Prices are low ($1.50-$5 for most dishes), hygiene standards are high (every stall is required to prominently display a health certificate grading it from A to D) and the food can be excellent — if you see a queue, join it! The lack of air-conditioning may seem somewhat unbearable to foreigners, but a visit to a hawker centre remains a must when in Singapore. However, be leery of overzealous pushers-cum-salesmen, especially at the Satay Club in Lau Pa Sat and Newton Food Centre at Newton Circus: the tastiest stalls don't need high-pressure tactics to find customers. Touting for business is illegal, and occasionally a reminder of this can result in people backing off a bit.
To order, first chope (reserve) a table by either parking a friend by the table or, in the more Singaporean way, dumping a pack of tissue onto the tabletop. Note the table's number, then place your order at your stall of choice. Some stalls will deliver to your table, in which case you pay when you get your food. However, note that some stalls (particularly very popular ones) have signs stating "self-service", meaning that you're expected to get your food yourself and you pay on order. Although, if it is quiet and you are sitting nearby, they will usually deliver anyway. At almost every stall you can also opt to take away (called "packet" or ta pao (打包) in Cantonese), in which case employees pack up your order in a plastic box/bag and even throw in disposable utensils. Once you are finished, look around: if there are signs asking you to return your tray, take your dishes to the tray return station (usually clearly marked). This is part of a government initiative that has been pushed out in recent years encouraging diners to return their own plates so as to reduce the burden on the cleaners. If there are no signs, you can leave your dishes on your table, where a cleaner will come by to pick them up.
Every district in Singapore has its own hawker centres and prices decrease as you move out into the boondocks. For tourists, centrally located Newton Circus (Newton MRT), Gluttons Bay and Lau Pa Sat (near the River), are the most popular options — but this does not make them the cheapest or the tastiest, and the demanding gourmand would do well to head to Chinatown or the heartlands instead. Many of the best food stalls are located in residential districts away from the tourist trail and do not advertise in the media, so the best way to find them is to ask locals for their recommendations. A good example is the Old Airport Road Food Centre in a residential area near Dakota MRT station (about a $10-$15 taxi ride from town) which rarely has many tourists and is a true Hawker Centre for locals. And if you miss western food, Botak Jones  in several hawker centres offers reasonably authentic and generously sized American-restaurant style meals at hawker prices.
The usual international coffee chains such as Starbucks and the Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf can be found in many shopping malls where an iced coffee or tea can set you back $5 and up. More discerning coffee drinkers may consider visiting the local cafes that serve coffee brewed with greater skill and care than these international coffee chains.
Found in the basement or top floor of nearly every shopping mall, food courts are the gentrified, air-conditioned version of hawker centres. The variety of food on offer is almost identical, but prices are on average $1-3 higher than prices in hawker centres and coffee shops (depending on the area, it is slightly more expensive in tourist intensive areas). The quality of food is good but not necessarily value for money.
International fast food chains like McDonald's, Carl's Jr., Burger King, KFC, MOS Burger, Dairy Queen, Orange Julius, Subway etc are commonly found in various shopping malls. Prices range from $2 for a basic burger and $5 upwards for a set meal. Such restaurants are self-service and clearing your table after your meal is strongly recommended. In addition to the usual suspects, look out for these uniquely Singaporean brands:
As the majority of Singapore's population is ethnic Chinese, there is an abundance of Chinese restaurants in Singapore, mainly serving southern Chinese (mostly Hokkien, Teochew or Cantonese) cuisines, though with the large number of expatriates and foreign workers from China these days, cuisine originating from Shanghai and further north is also not hard to find. As with Chinese restaurants anywhere, food is eaten with chopsticks and served with Chinese tea. Depending on where you go and what you order, prices can vary greatly. In ordinary restaurants, prices usually start from $20-30 per person, while in top end restaurants in five-star hotels, prices can go as high as more than $300 per person if you order delicacies such as abalone, suckling pig and lobster.
Being a maritime city, one common specialty is seafood restaurants, offering Chinese-influenced Singaporean classics like chilli crabs. These are much more fun to go to in a group, but be careful what you order: gourmet items like Sri Lankan giant crab or shark's fin can easily push your bill up to hundreds of dollars. Menus typically say "Market price", and if you ask they'll quote you the price per 100 g, but a big crab can easily top 2 kilos. The best-known seafood spots are clustered on the East Coast, but for ambience the riverside restaurants at Boat Quay and Clarke Quay can't be beat.
Singapore also has its share of good Western restaurants, with British and American influenced food being a clear favourite among locals. Most of the more affordable chains are concentrated around Orchard Road and prices start from around $10-20 per person for the main course. French, Italian, Japanese and Korean food is also readily available, though prices tend to be on the expensive side, while Thai and Indonesian restaurants tend to be more affordable.
