Sasaram is an ancient city and is believed that a demon named 'Sahastrabahu'lived aroud here from the age of 'Ramayana'. Sahastrabahu was killed by Parsuram. Earlier the name of the city was Sahasram, initials of Sahasrabahu and Parsuram. it is also believed that the name of the city Sasaram came from his name Sahastrabahu to Sahasram (Sahastrabahu + Parsuram) to Sasaram. Some historian also believed that name from Nikulakashakabasu, an ancient king and Parsuram, the warrior sage.
Sasaram is famous for being the birthplace of Afghan king Sher Shah Suri who ruled in Delhi and much of Northern India and what is now Pakistan and eastern Afghanstan for five years, after defeating Humayun, the Mughal Emperor. Many of Sher Shah Suri's practices were adopted by the later Mughals and the British Raj including taxation, administration and the building of a paved Grand Trunk Road from Kabul to Bengal.
Sasaram has a 122 ft high red sandstone tomb of Sher Shah Suri built in the Indo-Afghan style which stands in the middle of an artificial lake. It is known as one of the finest examples of medieval Islamic funerary architecture in India.It borrows heavily from the Lodhi style and was once covered in blue and yellow glazed tiles indicating an Irani influence. The massive free standing dome also has an aesthetic aspect of the Bhuddhist stupa style of the Mauryan period. There is another tomb, which is the tomb of Sher Shah's father, in the middle of green field at Sherganj which is known as Sukha Rauza. These tombs were built by Sher Shah.
Sasaram also has a baulia (small pond/step well used by the emperor's consorts for bathing. The NH2 (Grand Trunk Road) passes through the city.
Sasaram district is also famous for its nearby majestic fort of Sher Shah Suri at Rohtasgarh. This fort has a long history trailing back to 7th century AD. The fort was built by Raja Harishchandra in the name of his son Rohitashwa. The fort houses churasan temple, ganesh temple, diwan-e khas, diwan-e-aam,and various other structures dating back to different centuries and to different styles of architecture.This fort also served as the headquarters of Raja Man Singh during his reign as the governor of bihar and bengal under the regime of Akbar. Rohtaas fort in Bihar should not be confused with Rohtaas fort near Jhelum,Punjab , in what is now Pakistan, which was also built by Sher shah suri during the period when Humyaun was exiled from Hindustan.
Sasaram is also famous for Maa Tara Chandi Temple (where a fantabulous crowd can be always observed in SHRAWAN month or in DUSSEHARA )and also for Kaimur mountain. The two waterfalls which add to sasaram's scenic beauty are the Manjhar Kund and Dhua Kund. A fair is organised at these places every year after a day of Raksha Bandhan. These two water falls has capacity to generate 50-100 MW of electricity if utilized properly. Sasaram is also famous for Stone Chips and Stone mining industries.Rohtas in south of Sasaram known to be the residence of Satyawadi Raja Harischandra. On the name of his son Rohitashwa the district is so called Rohtas. Sasaram is also famous for the Samrat Ashok pillar (1 of the 13 laghu shilalekh) situated in a small cave of Kaimur hill near Chandan Shaheed. Languages spoken in this region are Bhojpuri,Hindi and Urdu ; religions comprise of Islam , Buddhist,jain and Hindu.
Haji Begum who fought against British in 1857 belongs to muhalla pathantoli Sasaram is alone woman in Bihar kown as Jhansi ki rani of Bihar.She was a land lady at Sasaram having 52 villages near the town. Her family members still live at muhalla pathan toli of sasaram.The sword of Haji Begum is protected at the house of Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan muhalla pathan toli Sasaram.
Sasaram is also famous for Samadhi of Shree Shree 108 Swami Paramgayanand Puri Ji Maharaj. it is situated in Parampuri(raipurchoure)12 K.M from Sasaram. people come here from all over the world. This ashram also known as Navlakha Ashram.