This article is a travel topic
The Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis is a natural phenomenon that can paint the night sky with unearthly, surreal color. To observers at far-northern latitudes, they're a frequent occurrence, but many who live in more temperate climates have never seen them, even though they're sometimes seen as far south as 35 degrees north latitude. This article will help you improve your chances of seeing the Lights if you journey north.
Understanding the lights better
The Northern Lights are similar to a sunset in the sky at night, but appear occasionally in arcs or spirals usually following the earth's magnetic field. They are most often light green in color but often have a hint of pink. Strong eruptions also have violet and white colours. Red northern lights are rare, but can sometimes be observed on lower latitudes The Aurora Borealis is caused by charged particles ejected from the sun. When these particles reach the earth, they collide with gas atoms in the earth's atmosphere causing them to energise which results in a spectacular multi-coloured light show.
Contrary to intuition, seeing the Northern Lights isn't just a matter of heading "north." The Lights usually circle the globe in a circular or elliptical band centered on the earth's North Magnetic Pole, which is not at the same location as the North Geographic Pole, but rather is offset in the direction of northern Canada. Furthermore, auroral displays aren't strongest at the North Magnetic Pole; the band of greatest auroral activity is usually offset from the Magnetic Pole by 20 degrees or so.
The Northern Lights oval, meaning the area with the highest probability, covers most of Alaska, northern parts of Canada, the southern half of Greenland, Iceland and Northern Norway and the northernmost areas of Sweden and Finland, as well as the western half of the Russian north (with the Kola Peninsula of Murmansk Oblast being the most popular viewing spot).
Regions such as central and southern Scandinavia and the north-central United States as well as Scotland also frequently see Northern Lights, but not as often as directly under the Northern Lights oval. Svalbard sees less Northern Lights than Northern Scandinavia, but is a place to observed the fainter Day Northern Lights during its long Polar night.
A curiosity is that the exact location of the North Magnetic Pole varies from year to year, sometimes by tens of miles. The Pole has been moving north for a few years now as of 2006; it's now near Ellesmere Island in the nearly uninhabited far north of Canada. As a consequence, the advantages of being on the "right side" of the earth are not as pronounced as they were some years ago. Still, there's a slight North American bias even today in your chance of seeing the Lights.
This said, the actual latitudes of the Lights vary considerably. In times of high solar activity (more on that later), the Lights may be seen in North America at latitudes as low as 35 degrees north, meaning that all but the southernmost parts of the United States may get a display. The offset of the Pole keeps solar storms from benefiting Europe quite as strongly, but most of the countries of northern Europe will get displays during periods of solar storms.
Planning to see the Northern Lights
There is no guarantee to see the Northern Lights, even if you are in the best areas. However, a bit of planning will radically increase your chances. In short, come between late September and late March!
What time of the year
Darkness is required. Most Northern Lights locations are found at high latitutes, meaning there is no darkness from mid-April until mid-August (even more in far northern locations like Svalbard). In this period of time, no Northern Lights can be observed.
In the most intense Northern Lights area (notably Alaska, Yukon, Iceland and Northern Scandinavia), the lights are observed from late August to mid April. However, from late September to late March, it is dark after 6pm, and one enjoys maximum chances.
On a yearly basis, the Lights are at their peak in September and March. The reasons for this trend aren't fully known, but it's definitely real, not just an artifact of the weather or other viewing conditions.
What time of day
The time between 6pm and 1 am is the most intense period of the day. The highest probability within this timespan is between 10 and 11pm. However, this is a guideline, and during the Polar night auroras can be observed as early as 4pm, and all through the night. In periods of strong activity, one can expect several flares starting at around 6pm, peaking around 10pm, and going on until 1pm.
In the longer term, auroral displays are correlated with an 11-year cycle in sunspot activity and other perturbations of the sun; the more restless the sun, the more aurorae. Unfortunately, 2006-7 corresponds to a minimum in solar activity, and therefore the number of Northern Lights-lit nights. However, at the most favorable latitudes, the Lights are still likely to be seen even at solar minimum; it's mainly at lower latitudes that they get scarce during the inactive times. The next maximum in solar activity will be in about 2013, with frequent Northern Lights displays likely for another two or three years after that, so you have plenty of time to plan a trip.