One British import much beloved by Singaporeans is high tea. In the classical form, as served up by finer hotels across the island, this is a light afternoon meal consisting of tea and a wide array of British-style savoury snacks and sweet pastries like finger sandwiches and scones. However, the term is increasingly used for afternoon buffets of any kind, and Chinese dim sum and various Singaporean dishes are common additions. Prices vary, but you'll usually be looking at $20-30 per head. Note that many restaurants only serve high tea on weekends, and hours may be very limited: the famous spread at the Raffles Hotel's Tiffin Room, for example, is only available between 3:30PM-5PM.
Singaporeans are big on buffets, especially international buffets offering a wide variety of dishes including Western, Chinese and Japanese as well as some local dishes at a fixed price. Popular chains include Sakura , Pariss , Vienna  and Todai .
Most hotels also offer lunch and dinner buffets. Champagne brunches on Sundays are particularly popular, but you can expect to pay over $100 per head and popular spots, like Mezza9 at the Hyatt on Orchard, will require reservations.
Unlike most other shops, restaurants in Singapore usually do not include the additional charges (7% GST and 10% service charge) in their list prices. Price lists displayed outside restaurants and menus typically indicate this fact with a statement such as "Prices do not include GST and service charge", or indicate their prices with "++", e.g., $19.90++.
The opening of the two casinos has led to several of the world's top chefs opening local branches of their restaurant at the integrated resorts. Celebrity restaurants that have set up shop at Marina Bay Sands include Waku Ghin, Spago and Long Chim. Prices are generally what you would expect for eating at a fine dining restaurant in the West.
Pop up dining options or supper clubs are normally dinner events hosted by local chefs. While a relatively new concept in Singapore, it is gaining popularity with more and more local chefs opening up their homes to guests. Authentic food and dining in the company of new friends is a new trend that is catching up in Singapore. BonAppetour is a great place to discover such dining options.
Singapore is an easy place to eat for almost everybody. Many Indians and a few Chinese Buddhists are strictly vegetarian, so Indian stalls may have a number of veggie options and some hawker centres will have a Chinese vegetarian stall or two, often serving up amazing meat imitations made from gluten. Chinese vegetarian food traditionally does not use eggs or dairy products and is thus almost always vegan; Indian vegetarian food, however, often employs cheese and other milk products. Be on your guard in ordinary Chinese restaurants though, as even dishes that appear vegetarian on the menu may contain seafood products such as oyster sauce or salted fish — check with the waiter if in doubt. Some restaurants can be found that use "no garlic, no onions".
Muslims should look out for halal certificates issued by MUIS, the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore or 100% Muslim-owned certificates. Travellers looking for halal food can check at here or here for halal food. Many Western fast-food chains in Singapore are certified halal. Check for the halal certificates which will be prominently shown at the door or behind the counter. As Singapore is a multi-cultural country, you would be able to find many halal Malay, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai and Western cuisines.
Jews, on the other hand, will have a harder time as kosher food is nearly unknown in Singapore. Nevertheless, kosher food is still available near Singapore's two synagogues at Oxley Rise and Waterloo Street in the Central Business District; check with the Jewish Welfare Board  for details.
Celiac disease is relatively unheard of in Singapore, so don't expect to find information on menus about whether dishes contain gluten or not. A few exceptions to this include Cedele  and Barracks @ House .
Singapore's nightlife has both increased in vibrancy and variety over the years. Some clubs have 24 hr licenses and few places close before 3AM. Any artist touring Asia are pretty much guaranteed to stop in Singapore, with superclub Zouk in particular regularly clocking high on lists of the world's best nightclubs. Other than that visiting Clarke Quay is one of the best things to do in Singapore and experience nightlife of this vibrant city. Singapore's nightlife is largely concentrated along the three Quays — Boat, Clarke and Robertson — of the Riverside, with the clubs of Sentosa and nearby St James Power Station giving party animals even more reason to dance the night away. Gay bars are mostly found around Chinatown. Drinking age is 18, and while this is surprisingly loosely enforced, some clubs have higher age limits.
Friday is generally the biggest night of the week for going out, with Saturday a close second. Sunday is gay night in many bars and clubs, while Wednesday or Thursday is ladies' night, often meaning not just free entrance but free drinks for women. Most clubs are closed on Monday and Tuesday, while bars generally stay open but tend to be very quiet.
For a night out Singapore style, gather a group of friends and head for the nearest karaoke box — major chains include K-Box  and Party World. Room rental ranges from $30/hour and up. Beware that the non-chain, glitzy (or dodgy) looking, neon-covered KTV lounges may charge much higher rates and the short-skirted hostesses may offer more services than just pouring your drinks. In Singapore, the pronunciation of karaoke follows the Japanese "karah-oh-kay" instead of the English "carry-oh-key".
