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North Macedonia

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North Macedonia

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Quick Facts
CapitalSkopje
Governmentparliamentary democracy
CurrencyMacedonian denar (MKD)
Areatotal: 25,333 sq km
water: 477 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
Population2,054,800
note: a Framework Agreement ratified by Macedonia on 16 November 2001 calls for a new census in 2002 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageMacedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%
ReligionMacedonian Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%

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International recognition of The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (F.Y.R.O.M.) independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995, and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, despite continued disagreement over F.Y.R.O.M.'s use of "Macedonia." F.Y.R.O.M.'s large Albanian minority, an ethnic Albanian armed insurgency in F.Y.R.O.M. in 2001, and the status of neighboring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension.


Geography

Mk-map.png
Map of Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Location 
Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates 
41 50 N, 22 00 E
Map references 
Europe
Area 
total: 25,333 sq km
water: 477 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries 
total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km
Coastline 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims 
none (landlocked)
Climate 
warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Terrain 
mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,753 m
Natural resources 
chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber, arable land
Land use 
arable land: 23.59%
permanent crops: 1.85%
other: 74.56% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
550 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
high seismic risks
Environment - current issues 
air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note 
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

People

Population 
2,054,800
note: a Framework Agreement ratified by Macedonia on 16 November 2001 calls for a new census in 2002 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 22.4% (male 239,638; female 221,446)
15-64 years: 67.2% (male 694,368; female 686,450)
65 years and over: 10.4% (male 94,214; female 118,684) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
0.41% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
13.35 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
7.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
-1.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
12.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 74.26 years
female: 76.68 years (2002 est.)
male: 72.01 years
Total fertility rate 
1.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
Ethnic groups 
Macedonian 66.6%, Albanian 22.7%, Turkish 4%, Roma 2.2%, Serb 2.1%, other 2.4% (1994)
Religions 
Macedonian Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%
Languages 
Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%
Literacy 
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republika Makedonija
abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M.
local short form: Makedonija
Government type 
parliamentary democracy
Capital 
Skopje
Administrative divisions 
123 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aracinovo, Bac, Belcista, Berovo, Bistrica, Bitola, Blatec, Bogdanci, Bogomila, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Cair (Skopje), Capari, Caska, Cegrane, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Delcevo, Delogozdi, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dobrusevo, Dolna Banjica, Dolneni, Dorce Petrov (Skopje), Drugovo, Dzepciste, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Izvor, Jegunovce, Kamenjane, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Klecevce, Kocani, Konce, Kondovo, Konopiste, Kosel, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kuklis, Kukurecani, Kumanovo, Labunista, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Lukovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovi Anovi, Meseista, Miravci, Mogila, Murtino, Negotino, Negotino-Polosko, Novaci, Novo Selo, Oblesevo, Ohrid, Orasac, Orizari, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Podares, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Rostusa, Samokov, Saraj, Sipkovica, Sopiste, Sopotnica, Srbinovo, Star Dojran, Staravina, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Topolcani, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Velesta, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vitoliste, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Vratnica, Vrutok, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zeleno, Zitose, Zletovo, Zrnovci
note: the seven municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute "greater Skopje"
Independence 
8 September 1991 referendum by registered voters endorsing independence (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday 
Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day and Ilinden
Constitution 
adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
note: the Macedonian Parliament approved November 2001 a series of new constitutional amendments, strengthening minority rights
Legal system 
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: President Boris TRAJKOVSKI (since 15 December 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 1 November 2002)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister elected by the Assembly; election last held NA October 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: Boris TRAJKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Boris TRAJKOVSKI 52.4%, Tito PETKOVSKI 46.2%; Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected prime minister by Parliament with 72% of the vote
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, PDP, and DPA
Legislative branch 
unicameral Assembly or Sobranje (120 seats - 85 members are elected by popular vote, 35 members come from lists of candidates submitted by parties based on the percentage that a party gains from the overall vote; all serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Together for Macedonia coalition 60, VMRO-DPMNE 33, Democratic Integrative Union 16, Democratic Party of Albanians 7, Party for Democratic Prosperity 2, National Democratic Party 1, Socialist Party of Macedonia 1
elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
Judicial branch 
Supreme Court - Parliament appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - Parliament appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - Parliament appoints the judges
Political parties and leaders 
Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic Integrative Union [leader NA]; Democratic Party of Albanians or DPA [Arben XHAFERI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Ljubcho GEORGIEVSKI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-True Macedonian Reform Option or VMRO-VMRO [Boris STOJMANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto GUSTERVO]; Liberal Party [leader NA]; National Democratic Party or MPDK [Kastriot HAXHISEXHA]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PDP [Imeri IMERI, president]; Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM (former Communist Party) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]; Together for Macedonia coalition (including the Social Democrats) [leader NA]; Union of Romanies of Macedonia or SRM [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
NA
International organization participation 
ACCT, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Nikola DIMITROV
chancery: Suite 302, 1101 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
consulate(s) general: New York
FAX: [1] (202) 337-3093
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3063
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Laurence Edward BUTLER
embassy: bul. Ilinden bb, 1000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] (02) 116-180
FAX: [389] (02) 117-103
Flag description 
a rising yellow sun with eight rays extending to the edges of the red field

Economy

Economy - overview 
At independence in November 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the center and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on Yugoslavia, one of its largest markets, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.6% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth recovered moderately in 2002 but unemployment at one-third of the workforce remained a critical problem.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $10 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
3.8% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 11%
industry: 31%
services: 58% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 
24% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
4% (2002 est.)
Labor force 
1.1 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation 
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate 
35% (2002 est.)
Budget 
revenues: $850 million
expenditures: $950 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Industries 
coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco, food processing, buses
Industrial production growth rate 
-5% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production 
6.395 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 82%
hydro: 18%
other: 0% (1999)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
5.992 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 
30 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 
75 million kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products 
rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton
Exports 
$1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities 
food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports - partners 
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 23.1%, Germany 20.6%, Greece 8.8%, Italy 8.6%, US 7.7% (2001)
Imports 
$1.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities 
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; food products
Imports - partners 
Germany 12.6%, Greece 10.9%, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 9.3%, Russia 8.3%, Slovenia 7.0% (2000)
Debt - external 
$1.3 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient 
$150 million (2001 est.)
Currency 
Macedonian denar (MKD)
Currency code 
MKD
Exchange rates 
Macedonian denars per US dollar - 64.757 (January 2001), 65.904 (2000), 56.902 (1999), 54.462 (1998), 50.004 (1997)
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
408,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
12,362 (1997)
Telephone system 
general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: NA
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 
410,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions 
510,000 (1997)
Internet country code 
.mk
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
6 (2000)
Internet users 
100,000 (2001)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified)
note: a 56-km extension of the Kumanovo-Beljakovce line to the Bulgarian border at Gyueshevo is under construction (2001)
Highways 
total: 8,684 km
paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,144 km (1997)
Waterways 
note: lake transport only, on the Greek and Albanian borders
Pipelines 
10 km
Ports and harbors 
none
Airports 
17 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Army (ARM), Air and Air Defense Forces, Police Force
Military manpower - military age 
19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 551,523 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 444,575 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
males: 17,905 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$200 million (FY01/02 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
6% (FY01/02 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
dispute with Greece over country's name persists; 2001 FYROM-Yugoslavia boundary delimitation agreement, which adjusts former republic boundaries, was signed and ratified and awaits demarcation; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo dispute legitimacy of the agreement, which cedes small tracts of Kosovo lands to FYROM
Illicit drugs 
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; while money laundering is a problem on a local level due to organized crime activities, the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center