In addition to these more or less regular variations in frequency of the aurora, there are also less predictable, erratic displays resulting from solar storms. Some of these, particularly near solar-activity maximum, can lead to visible Northern Lights remarkably far south, if you're in an area with clear, transparent night skies. The "Alerts" section below will help you stay on top of solar activity and prepare for some viewing when a solar storm does occur.
Last but not least, don't forget the weather forecast — aurora occur very high up in the atmosphere, and if there are clouds in the way you will not see anything. In Northern Scandinavia, the weather is notably better towards the end of the Northern Lights season (February-March), than in the beginning. The weather is probably the most important succes factor in the areas under the Northern Lights oval, where there is visible Northern Lights up to 80% of all clear nights.
If you have the luxury of being able to travel into aurora-viewing territory on short notice, you can improve your chances of seeing something by being aware of "space weather," the things going on beyond the earth's atmosphere as a result of solar activity. A good site for this information is http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/ operated by the (US) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, precisely for the purpose of keeping up on space weather. (The commercial site http://www.spaceweather.com/ presents much of the same information in digested, more accessible form.)
The University of Alaska Fairbanks maintains an Aurora Alert website at http://www.gedds.alaska.edu/AuroraForecast/.
If a major solar storm develops that is forecast to have a good chance of producing Northern (and Southern) Lights, your time to respond will be measured in hours to a few days, rather than either minutes or weeks. The forecasts will usually include some indication of how far from the magnetic poles the activity is expected to extend. For purposes of travel planning, it's a good idea to plan conservatively and go to a locale somewhat closer to the pole than the maximum extent of the aurora; things don't always work out as forecast, and the Lights may be relatively weak and/or confined to the northern horizon if you're at the southern edge of the activity, either limitation possibly creating difficulties for you in viewing owing to light pollution.
Into the wilds
Taking good pictures of the Northern Lights is very difficult, since they're fast-moving, often faint and against a pitch-dark background, all of which befuddles consumer point-and-shoots. Here's what you need for a sporting chance:
- A camera that supports manual exposure (5 to 40 seconds).
- A fast lens (aperture f/2.8 or better)
- Fast film (800 ASA or better), or equivalent ISO setting on a digital camera
- A tripod to hold the long exposure
- Cable release or self-timer to trigger shots without stirring the camera
Northern Lights usually form 60mi/100km above the surface of the earth. This means that an eruption is visible over large tracts of land. In principle, all areas under the Northern Lights oval are good observation points. However, most of these areas are remote and inaccessible, suffering harsh climatic conditions. The mentioned locations provide some kind of infrastructure, like tours, observation points etc.
- Kangerlussuaq, Greenland: 99% Chance of visual between November to March. If Husky and snowmobile rides are intended, mid-late winter is recommended.
- Jukkasjärvi, Northern Sweden, is the site of the original Ice hotel, with excellent viewing infrastructure.
- Fairbanks, Alaska: famous for aurora viewing, with many tours and sites that cater to aurora sighting.
- Tromsø, Northern Norway, is an easily accessible location with numerous excursion.
- Skibotn, Northern Norway, enjoys an extremely dry climate, thus providing excellent chances.
- Reykjavik, Iceland, has many tours and places to go to for viewing the northern lights.
Okay, so how about the Southern Lights?
Aurorae happen in a circle/ellipse about the South Magnetic Pole just as they do about the north one, and the South Magnetic Pole is similarly offset from the geographic South Pole. Would-be observers of the Southern Lights or Aurora Australis benefit from the happy accident that the offset of the South Magnetic Pole is generally in the direction of Australia, although the Pole itself is still in Antarctica like the geographic one. Tasmania is therefore relatively favored for the Aurora Australis, and southern Australia gets more than its share of Lights relative to latitude. All of the considerations about maximizing your chances of seeing the Northern Lights apply equally to seeing the southern ones.