Alcohol is widely available but very expensive due to Singapore's heavy sin taxes. You can bring in up to one litre of liquor and two litres of wine and beer if you arrive from countries other than Malaysia. Changi Airport has a good range of duty free spirits at reasonable prices, but cheap wine is non-existent, with bottles starting well over S$20. Careful shopping at major supermarkets will also throw up common basic Australian wine labels for under $20.
Alcohol is haram (forbidden) to Muslims, and most Muslim Singaporeans duly avoid it. While most non-Muslim Singaporeans are not puritanical and enjoy a drink every now and then, do not expect to find the binge-drinking culture that you will find in most Western countries. Unlike in most Western countries, public drunkenness in socially frowned upon in Singapore, and misbehaving yourself under the influence of alcohol will certainly not gain you any respect from Singaporean friends. Do not allow any confrontations to escalate into fights, as the police will be called in, and you will face jail time and possibly caning.
Prices when eating out vary. You can enjoy a large bottle of beer of your choice at a coffee shop or hawker centre for less than $6 (and the local colour comes thrown in for free). On the other hand, drinks in any bar, club or fancy restaurant remain extortionate, with a basic drink clocking in at $10-15 while fancy cocktails would usually be in the $15-25 range. On the upside, happy hours and two-for-one promotions are common, and the entry price for clubs usually includes several drink tickets. Almost all restaurants in Singapore allow bringing your own (BYO) wine and cheaper restaurants without a wine menu usually don't even charge corkage, although in these places you'll need to bring your own bottle opener and glasses. Fancier places charge $20-50, although many offer free corkage days on Monday or Tuesday.
Tourists flock to the Long Bar in the Raffles Hotel to sample the original Singapore Sling, a sickly sweet pink mix of pineapple juice, gin and more, but locals (almost) never touch the stuff. The tipple of choice in Singapore is the local beer, Tiger, a rather ordinary lager, but there's been a recent microbrewery trend with Singapore's very own RedDot Brewhouse (Dempsey & Boat Quay), Archipelago, Brewerkz (Riverside Point, Singapore Indoor Stadium, Orchard Parade Hotel, and Sentosa Boardwalk), Paulaner Brauhaus (Millenia Walk) and Pump Room (Clarke Quay) all offering interesting alternatives.
There are also many online alcohol stores that offer great value and convenience with doorstep delivery such as Cellarbration Singapore, Alcohol Delivery, Winelah and Cornerstonewines for you to shop from if you are looking for an affordable nightcap or as a gift for your host in Singapore.
Tobacco is heavily taxed, and you are not allowed to bring more than one opened pack (not carton, but a single pack!) of cigarettes into the country. This is particularly strictly enforced on the land borders with Malaysia. Many public places including hawker centres have restrictions on smoking, and it is prohibited in public transport as well. There is a total ban on smoking in all air-conditioned places (including pubs and discos), and strict limitations on where you can smoke outside as well (e.g., bus stops, parks, playgrounds and all except the designated sections of hawker centres are off limits). The designated zone should be marked with a yellow outline, and may have a sign reading "smoking zone".
Prostitution is tolerated in six designated districts, most notably Geylang, which — not coincidentally — also offers some of the cheapest lodging and best food in the city. The industry maintains a low profile (no go-go bars here) and is not a tourist attraction by any stretch of the word. Legally practising commercial sex workers are required to register with the authorities and attend special clinics for regular sexually transmitted disease screening. However, please be prudent and practice safe sex--although most sex workers will insist on it anyway.
Orchard Towers, on Orchard Road, has been famously summarized as "four floors of whores" and, despite occasional crackdowns by the authorities, continues to live up to its name. Beware that the prostitutes working here are usually not registered, so the risk of theft and STDs is significantly higher. Some transgender women work at this establishment because the State does not allow them to obtain a license for sex work. Because they are considered illegal workers, they are subjected to constant raids, harassment, intimidation, imprisonment and other forms of degrading treatment and criminalization. They also face entrapment where police officers pretend to be customers.
Accommodation in Singapore is expensive by South-East Asian standards. Particularly in the higher price brackets, demand has been outstripping supply recently and during big events like the F1 race or some of the larger conventions it's not uncommon for pretty much everything to sell out. Lower-end hotels and hostels, though, remain affordable and available throughout the year.
Singapore's laws that ban late night/early morning construction only apply to residential areas and not the city centre. You can expect to hear loud piling from sites such as the new Downtown MRT Line tunnels late into the night or early morning. Keep this in mind and check for any construction work near any hotel you choose as the work will be unlikely to stop when you want to sleep!
Cheap hotels are clustered in the Geylang, Balestier and Little India districts, where they service mostly the type of customer who rents rooms by the hour. Rooms are generally small and not fancy, but are still clean and provide basic facilities like a bathroom and television. Prices start as low as $15 for a "transit" of a few hours and $40 for a full night's stay. A good number of these value for money hotels conveniently linked by local transport are on Balestier Road. Some of these hotels along Balestier Road are love hotels whose prices skyrocket Friday thru Sunday. Read the Costs section above for additional money saving tips.
