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Qatar

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Qatar

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Flag
Qa-flag.png
Quick Facts
CapitalDoha
Governmenttraditional monarchy
CurrencyQatari rial (QAR)
Areatotal: 11,437 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 11,437 sq km
Population793,341 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageArabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
ReligionMuslim 95%

This article is an import from the CIA World Factbook 2002. It's a starting point for creating a real Wikitravel country article according to our country article template. Please plunge forward and edit it.

Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Qatari economy was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by the amir who had ruled the country since 1972. He was overthrown by his son, the current Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, in a bloodless coup in 1995. In 2001, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. Oil and natural gas revenues enable Qatar to have a per capita income not far below the leading industrial countries of Western Europe.


Geography

Qa-map.png
Map of Qatar
Location 
Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates 
25 30 N, 51 15 E
Map references 
Middle East
Area 
total: 11,437 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 11,437 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries 
total: 60 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 60 km
Coastline 
563 km
Maritime claims 
contiguous zone: 24 NM
exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate 
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain 
mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Qurayn Abu al Bawl 103 m
Natural resources 
petroleum, natural gas, fish
Land use 
arable land: 1.27%
permanent crops: 0.27%
other: 98.46% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
130 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
haze, dust storms, sandstorms common
Environment - current issues 
limited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note 
strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits

People

Population 
793,341 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 25.2% (male 102,110; female 98,053)
15-64 years: 72.1% (male 403,508; female 168,428)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 15,299; female 5,943) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
3.02% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
15.78 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
4.34 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
18.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 2.4 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 2.57 male(s)/female
total population: 1.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
20.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 72.88 years
female: 75.48 years (2002 est.)
male: 70.4 years
Total fertility rate 
3.1 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
0.09% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
NA
Nationality 
noun: Qatari(s)
adjective: Qatari
Ethnic groups 
Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%
Religions 
Muslim 95%
Languages 
Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79%
male: 79%
female: 80% (1995 est.)

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: State of Qatar
conventional short form: Qatar
local short form: Qatar
note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between cutter and gutter, but not like guitar
local long form: Dawlat Qatar
Government type 
traditional monarchy
Capital 
Doha
Administrative divisions 
9 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batinah, Madinat ash Shamal, Umm Salal
Independence 
3 September 1971 (from UK)
National holiday 
Independence Day, 3 September (1971)
Constitution 
provisional constitution enacted 19 April 1972; in July 1999 Amir HAMAD issued a decree forming a committee to draft a permanent constitution
Legal system 
discretionary system of law controlled by the amir, although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law dominates family and personal matters
Suffrage 
suffrage is limited to municipal elections
Executive branch 
chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as crown prince, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani, in a bloodless coup); Crown Prince JASSIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, third son of the monarch (selected crown prince by the monarch 22 October 1996); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of minister of defense and commander-in-chief of the armed forces
head of government: Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 30 October 1996); Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 20 January 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
note: in March 1999, Qatar held nationwide elections for a 29-member Central Municipal Council, which has consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services
Legislative branch 
unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (35 seats; members appointed)
note: the constitution calls for elections for part of this consultative body, but no elections have been held since 1970, when there were partial elections to the body; Council members have had their terms extended every four years since
Judicial branch 
Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders 
none
Political pressure groups and leaders 
none
International organization participation 
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Badr Umar al-DAFA
telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600
consulate(s) general: Houston
FAX: [1] (202) 237-0061
chancery: 4200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Maureen E. QUINN
embassy: Al-Luqtas District, 22 February Road, Doha
mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha
telephone: [974] 488 4101
FAX: [974] 488 4298
Flag description 
maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview 
Oil accounts for more than 30% of GDP, roughly 80% of export earnings, and 58% of government revenues. Proved oil reserves of 3.7 billion barrels should ensure continued output at current levels for 23 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita GDP comparable to that of the leading West European industrial countries. Qatar's proved reserves of natural gas exceed 7 trillion cubic meters, more than 5% of the world total, third largest in the world. Production and export of natural gas are becoming increasingly important. Long-term goals feature the development of offshore natural gas reserves. In 2000, Qatar posted its highest ever trade surplus of $7 billion, due mainly to high oil prices and increased natural gas exports, and managed to maintain the surplus in 2001.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $16.3 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
5.6% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $21,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 1%
industry: 49%
services: 50% (1996 est.)
Population below poverty line 
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
2% (2001)
Labor force 
280,122 (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate 
2.7% (2001)
Budget 
revenues: $5 billion
expenditures: $4.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $900 million (FY01/02 est. )
Industries 
crude oil production and refining, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement
Industrial production growth rate 
NA%
Electricity - production 
9.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
8.556 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish
Exports 
$11 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities 
petroleum products 80%, fertilizers, steel
Exports - partners 
Japan 43%, Singapore 8%, South Korea 6%, US 4%, UAE 2% (1999)
Imports 
$3.5 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities 
machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals
Imports - partners 
UK 10%, Japan 8%, Germany 6%, Italy 6%, US 6% (1998)
Debt - external 
$13.1 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient 
$NA
Currency 
Qatari rial (QAR)
Currency code 
QAR
Exchange rates 
Qatari rials per US dollar - 3.6400 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year 
1 April - 31 March

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
142,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
43,476 (1997)
Telephone system 
general assessment: modern system centered in Doha
domestic: NA
international: tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 
256,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
1 (plus three repeaters) (2001)
Televisions 
230,000 (1997)
Internet country code 
.qa
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
1 (2000)
Internet users 
75,000 (2001)

Transportation

Railways 
0 km
Highways 
total: 1,230 km
paved: 1,107 km
unpaved: 123 km (1996)
Waterways 
none
Pipelines 
crude oil 235 km; natural gas 400 km
Ports and harbors 
Doha, Halul Island, Umm Sa'id (Musay'id)
Merchant marine 
total: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 679,081 GRT/1,051,088 DWT
ships by type: cargo 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 7, petroleum tanker 6
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Kuwait 1, United Arab Emirates 3 (2002 est.)
Airports 
4 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
914 to 1,523 m: 1
Heliports 
1 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Army, Navy, Air Force
Military manpower - military age 
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 316,885
note: includes non-nationals (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 166,214 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
males: 6,797 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$723 million (FY00/01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
10% (FY00/01)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
none