Much of Singapore's mid-range accommodation is in rather featureless but functional older hotels, with a notable cluster near the western end of the Singapore River. Accommodations close to the iconic Singapore River include the recently refurbished Holiday Inn® Singapore Atrium. There has, however, been a recent surge of "boutique" hotels in renovated shophouses here and in Chinatown and these can be pretty good value, with rates starting from $100/night.
Singapore has a wide selection of luxury accommodation, including the famed Raffles Hotel. You will generally be looking at upwards of $300 per night for a room in a five-star hotel, which is still a pretty good deal by most standards. Hotel rates fluctuate quite a bit: a large conference can double prices, while on weekends in the off-peak season heavy discounts are often available. The largest hotel clusters can be found at Marina Bay (good for sightseeing) and around Orchard Road (good for shopping).
Housing in Singapore is expensive, as the high population density and sheer scarcity of land drives real estate prices through the roof. As a result, you would generally be looking at rentals on par with the likes of New York and London.
Apartment hotels in Singapore have prices competitive with hotels but are quite expensive compared to apartments.
Renting an apartment in Singapore will generally require a working visa. While over 80% of Singaporeans live in government-subsidized Housing Development Board (HDB) flats, their availability to visitors is limited, although JTC's SHiFT  scheme makes some available with monthly rents in the $1700-2,800 range.
Most expats, however, turn to private housing blocks known as condos, where an average three-bedroom apartment will cost you anything from $3,200 per month for an older apartment in the suburbs to $20,000 for a top-of-the-line deluxe one on Orchard Road. Most condos have facilities like pools, gyms, tennis court, car park and 24 hr security. As the supply of studio and one-bedroom apartments is very limited, most people on a budget share an apartment with friends or colleagues, or just sublet a single room. Landed houses, known as bungalows, are incredibly expensive in the centre (rents are regularly measured in tens of thousands) but can drop if you're willing to head out into the woods — and remember that you can drive across the country in 30 minutes.
One or two-month security deposits are standard practice and for monthly rents of under $3,000 you need to pay the agent a commission of 2 weeks rent per year of the lease arranged. Leases are usually for two years, with a "diplomatic clause" that allows you to terminate after 1 year. Singapore Expats  is the largest real estate agency geared for expatriates and their free classified ads are a popular choice for hunting for rooms or apartment-mates. You might also want to check the classified ads in the local newspapers.
Singapore's universities are generally well-regarded and draw exchange students from near and far.
A number of foreign universities, business schools and specialised institutes have also setup their Asian campuses in Singapore.
Casual work is nearly impossible to come by, as you must have a work permit (WP) or employment pass (EP) to work in Singapore. In practice, receiving either requires that you have a firm job offer and the sponsoring company applies on your behalf. There is also a Working Holiday Programme  for recent university grads who want to live in Singapore for up to 6 months.
Work permits are mostly intended for menial, low-skilled labourers. To be eligible for an employment pass, you would generally need to have a minimum salary of more than $3,600 per month and hold at least a bachelor degree from a reasonably reputable university. There is also an intermediate known as the S pass, which is usually granted to mid-skilled workers who have been promoted to positions of junior leadership such as worksite supervisor, and would require you to have a minimum salary of more than $2,200 per month as well as your employer's recommendation. Employment pass holders as well as S pass holders with a monthly salary of more than $5,000 are allowed to bring in their family members on a dependent pass.
If your employment is terminated, you will get a social visit pass (a visitors visa with no employment rights) which allows you to stay for no longer than 14 days. You can look for another job during this time, but don't overstay your visa, and do not think about working without the right papers, this will result in a short stay in the local prison, with added fines, possibly caning and certain deportation. For more information, contact the Ministry of Manpower .
Once you have been working in Singapore for a year or so with an employment pass or S pass, applying for permanent residence (PR) is fairly straightforward. If granted — and the rule of thumb is, the higher your salary, the more likely you are to get it — you can stay in Singapore indefinitely (as long as you can show some income every 5 years) and can change jobs freely.
As one of the most vibrant economies in South-east Asia, and supported by a highly-educated population of locals and foreign talents, Singapore is a natural choice for multi-nationals who wish to have a presence in the region. The government is also highly supportive of entrepreneurship in the country, offering a full 3-year tax exemption on profit for new companies (for the first S$100,000) and having one of the lowest corporate tax rates in the world at 17% a year. Even the company incorporation process  is done entirely online these days and can be completed as quickly as within a day.
Singapore also has one of the most active coworking scenes in the region. With over a hundred coworking spaces across the island offering anything from a hot desk for a day to sufficient office space for multinational corporations, you can choose from a wide variety of vibes and styles to suit your business. For a comprehensive list of available coworking spaces, serviced offices and office spaces in Singapore, you can check out GorillaSpace Singapore.
Singapore is one of the safest major cities in the world by virtually any measure. Most people, including single female travellers, will not face any problems walking along the streets alone at night. Police are also noticeably absent from streets. But as the local police say, "low crime does not mean no crime" — beware of pickpockets in crowded areas and don't forget your common sense entirely. There are neither gangs nor incidences of gang-related violence in the country since the late 80s. The influence of the Chinese Triad is over so concerns over that are not needed.
Though perfectly safe, local women tend to stick to the main road and avoid walking alone through the "lorongs" in Geylang, the red light district of Singapore, to stay clear of unwanted attention at night. This is not to say they avoid the area completely. The area is, among several others, well-known for its late night local food fare. If you are dressed conservatively (to avoid being mistaken for a sex worker) or look the part of a tourist, you will not be harassed.
Singapore's cleanliness is achieved in part by strict rules against public nuisance activities that are often flouted in many other countries. For example, jay-walking, spitting, littering, and drinking and eating on public transport are prohibited. Look around for sign boards detailing the Don'ts and the fines associated with these offences, and heed them. Avoid littering, as offenders are not only subject to fines, but also to a "Corrective Work Order", in which offenders are made to wear a bright yellow jacket and pick up rubbish in public places. Enforcement is however sporadic at best, and it is not uncommon to see people openly litter, spit, smoke in non-smoking zones, etc. Chewing gum, famously long banned from sale (consumption was never banned, contrary to popular belief), is now available at pharmacies for medical purposes (eg nicotine gum) if you ask for it directly, show your ID and sign the register. While importing gum for resale is still illegal, one can usually bring in a few packs for personal consumption without any problem.
However, tourists should be relieved that such severe punishment is only reserved for the most severe crimes such as rape, vandalism, molestation, murder or kidnapping and this has partly resulted in a country that has seen the lowest number of severe crimes in the world.
Begging is illegal in Singapore, but you'll occasionally see beggars on the streets. Most are not Singaporean — even the "monks" & "nuns" dressed in robes, who occasionally pester tourists for donations, are usually bogus.
Whilst jaywalking is illegal, it is still a common thing and occurs quite often around the city. Beware though that if a police officer catches you, you might get a warning or end up with a fine if you persist. Put simply: the roads are for vehicles and the footpaths are for people.
While Singapore provides a constitutional right to "freedom of expression", there are many exceptions that act to limit this right, including several exceptions related to political activism & public demonstrations (particularly by non citizens). Nevertheless, the police generally do not arrest people for expressing anti-government views in casual conversation and articles critical of certain government policies are sometimes published in the local newspaper forums. Visitors need not be worried unless you plan to hold a public rally or publish political opinion pieces critical of the current leaders. Missionaries should also note that insulting other religions is a crime in Singapore, and carries fines and a prison sentence with it, so be sensitive when discussing subjects related to religion.
Politics, especially the immigration policy is a very sensitive subject - although police won't arrest you for discussing those with locals, Singapore has a peculiar political climate in which it's way too easy to step on a slippery slope when engaging in a discourse in those areas. Although locals themselves sometimes feel frustrated and displaced by the combination of mass immigration, their liability for the two year long National Service, some institutionalized discrimination and soaring property prices, they are often patriotic and may take offense if visitors criticize any aspect of the country. Politics and social dynamics are a subject best avoided and if you happen to get drafted into it by a taxi driver, it's best to stay neutral and just listen.
Singapore is virtually immune to natural disasters: there are no fault lines nearby, although Indonesia's earthquakes can sometimes be barely felt. Its proximity to the Equator shields it from typhoons, and nearby landmasses protect it from tsunamis. Flooding in the November-January monsoon season is an occasional hazard, especially in low-lying parts of the East Coast, but any water usually drains off quickly, usually after a couple of hours, and life continues as normal. Extreme air pollution, particularly from forest fires in Indonesia, have been a frequent and growing issue. Air quality measurements have often indicated an air quality level that is hazardous.
Because of rigid regulations, conscientiously enforced with large fines, traffic is less erratic than in other Asian countries and reckless driving is rare.
Tap water is safe for drinking, and sanitation standards are very high. As a tropical country, Singapore is hot and humid so drink a lot of water. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Singapore was way back in 1934, when it hit a low of 19.4°C (66.9°F).
Malaria is not an issue, but dengue fever is endemic to the region. Singapore maintains strict mosquito control (leaving standing water around will get you fined), but the government's reach does not extend into the island's nature reserves, so if you're planning on hiking bring along mosquito repellent.
Since 20 March 2020, all arrivals from abroad are given stay-home notice for 14 days due to COVID-19, almost all of them are given the stay at the hotels, and must take a swab test at the end of 14 days to determine that it is positive or negative. Positive cases will be recorded, negative cases can return back to normal service. Foreigners are prohibited from entering and transiting through the country on 23 March 2020. The country has imposed a lockdown (circuit breaker) that mandates all non-essential workplaces to close or work from home, closure of schools (full home-based learning), and closure of all attractions, recreation venues and places of worship from 7 April to 1 June 2020. Only essential workers in the "Singapore-China Fast Lane" are allowed to enter Singapore without quarantine or stay-home notice, and must take swab tests.
The standard of medical care in Singapore is uniformly excellent and Singapore is a popular destination for medical tourism (and medical evacuations) in the region. Despite the lower prices, standards are often as good as those in the West at both public and private clinics, making this a good place to get your jabs and tabs if heading off into the jungle elsewhere. You'll still want to make sure your insurance is in order before a prolonged hospitalization and/or major surgery.
There are various different types of insurance depending on what you are looking for from basic travel insurance policies to longer term health insurance policies designed more for frequent travellers from providers.
For minor ailments, head down to the nearest suburban shopping mall or HDB shopping district and look for a general practitioner (GP). They usually receive patients without appointment and can prescribe drugs on the spot, and the total cost of a consultation, medicine included, is around S$50. For larger problems, head to a hospital.
Medical overpayment scam: Your hospital will provide you with an estimate not an exact amount for surgeries and other procedures. Your Doctor will encourage you to overpay and say that the excess will be refunded. It will. However, the hospitals take three weeks to arrive at a final tally and then at that time will only give you your refund in cash, by hand, at the hospital, long after most medical tourists have left Singapore. You can wire money in, in U.S. dollars or Euros to pay, but they will only wire the excess back in Singapore dollars which no foreign bank will accept. Your Doctor gets to keep whatever is leftover. Pay the minimum with bank wire or credit card then supplement with cash as needed.
Alternatively, practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are widespread in Singapore. Eu Yan Sang  runs a chain of over 20 clinics, while the Singapore Chinese Physicians' Association  offers a directory of TCM physicians.
Nearly all shopping centres, hotels, MRT stations, bus interchanges, and hawker centres are likely to have public toilets. Being clean, McDonald's toilets are popular too, and the staff do not make a fuss. Public facilities may charge 10 to 20 cents per entry, and a packet of tissue may come in handy if the toilet paper has run out. Most toilets have bowls, but there is usually one squatting cubicle in every public toilet.
Things to do
People are generally friendlier in the heartlands, and it is not uncommon to see shopkeepers and customers of multiple races bantering. However, Singaporeans, while not hostile towards foreigners, are generally not overly receptive to any overbearing friendliness from them. Furthermore, the local dialect with its heavy Chinese influences may appear brusque or even rude, but it should not be interpreted as being hostile or offensive. A question such as "You want beer or not?" is a perfectly normal way of asking if you want beer; after all, the person asking you the question is offering you a choice, not making a demand.
If invited to somebody's house, always remove your shoes before you enter as most Singaporeans do not wear their shoes at home. Socks are perfectly acceptable though, as long as they are not excessively soiled. Many places of worship also require you to remove your shoes before you enter.
At train stations, some forms of etiquette are a must. Singaporeans are orderly and will usually give way to passengers getting off trains before boarding the train. It is also common for people to stand on the left of escalators to allow room for others in a rush to ascend or descend on the right. If in doubt, simply obey the rule of "When in Rome".
Beware of taboos if bringing gifts. Any products (food or otherwise) involving animals may cause offence and are best avoided, as are white flowers (usually reserved for funerals). Knives and clocks are also symbols of cutting ties and death, respectively, and some Chinese are superstitious about the number four. Also note that in Singapore, it is considered rude to open a gift in front of the person who gave it to you. Instead, wait till the person has left and open it in private. Many Singaporean Muslims and some Hindus abstain from alcohol.
Swastikas are commonly seen in Buddhist and Hindu temples, as well as among the possessions of Buddhists and Hindus. It is regarded as a religious symbol and does not represent Nazism or anti-Semitism. As such, Western visitors should not feel offended on seeing a swastika in the homes of their hosts, and many locals will wonder what the fuss is all about.
Take dietary restrictions into account when inviting Singaporean friends for a meal. Many Indians (and a few Chinese) are vegetarian. Most Malays, being Muslims, eat only halal food, while most Indians, being Hindu, abstain from beef.
Take note that Singapore, while heavily Westernized, ultimately remains socially conservative. As such, Westerners are strongly advised against greetings like kissing on the cheeks and should stick to the much common practice of shaking hands instead.
Singaporeans are punctual, so do show up on time. They would be able to tolerate tardiness of up to 10 minutes if you give a good reason for it (slowness in public transport tend to be an increasingly acceptable reason, for one).
The standard greeting is a firm handshake. However, conservative Muslims avoid touching the opposite sex, so a man meeting a Muslim woman should let her offer her hand first and a woman meeting a Malay man should wait for him to offer his hand. If they opt to place their hand on the heart and bow slightly instead, just follow suit. Singaporeans generally do not hug, especially if it is someone they have just met, and doing so would probably make your host feel awkward, though the other person will probably be too polite to say anything as saving face is a major Asian value.
For men, standard business attire is a long-sleeved shirt and a tie, although the tie is often omitted, the shirt's collar button opened instead. Jackets are rarely worn because it is too hot most of the time. Women usually wear Western business attire, but a few prefer Malay-style kebaya and sarong.
Business cards are always exchanged when people meet for business for the first time: hold yours with both hands by the top corners, so the text faces the recipient, while simultaneously receiving theirs. (This sounds more complicated than it is.) Study the cards you receive and feel free to ask questions; when you are finished, place them on the table in front of you, not in a shirt pocket or wallet, and do not write on them or otherwise show disrespect.
Business gifts are generally frowned on as they smell of bribery. Small talk and bringing up the subject indirectly are neither necessary nor expected. Most meetings get straight down to business.
Things to avoid
Mobile phones are carried by almost everyone in Singapore, including many young children, and coverage is generally excellent throughout the country. All 3 service providers have both GSM 900/1800 and 3G (W-CDMA) networks, and international roaming onto them may be possible; check with your operator before you leave to be sure. Prepaid SIM cards are sold in 7-Eleven convenience stores, phone shops and currency exchange counters, just bring your own GSM/3G phone or buy a cheap used handset in Singapore. You will need to show an international passport or Singapore ID to sign up.
A local phone call costs between $0.05-$0.25 per min, whereas each local text message (SMS) costs about $0.05, with international SMS about $0.15-$0.25 (but a few dozen local SMS are usually thrown in for free when you top up). You may also be charged for incoming calls. Most prepaid cards expire within 6 mth unless you top-up (which can be done outside Singapore). The carriers also offer special top up cards that will give a higher number of minutes for the price at the downside of expiring more quickly. As in many places, mobile data with on prepaid voice SIM cards can be ridiculously expensive. StarHub offers a 1GB package (valid for 30 days). It costs $25 and is aimed at BlackBerrys but works with any phone. Using the StarHub SIM, call *122# and follow the menu to activate. Data-only SIMs can be more affordable. For short stays, StarHub has 2Mbps unlimited service at S$15 per week. For longer stays, bring a MicroSIM adapter and you can get StarHub's 2GB package (good for 60 days) for $37.
Public phones are an increasingly endangered species, but you can find them in most MRT stations. They are either coin-operated pay phones (10 cents for a three-minute local call), card phones operated by phone cards in denominations of $3, $5, $10, $20 and $50, or credit card phones. Phone cards are available at all post offices and from phonecard agents. Most coin-operated pay phones are for local calls only, there are some which accept coins of larger denominations and can be used for overseas calls. Credit card phones are usually found at the airport or in some major hotels.
To make an international call from Singapore, dial the access code 001 (for SingTel), 002 (for M1), and 008 (for StarHub), followed by the country code, area code and party's number. Recently the providers have started offering cheaper rates for calls using Internet telephony routes. The access codes for this cheaper service are 019 and 013 for SingTel and 018 for StarHub, make sure you input these codes instead of the "+" sign at the beginning of the number if you wish to use these services.
Calling cards are also available for specific international destinations and are usually cheaper. Hello Card from Singtel offers a very cheap rate to 8 countries (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand).
Internet cafes charging around $2/hr are scattered about the island, but are not particularly common since almost all locals have Internet access at home, work, and/or school. Head to Chinatown or Little India if you need get online, or check out the top floors of many suburban malls, which feature Internet cafes doubling as online gaming parlors. Alternatively, all public libraries  offer cheap Internet access ($0.03/min or $1.80/hr), but you need to jump through registration hoops to get access.
The first phase of the nationwide free [email protected] system is now operating and visitors are free to use the system, although you must register and receive a password via e-mail or a mobile phone first. See the Infocomm Development Authority website  for a current list of hotspots. Commercial alternatives include McDonalds, which offers free wifi at most outlets; StarHub, a member of the Wireless Broadband Alliance with hotspots at Coffee Bean cafes; and SingTel, which has hotspots at most Starbucks cafes. Roaming or prepaid rates are on the order of $0.10/min.
There are several options for prepaid 3G/HSPA internet. Starhub MaxMobile  has different plans from S$2/hour to S$25 for 5 days unlimited 7.2mbps internet. SIM costs S$12. M1 Prepaid Broadband offers unlimited Internet access for three days/five days at S$18/S$30 .
Mobile internet access is also available from the different telecoms which offer hundreds of megabytes good for several days. However do try using the free WiFi access if possible; not only will it save you money but also precious battery life.
There are other more convenient and easy-to-use alternatives for travelers who want to stay connected in order to communicate with their relatives and share the highlights of their stay in Singapore. Nowadays, travelers can stay connected wherever they go and without roaming costs thanks to small portable 3G/4G Wi-Fi router that fits in your pocket. Several companies such as MIOWIFI  offers internet packages at very attractive prices which allow you to connect up to 10 devices at the same time to your Wifi device.
Recently another possibility is available to travelers to Singapore even more convenient than the previous one. As part of the digital age, a new mobile application has just been created: FlynetApp . This application allows you to access a 3G / 4G connection when you're travelling to Singapore simply by downloading the application from the Apple Store or the Play Store.
SingPost has offices throughout the island, generally open 08:30-17:00 weekdays, 08:30-13:00 Saturdays, closed Sundays. The Changi Airport T2 (transit side) office is open 06:00-23:59 daily, while the 1 Killeney Rd branch is open until 21:00 weekdays and 10:00-16:00 Sundays. Service is fast and reliable. A postcard to anywhere in the world costs 50 cents, and postage labels can also be purchased from the self-service SAM machines found in many MRT stations.
Small packets up to 2kg cost $3.50/100g for airmail, or $1/100g for surface mail. For larger packages, DHL may offer competitive rates.
Singapore uses the British BS1363 three-pin rectangular socket (230V/50Hz). Plug adaptors are available at any hardware store.
Embassies and High Commissions
Singapore is a good place to collect visas for the region. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs maintains a complete searchable database of diplomatic institutions.
Singaporeans are particular about their hair, and there is no shortage of fancy hair salons charging from $20 for a fashionable hairstyle. If you are willing to splurge, there is Passion Hair Salon at Palais Renaissance with celebrity hairstylist David Gan (hairstylist of Zhang Ziyi and other famous celebrities) doing the haircut. Le Salon at Ngee Ann City offers haircuts up to $2000. The middle range hair salons can be commonly found in the city centre or shopping centres located in the heartlands. Popular chains include REDS Hairdressing, Supercuts and Toni & Guy salons that are located all over Singapore. Most of these chains offer reasonable prices for stylish & modern haircuts, along with a diverse range of services such as hair washing, colour and hair straightening. You may encounter a term called "rebonding", or "re-bonding", which is basically the local word for hair straightening. For backpacker-friendly rates, almost every shopping mall in Singapore has a branch of EC House or one of its many imitators, offering fuss-free 10min haircuts for $10, although the hairdressers are mostly happy to spend as long as necessary on your hair, within reasonable limits. Most HDB estates have barbershops which charge $5 to $10 for adults and less for students and children.
Laundromats are few and far between in Singapore, but full-service laundry and dry cleaning shops can be found in every shopping mall. Unfortunately turnaround times are usually upwards of three days unless you opt for express service. Hotels can provide one-day laundry (at a price), whereas hostels often have communal self-service washing machines.
Practically every shopping mall has a photo shop that will process film, print digital pictures and take passport photos. Many pharmacies and supermarkets also have self-service kiosks which print digital photos from CD, SD-card, USB drive, etc.
Sport Singapore runs a chain of affordable sports facilities, often featuring fantastic, outdoor 50m pools (see Swimming for a list). Facilities are somewhat sparse but the prices are unbeatable, with swimming pools charging $1 for entry and access to ClubFITT gyms only $2.50. The main downside is the inconvenient location of most facilities out in the suburbs, although most are located close to an MRT station and can be reached within 10-20min from the city centre. The gyms also ban bringing in any reading material (aimed at students but enforced blindly), although MP3 players are OK.
Major private gym chains include California Fitness, Fitness First and True Fitness. Facilities are better and locations more central, but the prices are also much higher as non-members have to fork out steep day pass fees (around $40).
Some of the parks offer rental of bicycles and inline skates ($3-6/h, open until 20:00). You can either rent skates, attend a skate class or send the children off to a skate camp at major parks like West Coast and East Coast Park. You can even get skating lessons from popular skate schools like inline fitness or skate with us, a skate school for children Especially rewarding for skaters and cyclists is the 10km long stretch along East Coast Park with a paved track and lots of rental shops, bars and cafés around the McDonald's. There are toilets and showers along the track. Furthermore every park has a couple of fitness stations.
Singapore makes a good base for exploring South-East Asia, with nearly all of the region's countries and their main tourist destinations — Bangkok, Phuket, Angkor Wat, Ho Chi Minh City and Bali, just to name a few — under 2 hr away by plane. The advent of budget carriers in recent times means that Singapore is an excellent place for catching cheap flights to China and India, as well as around Southeast Asia. In addition, Singapore has direct flights to many of the smaller cities in Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand.
For day or weekend trips from Singapore, the following are popular:
For those who can afford more time to travel, here are several destinations popular among Singaporeans: