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Difference between revisions of "North Korea"

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Earth : Asia : East Asia : North Korea
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{{warningbox|Some governments advise against all travel to North Korea due to the uncertain security situation caused by North Korea’s nuclear weapons development program and related tension. There are no resident Canadian or American diplomatic offices in the DPRK. The ability of officials to provide consular assistance is extremely limited. Sweden, through its Embassy in Pyongyang, is the "Protecting Power" for Canadian, American and Australian nationals if any emergency consular assistance is required, but such assistance will likely be very limited, due to the unpredictability of the actions of the government of the DPRK. Those planning to engage in activities that the North Korean government forbids must be prepared to face imprisonment, torture, and death (''22 Jan 2015'').
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|australia=http://smartraveller.gov.au/zw-cgi/view/Advice/North_Korea
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|canada=http://travel.gc.ca/destinations/korea-north-dprk
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|ireland=http://www.dfa.ie/travel/travel-advice/a-z-list-of-countries/democratic-republic-of-korea/
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|nz=http://www.safetravel.govt.nz/north-korea
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|sweden=http://www.swedenabroad.com/sv-SE/Ambassader/Pyongyang/Reseinformation/Reseinformation-Nordkorea/
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|uk=http://www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice/north-korea
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|us=http://travel.state.gov/content/passports/english/alertswarnings/north-korea-travel-warning.html
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}}<br clear="all" />
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{{warningbox| As of September 2017 Americans traveling on a US passport will not be permitted to travel to North Korea without special permission from the US State Department.
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https://travel.state.gov/content/travel/en/passports/requirements/passport-for-travel-to-north-korea.html}}
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{{warningbox| North Korea has temporarily '''frozen current tourist visa applications and suspended tourist visa issuance''' until September 9. Tourists who have already been issued visas, or whose tours are scheduled after September 9, should not be affected.
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https://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/north-korea-tourist-visa-freeze-tour-operators-cancel-holidays-a8492601.html}}
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{{quickbar
 
{{quickbar
| image=[[Image:Pyongyang.jpg|noframe|250px]]
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| image=Pyongyang.jpg
| location=[[Image:LocationNorthKorea.png|noframe|250px]]
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| caption=Pyongyang
| flag=[[Image:kn-flag.png]]
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| location=North Korea in its region.svg
| capital=[[Pyongyang|P'y&#335;ngyang]]
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| flag=Flag of North Korea.svg
| government=Totalitarian dictatorship
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| capital=[[Pyongyang]]
| currency=North Korean won (KPW)
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| government=Juche unitary state, necrocracy
| area=120,540 km<sup>2</sup>
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| currency=North Korean won (₩, KPW)<br>Chinese renminbi (CNY)<br>Euro (€)<br>US dollar (USD)<br> ''(The renminbi, euro, and US dollar are commonly used on the black market, and often reserved for foreigners)
| population=23,113,019 (July 2006 est.)
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| area=120,540km²
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| population=24,895,000 (2013 census)
 
| language=[[Korean]]
 
| language=[[Korean]]
| religion=Atheist. Traditionally Buddhist and Confucianist, some Christian and syncretic Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way) ''Note: autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent; government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of religious freedom''
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| religion=State atheism; Cheondoism, Buddhism, and Christianity are practised by a very small minority, but this is illegal.
 
| tld=.kp
 
| tld=.kp
| electricity=220V/60Hz (European plug)
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| electricity=220V, 60Hz (European plug)
| timezone=UTC +9
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| timezone=UTC +8:30
| callingcode=+850
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| callingcode=850
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| emergencies= dial '''119''' or '''112''' from a mobile (only some operators speak English)
 
}}
 
}}
  
'''North Korea''' (officially '''Democratic People's Republic of Korea''' or '''DPRK''') [http://www.korea-dpr.com] is a country in [[East Asia]]. It occupies the northern half of the Korean Peninsula that lies between Korea Bay and the East Sea, also called the Sea of [[Japan]]. It borders [[China]] to the north, [[Russia]] to the northeast and [[South Korea]] to the south.
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[http://korea-dpr.com '''North Korea'''] (officially the '''Democratic People's Republic of Korea''' or '''DPRK''') is a country in [[East Asia]] occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula that lies between Korea Bay and the East Sea. It borders [[China]] to the north, [[Russia]] to the north east and [[South Korea]] to the south.
  
Tourist travel to North Korea is only possible as part of a guided tour. Independent travel is not permitted.  If you are not prepared to accept limitations on your movements and behavior, you should not travel to the DPRK at the present time.  On the other hand, travel in the DPRK is, if nothing else, a unique experience.
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Tourist travel to North Korea is only possible as part of a guided tour. Independent travel is not permitted.  If you are not prepared to accept severe limitations on your movements, behaviour, and freedom of expression, you should not travel to North Korea.
  
 
==Understand==
 
==Understand==
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:''" In the past, I've visited remote places - North Korea, Ethiopia, Easter Island - partly as a way to visit remote states of mind: remote parts of myself that I wouldn't ordinarily explore."'' <small>&mdash; Pico Iyer</small>
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===History===
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====Prehistory and founding of a nation====
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Archaeological finds of prehistoric toolmaking on the Korean Peninsula date back to 70,000 BC with the first pottery found around 8000 BC. Neolithic era comb-pattern pottery culture peaked around 3500-2000BC.
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Legend has it that Korea began with the founding of Gojoseon (also called ''Ancient Chosun'') by the legendary Dangun in 2333 BC.  Archaeological and contemporaneous written records of Gojoseon as a kingdom date back to around 7th-4th century BC, functioning as a loose confederation of smaller polities. The western half fell to the encroaching Han Dynasty of China and its territories were governed by remote outposts, but was a tenuous foothold and the natives of the peninsula and Manchuria soon reclaimed the territory, namely the Three Kingdoms of Korea, Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje. The '''Goguryeo Kingdom''' (or Koguryo) ruled the entire area of modern North Korea, as well as parts of Manchuria and the northern parts of modern South Korea. Buddhist and Confucian teachings were prominent in the Goguryeo Kingdom, which adopted Buddhism as the state religion in 372.  Despite repeated attempts by China, namely the Sui Dynasty and later the Tang Dynasty, to conquer the Korean Peninsula, northern-based Goguryeo managed to repel them. Eventually, Goguryeo fell to a Silla-Tang alliance, which had earlier defeated Baekje. This "unified" Korea under the Silla dynasty, however true political and cultural unification would be achieved by the Goryeo dynasty after absorbing Goguryeo remnants (Balhae) in 926. Even though Tang later invaded, Silla forces managed to drive them out, thus maintaining Korea's independence.
  
===History===
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Buddhist learning spread during this time and the former Baekje and Goguryeo leaders were treated well under the Silla. The kingdom saw relative peace until the 8th and 9th centuries when, ironically, Goguryeo revivalists led uprisings and toppled the Silla, establishing the Goryeo (also called ''Koryo'') dynasty, from which the name "Korea" was derived by Westerners. One highlight of the Goryeo dynasty was that in 1234 the world's first metal movable type was invented by a Korean named Choe Yun-ui (200 years before Gutenberg's printing press). During this period, the nation suffered Mongol invasions, which led to unrest and the eventual establishment of the Joseon Dynasty in 1389.
In 1910, Korea was annexed by Japan. An exploitative and brutal Japanese occupation lasted until 1945 when Japan was defeated by the Allied Forces ending World War II in the Pacific. Based on an agreement between the Allies, the Korean peninsula was divided along the 38th parallel to facilitate the surrender of Japanese forces.  The Soviet Union and the United States occupied the northern half and southern half respectively. Unfortunately the two states disagreed over the form an election for a unified Korea should take, and before long both sides created their own governments. The Soviet Union fostered a communist northern half under Kim Il Sung and the United States fostered a western-leaning southern half under Rhee Syngman. In June, 1950, a civil war erupted on the Korean peninsula when the North invaded the South and a United Nations force led by the United States entered the war on the South Korean side.
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====Joseon Dynasty====
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The Joseon Dynasty was one of the longest running dynasties in the world, ruling from 1389 until 1910. It was during the early part of the Joseon dynasty that Korean technological inventions such as the world's first water clock, ironclad ship, and other innovations took place. '''King Sejong the Great''''s rule was especially celebrated, as he helped create the Korean script, ''choson'gul'', which allowed even the commoners to become literate. He also expanded the nation's military power to drive out Japanese pirates and northern nomads and regain territories that had been lost. Korean culture developed rapidly and flourished during the Joseon Dynasty until it was attacked by the Japanese in the 16th century and then attacked twice by China, which resulted in severed relations with [[Japan]] and Korea becoming a Chinese tributary state. In spite of its losses, the nation experienced about 200 years of peace, and its isolationist policies allowed it to further develop a uniquely Korean culture and identity.
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Rapid modernization stirred by the Second Industrial Revolution created tension between China and Japan as they felt the pressures of Western expansionism, each wanting to extend their influence over Korea. This eventually led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894, which took place on the Korean Peninsula, devastating the Joseon. Then in 1905, Japan defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, making Korea a protectorate until they were finally able to annex Korea in 1910.
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====Japanese occupation and a divided Korea====
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The Japanese exercised rule of the peninsula until their defeat in World War II in 1945. Japan was forced to surrender the territory and the Allied Powers divided the nation at the 38th Parallel, with the Soviet Union occupying the northern half and the United States occupying the southern half. The divide was supposed to be temporary, however, the political struggle between the two nations to gain influence over the unified Korea led each to establish governments within their newly created territories. North Korea  was established as its own nation in 1948, following the Soviet Communist model, with Kim Il-Sung as its leader.
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Conflicts between the North and South were common in the early years and the tension came to a head in 1950 when North Korea launched an invasion of South Korea, starting the '''Korean War'''. The South was backed by the United States and the United Nations. The North was backed by the Soviet Union, and China later. The US/UN effort was able to drive North Korea all the way up near the Chinese border, then the Chinese sent in their army and the war continued. After 2.5 million Koreans killed or wounded, an armistice was signed in 1953, maintaining the original borders set prior to the war. Because no treaty has been signed since the armistice, the nations are officially still at war.
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====Modern North Korea====
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With the nation in a shambles after the war, Kim Il-Sung launched a campaign to unite the people by defaming the [[United States]] with Soviet support and purging the nation of dissidents and anyone thought to oppose the revolution. He sided with China during the Sino-Soviet Split on Communist philosophy because he disliked Krushchev's reforms. He began to praise the Soviet Union once again when China underwent its Cultural Revolution, straining relations with both neighbours. Consequently, he developed his own ideology, '''Juche''' (self-reliance), to create the sort of Socialism he wanted for his nation. Throughout his life he added to and altered the Juche ideology in order to justify his governing decisions.  
  
After nearly being driven out of Korea, on September 15-16th, 1950, Gen. Douglas MacArthur led a daring amphibious landing of the UN forces at [[Incheon|Inchon]], just west of Seoul, that dramatically turned the tables. The North was on the verge of defeat with scattered UN forces actually reaching the Yalu River border with China. But then massive Chinese forces secretly entered North Korea and launched a counterattack that pushed the UN forces back south of Seoul. The battles raged back and forth across the 38th parallel for almost three more yearsIn the end, little was accomplished except the death of over three million people, the vast majority Koreans.  An armistice was finally agreed to in 1953 by China, North Korea and the UN forces, with South Korea refusing to sign, therefore leaving no settlement. Korea remains divided after over 60 years with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, and the Republic of Korea in the south. Kim Il-Sung ruled as dictator until his death in 1994, and his son Kim Jong-Il has ruled North Korea ever since.
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The Korean War not only divided the people, but it also divided the labour force. When the peninsula was united, North Korea had most of the nation's industries while South Korea was the agricultural centre. This divide allowed North Korea to initially bounce back faster than the South in the rebuilding process. The Soviet Union then funded agricultural efforts in the North, in accordance with the Socialist model. This system began to unravel in the late 1970s and 1980s as the Soviet system began to falterWith the end of Soviet aid in 1991 it became impossible to continue to supply sufficient fuel, fertilizer and equipment. After so many years of government mismanagement and severe floods, the North's agricultural system collapsed in the mid-1990s leading to widespread famine and death for countless North Koreans. Kim Il-Sung died in 1994 while the nation tried to deal with the crisis, slowing government response as the new leader Kim Jong-Il inherited his father's position.
  
The entire Korean peninsula had been economically devastated during the Korean War, but the North, which had been the industrial half of the country while the South had been the agricultural half, rapidly rebuilt its industry and took an early economic lead over the SouthIn line with central planning theory the North developed its own agriculture using collectivization, machinery and fertilizers relying heavily on support from the Soviet Union.  This system began to unravel in the late 1970s and 1980s as the Soviet system began to falter.  With the end of Soviet aid in 1991 there was no way to continue to support the agricultural systems need for fuel, fertilizer and equipment. After so many years of government mismanagement, and the bad timing of severe flooding, the North's agricultural system collapsed in the mid-1990s leading to widespread famine and death for countless North Koreans. The North finally allowed international relief agencies to assist and the worst aspects of the famine were contained.  However the DPRK continues to rely heavily on international food aid to feed its population while at the same time continuing to expend resources on its "songun", or "military first" policy based on a perceived threat by the United States.
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The North finally asked international relief agencies to assist and the worst aspects of the famine were contained.
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Today the DPRK maintains an army of about one million men, most stationed within a few miles of the DMZ which divides the two Koreas.  North Korea's long-range missile development and research into nuclear weapons and massive conventional armed forces are of major concern to the international community. In December 2002, Kim Jong-Il reneged on a 1994 "Agreed Framework" signed by his father which required the shut down of its nuclear reactors, expelling UN monitors and further raising fears that the nation would produce nuclear weapons. Missile testing was conducted in 1998, 2006, April 2009 and most recently May 2013. In October 2006 North Korea announced that it had conducted its first nuclear test. These actions have led to UN and other international sanctions.
  
Today the DPRK maintains an army of about 1 million men, most stationed within a few miles of the DMZ which divides the two Koreas.  North Korea's long-range missile development and research into nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and massive conventional armed forces are of major concern to the international community. In December 2002, North Korea reneged on a 1994 "Agreed Framework" which required the shut down of its nuclear reactors, expelling UN monitors and further raising fears that the nation would produce nuclear weapons. Missile testing was conducted in 1998,2006, and most recently April 2009. In October 2006 North Korea announced that it had conducted its first nuclear test. These actions have led to UN, and other international sanctions.
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Current negotiations, most notably the "Six-Party Talks" involving China, Russia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and the United States, are aimed at bringing about an end to the DPRK nuclear weapons program, in hopes that a peace treaty to officially end the Korean War may finally be agreed upon, paving the way for the opening of diplomatic ties between North Korea and the United States. Unfortunately, in March 2010, a South Korean ship was sunk near the 38th parallel, increasing tensions between North and South Korea. Although North Korea claims not to have attacked the ship, the blame has largely been placed on North Korea.
  
Current negotiations, most notably the "Six-Party Talks" involving China, Russia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and the United States, are aimed at bringing about an end to the DPRK nuclear weapons program, in hopes that a peace treaty to officially end the Korean War may finally be agreed upon, paving the way for the opening of diplomatic ties between North Korea and the United States.
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The death of Kim Jong-Il on 17 Dec 2011 has created many feelings of uncertainty as the world waits to see how the transfer of power will affect the nation. North Korea has also developed miltary armored vehicles since the war such as the Pokpung-ho (Storm Tiger) (M-2002), the Type 85 (YW531H), and the Chonma-ho (Pegasus)(most of which were made and developed by North Korea after the Soviet Union fell)
  
 
===People===
 
===People===
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In North Korea, the vast majority of people are Korean. Because of the lack of immigration, North Korea is one of the most ethnically homogeneous nations on earth. At any one time, there are a few hundred foreigners to be found; however, most of them are tourists.
  
In North Korea, the vast majority of people are Korean. There are also a few hundred foreigners to be found, however, most of them are fellow tourists. Because of the lack of immigration, North Korea is one of the most ethnically homogeneous nations on earth.
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===Climate===
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The climate is generally classed as continental, with rainfall concentrated in summer. Summer months are warm, but winter temperatures can fall as low as -30 degrees C. Late spring droughts are often followed by severe flooding. There are occasional typhoons during the early Autumn.
  
===Climate===
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===Terrain===
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Mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys. The coastal plains are wide in the West; discontinuous in east. The mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated.
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===Read===
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'''The Real North Korea''', Dr Andrei Lankov. Brilliant summary of the history and politics of North Korea from a level-headed Russian academic who has spent time on the ground in North Korea as an exchange student during the 1980s.
  
The climate is temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer. Late spring droughts are often followed by severe flooding. There are occasional typhoons during the early fall.
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'''A Capitalist in North Korea''', Felix Abt. Excellent account by a Swiss businessman who lived and worked in Pyongyang for a decade during the 2000s.
  
===Terrain===
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''Eyes of the Tailless Animals'': Prison Memoirs of a North Korean Woman by Soon Ok Lee.
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First-hand accounts of the prison system within North Korea
  
Mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east. Mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated.
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''The Aquariums of Pyongyang'', by Kang Chol-Hwan and Pierre Rigoulot: An account of the imprisonment of Kang Chol-Hwan and his family in the Yodok concentration camp in North Korea.
  
 
==Regions==
 
==Regions==
[[Image:North_Korea_Regions_Map.png|thumb|right|450px|Map of North Korea with regions colour-coded]]
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[[Image:North_Korea_Regions_Map.png|thumb|right|upright=2.2|Map of North Korea with regions colour-coded]]
 
{{Regionlist
 
{{Regionlist
  
 
| region1name=[[Donghae Coast]]   
 
| region1name=[[Donghae Coast]]   
 
| region1color=#86B9DB
 
| region1color=#86B9DB
| region1items=North Hamgyong, South Hamgyong, Kangwong, K&#365;mgang-san
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| region1items=North Hamgyong, South Hamgyong, Kangwon, K&#365;mgang-san
 
| region1description=  
 
| region1description=  
  
Line 61: Line 109:
 
| region3name=[[Pyongan]]  
 
| region3name=[[Pyongan]]  
 
| region3color=#6DA0A6
 
| region3color=#6DA0A6
| region3items=North P'yongan, South P'yongan, Pyonyang, Shinuiju
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| region3items=[[ North Pyongan Province|North P'yongan]], [[South Pyongan Province|South P'yongan]], [[Pyongyang]], Shinuiju
 
| region3description=  
 
| region3description=  
  
 
| region4name=[[Hwanghae]]  
 
| region4name=[[Hwanghae]]  
 
| region4color=#D5A664
 
| region4color=#D5A664
| region4items=North Hwanghae, South Hwanghae, Kaesong
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| region4items=[[North Hwanghae Province|North Hwanghae]], South Hwanghae, [[Kaesong]]
 
| region4description=
 
| region4description=
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
==Cities==
 
==Cities==
 
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* [[Pyongyang]] the capital city and the former capital of Goguryeo during the Three Kingdoms period
* [[Pyongyang|P'y&#335;ngyang]] - the capital city and the former capital of Goguryeo during the Three Kingdoms period
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* [[Hamhung]] — North Korea's second largest city
* [[Chongjin]] - Industrial city in the North East, very rarely visited by tourists
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* [[Chongjin]] Industrial city in the North East, very rarely visited by tourists
* [[Kaesong]] - former capital during the Goryeo dynasty
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* [[Kaesong]] former capital during the Goryeo dynasty
* [[Wonsan]] - East coast port city rarely visited by tourists
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* [[Wonsan]] East coast port city slowly opening to tourists
* [[Nampo]] - industrial centre and port city on the western coast
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* [[Nampho]] industrial centre and port city on the western coast
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* [[Rason SEZ]] - special economic zone that borders Russia and China
  
 
==Other destinations==
 
==Other destinations==
* [[Kumgangsan]] &mdash; the scenic Diamond Mountains, accessible on tours from the South
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* [[Chilbosan]] - the Seven Treasures Mountain with surreal rock formations accessible via car from Rason SEZ or plane from Pyongyang
* [[Myohyangsan]] &mdash; the Mysterious Fragrant Mountain is one of the North's best hiking spots
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* [[Kumgangsan]] the scenic Diamond Mountains, accessible on tours from the South
* [[Paektusan]] &mdash; the tallest mountain in Korea and the Kim dynasty's mythical birthplace
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* [[Myohyangsan]] the Mysterious Fragrant Mountain is one of the North's best hiking spots
* [[Panmunjom]] &mdash; the last outpost of the Cold War in the DMZ between South and North
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* [[Paektusan]] the tallest mountain in Korea and the Kim dynasty's mythical birthplace
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* [[Panmunjom]] the last outpost of the Cold War in the DMZ between South and North
  
 
==Get in==
 
==Get in==
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Visiting North Korea can be challenging, and you will not have the freedom to explore the country without a North Korean escort, either as part of a group or individual tour.
  
[[Image:NorthKorea KijongDong.JPG|thumb|240px|Kijong-dong village, in the DMZ near [[Panmunjeom|Panmunjom]]]]
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Citizens of South Korea are normally not permitted to visit North Korea. In addition, there have been reports of difficulties regarding [[Israel|Israeli]], [[United States|American]] and [[Japan|Japanese]] nationals. In January 2010, North Korea lifted the restrictions on American citizens who are now free to visit at any time of the year - but they are not allowed to travel by train (especially the train to Beijing) or to participate in homestay-programs. Contrary to rumour, Israelis and Jewish citizens of other countries do not face any additional restrictions. Citizens of all countries will need a visa, which will only be issued after your tour has been booked, approved by the North Korean authorities and paid for. Journalists (or those suspected of being journalists) require special permission, which is quite difficult to obtain. The North Koreans do not allow journalists to visit the country on tourist visas. A specialist North Korean travel agency can help you sort out the complex and ever-changing regulations. North Korea will rarely in practice refuse a visa to a tourist who meets the various requirements.
  
Visiting North Korea can be challenging, and you will not have the freedom to explore the country without a North Korean escort, either as part of a group or individual tour. There are those who have called for a boycott on tourism to North Korea, due to human rights abuses in the country or how tourism may help finance the government. There is no official free enterprise activity in North Korea, and all tourist facilities are state-owned so the money goes directly to the government of North Korea. Others cite the possible benefits of Westerners engaging with North Korean citizens, particularly in a positive, friendly manner (''i.e.'', contrary to the stereotypes of Westerners presented by internal propaganda).  Regardless of political beliefs, North Korea is generally acknowledged to be a unique place to visit. The traveller must make his or her own mind up about the rights and wrongs of visiting the country.
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Tourists often arranged a tourist visa through booking a tour with the travel agencies that organise such tours. The travel agencies will usually deal with the visa on their behalf, although in some cases tourists are required to have a short telephone interview with the North Korean embassy in order to verify their identity and their job. In most cases the interviews are conducted in a friendly matter so it is nothing to be worried about. Visas are often only confirmed on the day before the tour, but rarely will a tourist ever get rejected (unless you show that you are of political status or being a journalist).
  
Citizens of [[South Korea]] are normally not permitted to visit North Korea except the special tourism zone in Kumgang and now on tours to Kaesong. In addition, there have been reports of difficulties regarding Israeli, American, British and Japanese nationals. Americans, in particular, are not normally allowed to visit North Korea, with the exception of during the Arirang Mass Games. Contrary to rumor, Israelis and Jewish citizens of other countries do not face any additional restrictions. Citizens of all other countries will need a visa, which will only be issued after your tour has been booked, approved by the North Korean authorities and paid for. Journalists (or those suspected of being journalists) require special permission, which is quite difficult to obtain.  The North Koreans do not allow journalists to visit the country on tourist visas.  A specialist North Korean travel agency can help you sort out the complex and ever-changing regulations.  North Korea will rarely in practice refuse a visa to a tourist who meets the various requirements.
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North Korean tourists visas are often issued on a tourist card. If joining a tour group, group visas are often issued on separate sheets of papers containing all the members of the group, attached with a tourist card that bear the name of the tour leader. This visa is never held by the tourists, although tourists can ask to take a photo of the visa themselves. In both case, no stamp will be put onto the passport. The only way where a visa and entrance stamp will be put on the passport is when the visa is issued in European embassies, which is very rare for tourists to visit North Korea as most travel agencies operate tours out of China (and hence only arranged the visa in China.) With prior notice via your tour operator, tourist visas can be obtained on the same day (around a 20 minute wait) for GBP20 at the DPRK Embassy in London. Groups such as Choson Exchange, which bring participants to teach entrepreneurship and business, receive an official visa instead of a tourist visa.
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[[Image:NorthKorea KijongDong.JPG|thumb|upright=1.3|Kijong-dong village, in the DMZ near [[Panmunjeom|Panmunjom]]]]
  
 
===Tours===
 
===Tours===
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North Korea can be visited by an organised tour or as a volunteer with an educational organization such as Choson Exchange. Prices start from around USD1,000/€900/GBP770 for a 5-day group tour including accommodation, meals and transport from Beijing, but can go up considerably if you want to travel around the country or "independently" (as your own one-person escorted group). Tour operators/travel agencies that organise their own tours to North Korea include:
  
North Korea can only be visited by an organized tour, but this can be a large group or a party of one.  Prices start from around $600/&euro;560 for a 5-day group tour including accommodation, meals and transport from Beijing, but can go up considerably if you want to travel around the country or "independently" (as your own one-person escorted group). Tour operators/travel agencies that organize their own tours to North Korea include:
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<!-- alphabetical order, absolutely no resellers or other links elsewhere. Listings that have out-of-date websites will be deleted unless other evidence of operation is provided on this article's discussion page -->
  
<!-- alphabetical order, absolutely no resellers or other links elsewhere -->
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* [http://adventurekorea.com/ Adventure Korea] - Seoul
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*[http://chosonexchange. org Choson Exchange] - Not a tour operator but a non-profit bringing volunteers to teach business and entrepreneurship in North Korea
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*[http://uritours.com Uri Tours Inc.] - NYC, US - Largest American provider of North Korea travel and tours; exclusive ticketing agent for Air Koryo in the Americas; specializes in soft adventure and cultural tours
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* [http://travelmasters.com.au/north-korea/ Travel Masters] - Queensland, Australia
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*[http://ddcts.com/english.htm DDCTS] - Dandong
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*[http://juchetravelservices.com/ Juche Travel Services] - UK, Beijing
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*[http://koreakonsult.com/ Korea Konsult] - Stockholm
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*[http://nordkoreareisen.de/ Korea Reisedienst] - Hannover
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*[http://koryogroup.com Koryo Tours and Koryo Group] - Beijing, Shanghai, Belgium, UK - offers a variety of itineraries; the company also organises school visits and sports exchanges and has co-produced 3 documentary films about North Korea
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*[http://krahun.com/ Krahun Co.] - Rason SEZ, Yanji. The only travel & consulting company based in DPRK that's wholly owned and operated by North Americans since 1999.
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*[http://lupinetravel.co.uk Lupine Travel] - Wigan, UK.
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*[http://noordkorea2go.nl NoordKorea2GO] - Amsterdam
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*[http://regent-holidays.co.uk/country/north-korea-holidays/ Regent Holidays] - Both group and tailor made tours to the DPRK since 1985.
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*[http://coreanorte.com Viatges Pujol] - Barcelona, Spain. Travel agency for North Korea custom private tours and groups.
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*[https://north-korea-travel.com KTG] - Shenyang, China - arranges trips at budget rates and group sizes are small
 +
*[http://asiaholidays.info/ Asia Holidays] - Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: travel agency of tour operator Phoenix Voyages operating in DPRK with offices in South-east Asia.
 +
*[http://www.pyongyang-travel.com Pyongyang Travel] - Berlin, Germany - Travel Agency for Travel to North Korea. Pyongyang Travel is your partner for travel and holidays in North Korea.
 +
*[http://visitthedprk.org Visit North Korea]- UK/Shenzhen- Organises high quality educational orientated travel, as well as study tours and other cultural orientated activities.
  
* Adventure Korea [http://www.adventurekorea.com/] - Seoul
+
*[http://www.tongiltours.com Tongil Tours] - Canberra/Sydney - organizes group tours, custom private tours and study tours as well as academic and cultural exchanges, guides all speak Korean and have academic backgrounds in Korean Studies.
* Asia Pacific Travel, Ltd. [http://www.northkorea1on1.com/] - Chicago
+
*[http://youngpioneertours.com Young Pioneer Tours] - Xi'an, Beijing, UK, USA - budget tours starting from €445 for a 3-day, 2-night round trip train to Pyongyang from Dandong
* Explore North Korea Tour Group [http://www.explorenorthkorea.com] - Dandong, New York
+
*[https://asiasenses.com/destination/north-korea Asia Senses Travel & Tours] - Hanoi, Vietnam - Directly contact with North Korea Travel company. Asia Senses offers private tours, group shared tours as well as study and cultural exchange tours.
* DPRK Travel [http://www.dprktravel.com/] - Toronto, Beijing
 
* Geographic Expeditions [http://www.geoex.com/adventure-travel/north-korea/tours.asp] - San Francisco
 
* Koningaap [http://koningaap.nl/azie/noord-korea] - Amsterdam
 
* Korea Konsult [http://www.koreakonsult.com/] - Stockholm
 
* Korea Reisedienst [http://www.nordkoreareisen.de/] - Hannover
 
* Koryo Group [http://www.koryogroup.com] - Beijing
 
* North Korea Travel [http://www.north-korea-travel.com] - Hong Kong
 
* Regent Holidays [http://www.regent-holidays.co.uk/nkoreaitin.html] - Bristol
 
* Universal Travel Corporation [http://www.universaltravel.com.sg] - Singapore
 
* VNC Asia Travel [http://www.vnc.nl/zoeken/reizen/land:Noord-Korea] - Utrecht
 
  
Most people travelling to North Korea will travel through [[Beijing]] and you will probably pick up your visa from there (some agents arrange their visas elsewhere beforehand though). The North Korean consulate building is separate from the main embassy building at Ritan Lu, and can be found round the corner at Fangcaodi Xijie. It is open on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 0930-1130 and 1400-1730, and on all other days except Sundays from 0930-1130. Bring your travel permission, US$45 and two passport photos.  
+
No matter which company you decide to book with, all tours are hosted on the ground by one of the DPRK's state owned travel companies such as the Korean International Travel Company (the oldest and largest), Korea International Youth and Children's Travel Company, or Korea Sporting Travel Company and it will be their guides who show you around. The average number of tourists per group each company takes will vary considerably so you may want to ask about this before booking a trip.
  
Your guides will take your passport and keep it during your stay in North Korea, or at least for the first couple of days of your tour, for "security reasons". Make sure your passport looks decent and doesn't differ from the most common passports from your country.
+
Most people travelling to North Korea will travel through [[Beijing]] and you will probably pick up your visa from there (some agents arrange their visas elsewhere beforehand though). The North Korean consulate building is separate from the main embassy building at Ritan Lu, and can be found round the corner at Fangcaodi Xijie. It's open  M/W/F; 09:30-11:30 plus 14:00-17:30 and Tu/Th/Sa only 09:30-11:30. Bring your travel permission, USD45 and two passport photos. You can also enter DPRK through Rason SEZ or Namyang via Yanji, China, or Dumangang City via Khasan, Russia.
 +
 
 +
Your guides will take your passport and keep it during your stay in North Korea, or at least for the first couple of days of your tour, for "security reasons" (or simply because your entry and exit dates must be registered - the black stamps on the back of your visa or passport). Make sure your passport looks decent and doesn't differ from the most common passports from your country.
  
 
===Visa-free entry from South Korea===
 
===Visa-free entry from South Korea===
 
There is one place in North Korea that can be visited without needing any kind of North Korean visa:
 
There is one place in North Korea that can be visited without needing any kind of North Korean visa:
 +
*[[Panmunjom|Joint Security Area]] (often called by the misnomer Panmunjom), the jointly controlled truce village in the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) dividing the two Koreas, has regular one-day bus tours from Seoul for a list of restricted nationalities [[Panmunjom| - see Panmunjom article for details]].
  
* [[Panmunjom]] (''Panmunjeom''), the jointly controlled truce village in the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) dividing the two Koreas, has regular one-day bus tours from Seoul.
+
<small>{Until 2009, visa-free - actually, special group visa - tours were possible to two other places in North Korea — however, all travel from the ROK to these DPRK locations has been terminated as a result of the 2008 killing of South Korean tourist Park Wang Ja by a DPRK soldier in 2008. (All assets held by the former South Korean operators of these tourist facilities in the North were seized by the DPRK régime in 2011.)
  
Until 2009, visa-free (or, rather, special group visa) tours were possible to two other places in North Korea &mdash; however, at time of writing, these have been suspended until further notice.
+
The two tours, that have been suspended until further notice, were:
 +
* [[Kaesong]] (''Gaeseong'') - was open to day-long group bus tours from Seoul organized by Hyundai Asan.
 +
*[[Kumgangsan]] (''Geumgangsan'') - was accessible by group bus tours from South Korea organized by Hyundai Asan. There were daily buses from Seoul to Hwajinpo, the marshalling area for tourists, who then went by special buses through the DMZ to Kumgang.  Tours were normally 2 days and 1 night, or more appropriately for foreign travellers, 3 days and 2 nights.)
  
* [[Kaesong]] (''Gaeseong''), open to day-long group bus tours from Seoul organized by Hyundai Asan.
+
Both locations were accessible to Americans, South Koreans, and most other nationalities}</small>
* [[Kumgangsan]] (''Geumgangsan''), accessible by group bus tours from South Korea organized by Hyundai Asan. There are daily buses from Seoul to Hwajinpo, the marshaling area for tourists, who then go by special buses through the DMZ to Kumgang.  Tours are normally 2 days-1 night, or more appropriately for foreign travelers, 3 days-2 nights.
 
  
All three locations are (were) accessible to Americans, South Koreans, and most other nationalities, although a different list of restricted nationalities applies for [[Panmunjom]] (see article).
+
Hyundai Asan was planning to open up tours to [[Paektusan]] (''Baekdusan''), called ''Changbaishan'' on the Chinese side of the border, involving a charter flight from Seoul to Samjiyeon near Mt. Paektu, with the rest of the tour by bus and on foot. These never materialised though, so your options are to visit the Chinese side of the mountain (no special permits required) or add it as an expensive add-on to a standard North Korea tour.
 
 
Hyundai Asan was planning to open up tours to [[Paektusan]] (''Baekdusan''), called ''Changbaishan'' on the Chinese side of the border, involving a charter flights from Seoul to Samjiyeon near Mt. Paektu, with the rest of the tour by bus and on foot.   These never materialized though, so for time being, your options are to visit the Chinese side of the mountain (no special permits required) or add it as an expensive add-on to a standard North Korea tour.
 
  
 
===By plane===
 
===By plane===
 +
North Korea's sole airline, [http://www.airkoryo.com.kp/en Air Koryo], currently has scheduled flights from Beijing, which depart at 11:30 every Tuesday and Saturday, and return from Pyongyang at 09:00 on the same days.  These flights are often supplemented with additional charter flights to suit demand.  Air Koryo also flies to and from [[Shenyang]] every Wednesday and Saturday, from [[Vladivostok]] every Tuesday morning, and from [[Kuala Lumpur]] every Sunday.
  
North Korea's sole airline, '''Air Koryo''' [http://www.korea-dpr.com/airkoryo.htm], currently has scheduled flights from [[Beijing]], which depart at 11:30 every Tuesday and Saturday, and return from Pyongyang at 09:00 on the same days.  Air Koryo also flies to and from [[Shenyang]] in Northeast China every Wednesday and Saturday, and to [[Vladivostok]] every Tuesday morning.
+
Air Koryo is the only ''one'' star airline on [http://www.airlinequality.com/Forum/koryo.htm Skytrax's list].  To date, Air Koryo has only had one incident resulting in death, in Africa in 1983. The Air Koryo fleet consists largely of Soviet-made aircraft built between 1965 and 1990.  However, most Soviet-era aircraft are restricted to operating domestic flights only.  Currently, a small fleet of modern (less than 10 years old) Tupolev Tu-204 and Antonov An-148 jets handle international routes. Domestically, you'll most likely end up on one of their four Ilyushin IL-62-Ms (1979-1988 vintage), but Air Koryo also flies Tu-154s dating back to the seventies and Tu-134s from 1983.
  
Air Koryo is the only 1-star (worst) airline on Skytrax's list [http://www.airlinequality.com/StarRanking/1star.htm] and has been banned in the EU due to concerns over safety. However, to date, Air Koryo has only had one incident resulting in death. The Air Koryo fleet consists largely of Soviet-made aircraft built between 1965 and 1990, plus the pride of their fleet, a 2008 Tupolev Tu-204, which now usually handles the core Beijing–Pyongyang route. Otherwise, you'll most likely end up on one of their four Ilyushin IL-62-Ms (1979-1988 vintage), but Air Koryo also flies Tu-154s dating back to the seventies and Tu-134s from 1983.
+
The only other airline with scheduled service to North Korea is '''Air China''', a member of the Star Alliance, which flies three times weekly from Beijing to Pyongyang. Neither Aeroflot nor China Southern continue to fly to North Korea.
  
The only other airline with scheduled service to North Korea is Air China, which flies three times weekly from Beijing to Pyongyang. Neither Aeroflot nor China Southern continue to fly to North Korea.
+
===By train===
 +
Train K27/K28 connect Pyongyang to Beijing in China via [[Tianjin]], [[Tangshan]], [[Beidaihe]], [[Shanhaiguan]], [[Jinzhou]], [[Shenyang]], [[Benxi]], [[Fenghuangcheng]], [[Dandong]] and [[Shinuiju]] four times a week. There is only one class on the international train between Beijing and Pyongyang: soft sleeper. It can be booked at the station in Beijing, but reservations must be made several days in advance. Your tour agency will usually do this for you, unless you are travelling on work purposes. It has been increasingly difficult to book space on the Beijing–Pyongyang route, so confirm your tickets well in advance.
  
===By train===
+
Once a week train K27/K28 also conveys direct sleeping cars from [[Moscow]] via China to [[Pyongyang]] and vice versa. The route is [[Moscow]] - [[Novosibirsk]] - [[Irkutsk]] - [[Chita]] - [[Harbin]] - Shenyang - Dandong - [[Shinuiju]] - Pyongyang. Departure from Moscow is every Friday evening, arrival at Pyongyang is one week later on Friday evening. Departure from Pyongyang is Saturday morning, arrival at Moscow is Friday afternoon.
 +
 
 +
Tourists from Dandong are often arranged to take the train from Dandong to Sinuiju (just across the Yalu River from Dandong), or a bus from Dandong to Sinuiju. North Korean officers come into the train to check the passport and give it to the tour guide. North Korean officers also do a manual check of the entire luggage, and will ask to look at some of the photos taken in North Korea. Tourists then change to a domestic train (sometimes a special tourist train with a/c) to travel from Sinuiju to Pyongyang. Returning from Pyongyang, tourists often take the domestic train (or again, the special tourist train) back to Sinuiju where they either buses to the border and take the bus back to Dandong or change back to the Dandong-Sinuiju train back to Dandong. Immigration procedures in the North Korean side are taken on the train or before boarding the bus.
  
Train K27/K28 connect [[Pyongyang]] to [[Beijing]] in [[China]] via [[Tianjin]], [[Tangshan]], [[Beidaihe]], [[Shanhaiguan]], [[Jinzhou]], [[Shenyang]], [[Benxi]], [[Fenghuangcheng]], [[Dandong]] and [[Shinuiju]] four times a week. There is only one class on the international train between Beijing and Pyongyang: soft sleeper. It can be booked at the station in Beijing, but reservations must be made several days in advance. Your tour agency will usually do this for you, unless you are travelling on work purposes. It has been increasingly difficult to book space on the Beijing–Pyongyang route, so confirm your tickets well in advance.
+
There is also a direct rail link into Russia, crossing the North Korean/Russian border at Tumangan/Khasan. This route is served by a direct sleeping car Moscow - Pyongyang and vice versa and runs twice monthly (11th and 25th from Moscow), arriving Pyongyang 9 days later. However, since the mid-nineties this has not been an officially permitted route for tourists, and KITC refuses to organize trips using this route; two Western tourists have been successful in taking this train into North Korea, but report that further trips on this route would probably be unsuccessful.
  
Once a week train K27/K28 also conveys direct sleeping cars from [[Moscow]] via China to [[Pyongyang]] and vice versa. The route is [[Moscow]] - [[Novosibirsk]] - [[Irkutsk]] - [[Chita]] - [[Harbin]] - [[Shenyang]] - [[Dandong]] - [[Shinuiju]] - [[Pyongyang]]. Departure from Moscow is every Friday evening, arrival at Pyongyang is one week later on Friday evening. Departure from Pyongyang is Saturday morning, arrival at Moscow is Friday afternoon.
+
Some agents can arrange to cross the border from Dandong to Sinuiju by minibus and then board a domestic North Korean train to Pyongyang. Usually you will be seated in a hard seat carriage with KPA soldiers and party workers travelling with their families. There is access to a restaurant car which stocks imported beers (Heineken) and soft drinks as well as some local beers and spirits. Taking photographs on this train is strictly forbidden. This train is supposed to take around 4 hours to reach Pyongyang but has been known to take as long as 14. If travelling in winter be prepared that temperatures inside the carriage can be as low as -10°C.
  
There is also a direct rail link into Russia, crossing the North Korean/Russian border at Tumangan/Khasan. This route is served by a direct sleeping car [[Moscow]] - [[Pyongyang]] and vice versa and runs twice monthly (11th and 25th from Moscow), arriving Pyongyang 9 days later. However, since the mid-nineties this has not been an officially permitted route for tourists, and KITC refuses to organize trips using this route; nevertheless, some Western tourists have been successful in taking this train into North Korea.
+
American and Japanese citizens are currently restricted from taking the train into and out of the DPRK due to poor bilateral relations.  
  
 
===By boat===
 
===By boat===
 +
There is an unscheduled cargo-passenger ship between Wonsan and [[Niigata]], Japan. Only available for use by some Japanese and North Korean nationals, the boat service has been suspended indefinitely due to North Korea's reported nuclear testing; Japan has banned all North Korean ships from entering Japanese ports, and has banned North Koreans from entering the country.  Be careful about getting too close to the North Korean border in a boat; many South Korean fishermen are still waiting to leave North Korea.
  
There is an unscheduled cargo-passenger ship between [[Wonsan]] and [[Niigata]], [[Japan]]. Only available for use by some Japanese and North Korean nationals, the boat service has been suspended indefinitely due to North Korea's reported nuclear testing; Japan has banned all North Korean ships from entering Japanese ports, and has banned North Koreans from entering the country.
+
Besides the unscheduled ferry there is also a cruise ship that operates between the coast of Northeastern China, and Mt. Kumgang. Joint operated by China and North Korea the cruise line uses a 40 year old ship. The cruise trip is 22 hours long at each leg, and is 44 hours long in total, but as a person outside of China you may not be allowed to go on the cruise to Mt. Kumgang.
  
 
===By bus===
 
===By bus===
A bus is theoretically available from [[Dandong]] (China) across the Yalu River to [[Sinuiju]], it's run by the "Dandong China Travel Company" but is only open to Chinese citizens at present.
+
A bus is theoretically available from Dandong, China, across the Yalu River to [[Sinuiju]]. It's run by the "Dandong China Travel Company" but is only open to Chinese citizens at present.  You can also take a private bus from Dandong over the Sino-Korea Friendship Bridge (the same bridge ove the Yalu river that the trains take) but it is booked through the travel company you are using to enter North Korea as part of the tour.
  
 
==Get around==
 
==Get around==
All your transport needs will be dealt with by your tour company.  Most of the time this means buses, although tour groups visiting remote sites (eg. [[Paekdusan]], [[Mount Chilbo]]) occasionally use chartered flights by Air Koryo.
+
[[File:Hero Youth Highway in DPRK.jpg|thumb|Typical highway scene in North Korea: tidy strands of trees with a large (and empty) patch of asphalt in between]]
 +
 
 +
All your transport needs will be dealt with by your tour company.  Most of the time this means buses, although tour groups visiting remote sites (eg. [[Paekdusan]], Mount Chilbo) occasionally use chartered or even regular flights by Air Koryo. Orang Airport (serves Chongjin, Mt Chilbo and Rason) has extremaly rudimentary facilities. Do not exect paved roads in this area.
 +
 
 +
Wandering around on your own is not allowed, and you are required to have a guide to escort you at all times.
 +
 
 +
A carefully stage-managed five-station ride on the [http://pyongyang-metro.com/ P'y&#335;ngyang metro] is included on the itinerary of most trips to Pyongyang, but use of any other form of local public transport is generally impossible.
 +
 
 +
If travelling in a small enough group it is also possible to organise a walk through some areas of Pyongyang with some travel agents (Koryo).
 +
 
 +
There are four major highways leading our from Pyongyang. The one to the DMZ is quite OK, expect average speed about 75 km/h. The one to Mt. Myohang (north) is a little worse but still OK, say 70 km/h average. Highway (very, very wide, in fact the only super-wide highway in North Korea) leading to Nampo port is partialy reconstructed, allowing 100+ km/h, however the old part is way slower and bumpy. Highway to Wonsan (leading also to Masik Ski Resort) is very, very bad. Crumbling concrete, maybe 45 km/h is average speed for bus, little more for cars. Together 4 lanes (no divide in the middle), tunnels with 2 lanes only. At places narrowed to 2 lanes by rocks. You may see lot of workers but no real highway reconstruction work is done, just patching.
  
A carefully stage-managed one-station ride on the P'y&#335;ngyang metro [http://www.pyongyang-metro.com/] is included on the itinerary of most trips to Pyongyang, but use of any other form of local public transport is generally impossible.
+
Map here on wikitravel also show highway from Wonsan to Mt Kumgang (South Korean border), and despite there in fact is highway sign on this road, this 100 km road is what it is, 2nd class road with no resemblence of a highway. Concrete, slow, may take 3 hours to get from Wonsan to the "reuning families" hotel under Mt. Kumgang. Quite lot of local trafic - bikes, ox carts.
  
 
==Talk==
 
==Talk==
The official language is [[Korean phrasebook|Korean]].  Note that North Koreans are quite picky about referring to Korean as '''Chosŏnmal''', not ''hangukmal''. Unlike South Korea, North Korea has abolished Chinese ''hanja'' characters and uses ''hangul'' characters, known as '''Chosŏn'gŭl''', exclusively.
+
The official language is [[Korean phrasebook|Korean]].  Note that North Koreans are quite picky about referring to Korean as '''Choseonmal''', not ''hangukmal''. Unlike South Korea, North Korea has abolished Chinese ''hanja'' characters and uses ''hangeul'' characters, known as '''Choseongul''', exclusively.
  
Your guides will speak fairly decent and understandable English (some better than others) and will translate something if you wish. Other guides have the ability to speak both Korean and either Mandarin, German, Japanese or French, depending on where you come from.  
+
Your guides will speak fairly decent and understandable English (some better than others) and will translate something if you wish. Other guides have the ability to speak both Korean and either Mandarin, German, Russian, Japanese, or Spanish, depending on where you come from.  
  
 
Although locals may be discouraged from speaking with foreigners due to government propaganda that implies foreigners are generally up to no good, and language can prove to be an additional barrier, there is no formal law preventing citizens of the DPRK from interacting with tourists. A visit to the DPRK around their holidays may give you more of a chance to interact with the locals.
 
Although locals may be discouraged from speaking with foreigners due to government propaganda that implies foreigners are generally up to no good, and language can prove to be an additional barrier, there is no formal law preventing citizens of the DPRK from interacting with tourists. A visit to the DPRK around their holidays may give you more of a chance to interact with the locals.
  
 
==See==
 
==See==
 +
All tours are accompanied by a guide from a local state owned travel company (not "minders", and not from the government except in the broadest sense that everyone in the DPRK has on paper a job at some state-owned institution or another), who will decide what you can and cannot see. From the moment you leave your hotel, expect to be accompanied by one or more guides. Besides ensuring that tourists do not stray outside of the designated tourist areas, their jobs include inspecting any photographs which they think do not portray North Korea or its government in a good light, and ordering photographers to delete them. It is generally advisable to listen to what your guide is saying, and agree with it. Asking awkward socio-political questions will result in vague, evasive replies at best, and several hours of interrogation at worst.
 +
 +
If you are uncertain about taking pictures anywhere, ask your guide. (Permission for subjects seems to vary wildly; you may get a guide that is relatively relaxed and will allow you to take pictures from a bus or within a city. On the other hand, you may get one that will strictly adhere to controlling where you take pictures restricting anything taken from a tour bus or of certain areas, like Pyongyang's city streets, in general. There is simply no way to tell until you are actually on a tour.) If you think a particular photograph might be embarrassing to the DPRK in general, ask or simply don't risk taking it at all.
 +
 +
Photography of military personnel is also generally prohibited. Again, if in doubt, ask your guide. However, there are instances where it is impossible not to photograph certain sites without including a few military personnel within the picture such as at Mansudae (the monument site for the statues of Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il) or at a local funfair. Reactions seem to vary between being ignored to curiosity, although you will be told where it is strictly prohibited from taking pictures (such as at certain areas of the DMZ) and the guards/soldiers there will react unfavourably to being photographed in general. Other areas where photographs are prohibited is inside the Friendship Exhibition displaying gifts from around the world to Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il and within the Kumsusan Memorial Palace.
 +
 +
The majority of sightseeing consists of visits to various war memorials, monuments to the Great Leader and the Workers Party of Korea, and numerous museums (mostly war-related, like the statues and monuments). The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) is a popular destination for most tour groups in North Korea.
 +
 +
Please note that whilst you are in North Korea, the prevailing viewpoint places blame on the Americans for starting the Korean War; disagreeing with this position is likely to cause problems for both you and your guide particularly as the two Koreas are still technically at war with only a cease-fire between them. Despite its misleading name, the DMZ is heavily guarded and dotted with minefields and other booby-traps. Under no circumstances must you stray from your group, or take any photographs of military installations. However, the "peace village" [[Panmunjom]] may be photographed, and boasts the world's third tallest flagpole.
 +
 +
Whilst on these guided tours, especially to the state museums and monuments, you will undoubtedly endure an ongoing barrage of propaganda, consisting largely of anecdotes about things that Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il did for their country. Some of these claims may seem bizarre and even amusing to the outsider; however, a straight face is generally advisable. It is generally safest to at least appear to take everything they say seriously, even if it contradicts everything you were ever taught in history class or defies even the most basic human reasoning.
 +
 +
See more: [[http://wikitravel.org/en/Tumen Tumen]]
  
 
==Do==
 
==Do==
 +
As mentioned above, there is very little to do beyond the watchful eye of your designated minder(s), with most recreational activity taking place within the confines of the tourist resorts. Bowling and karaoke are among the latest additions to its surprising abundance of recreational activities. The karaoke videos are often accompanied by dramatic historical footage of the Korean War, or goose-stepping People's Army soldiers.
 +
 +
Interestingly enough, North Korea has three amusement parks, two of which are abandoned due to mutual lack of interest and electricity. Sadly, the Kaeson Youth Fair has now closed, taking the infamous "Roller Coaster of Death" along with it. Still visible are the shooting-galleries with backdrops of snarling American and Japanese soldiers; however, it is unlikely that your guide will let you venture into any abandoned areas. The one remaining amusement park contains some rides which are actually quite modern and non-lethal, at least by North Korean standards, and is about as worthy of a visit as everything else you'll see whilst in North Korea.
 +
 +
Each year the government, along with various tourist agencies, operates a marathon in Pyongyang and, in 2015, a on the sacred Mount Paekdu in the remote north of the country. The latter is a sacred place to both North and South Koreans.
 +
 +
The night life in [[Pyongyang]] is remarkably safe and non-violent, compared to the capitals of other nations. In general, the civilians are not a threat. The plain-clothes secret police, however, may or may not be a threat, depending on what you say or do. The North Korean definition of popular music is at least two decades behind the rest of the world; expect an onslaught of 80s hits from the West (some obviously are copies unauthorised by the original artists, to judge by the quality), punctuated by the eerie caterwauling of Korean folk songs, and at least try to look enthusiastic about the whole scene. Fortunately, alcohol is cheap and plentiful, although it is not advisable to become intoxicated and make a scene of oneself. Furthermore, both the trafficking and consumption of narcotics are punished VERY severely by authorities; traffickers can expect to face the death penalty if caught, although Marijuana isn't treated as a narcotic in North Korea and is considered legal. Note that Marijuana is considered as a narcotic in China, and transporting any of them back to China may get you into a jail or even death penalty as transporting narcotics is one of the non-negotiable crimes in China.
 +
 +
Finally, please note that power cuts may hit without warning in the middle of any activity. Whilst you might welcome this if the jukebox is starting to get to you, this is not a desirable outcome if you are in the middle of an amusement-park ride, particularly as these blackouts can last for hours at a time.
  
 
==Buy==
 
==Buy==
In 2002 Foreign Exchange Certificates (FEC) were abolished and along with them went all the different colored currencies. Now there is just the standard North Korean '''won''', which officially trades at 175 or so to the euro. Black market rates (especially in northern China near the border) are more favorable, but importing or exporting Korean won is strictly forbidden. Conversely, were you to sneak out some won, they are practically worthless outside the country, but make unique souvenirs.
+
In 2002 Foreign Exchange Certificates (FEC) were abolished and along with them went all the different coloured currencies. Now there is just the standard North Korean '''won''', which officially trades at approximately 100 per US dollar or euro (you get more for euro usually) (Sep 2018) but has the same symbol as the [[South Korea]]n won: '''₩'''. This however is the tourist rate and is only used in shops where won absolutely CANNOT be used (hotel shops, some tourist shops with books or stamps). Real rate in exchange places (if you can visit any) is about 9400 won per 1 euro. If you can buy something in real shop prices are:
 +
 
 +
Various snacks - 1000 won
 +
Draft beer - 1500-2000 won
 +
Soju (local alcohol) - 1300 won and up
 +
Small cake - 500-1000 won
 +
Tie - 20 000 won and up
 +
Hotdog 5000-10000 won
 +
Ice Cream 1-3000 won
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Importing or exporting Korean won is strictly forbidden and life threateningly dangerous. Conversely, were you to sneak out some won, they are practically worthless outside the country, but make unique souvenirs.
 +
 
 +
In reality, foreigners are expected to use euros or, as an alternative, Chinese yuan or US dollars. Getting the local money is possible, but it is difficult to use as many shops want foreign currency. Currency handling is often bizarre, with a frequent lack of change and a number of rule-of-thumb conversions leading to highly unorthodox transactions. So be sure to bring lots of small change. On the other hand, since you will already have paid in advance for your hotel, transportation, and meals, your only expenses will be bottled water, souvenirs, snacks, drinks at the bars, laundry at the hotel (which is as expensive as in Europe), and tips for your guides.
 +
 
 +
Prices will be given in won, and you'll then have to ask, "How much is this in euro? And in dollars?". In August 2012, euro got you the best value for your money. Bring some small change, there's not always enough.
 +
 
 +
In any case, the only shops you will be likely allowed to visit are the state-run souvenir shops at your hotel and at the various tourist attractions. It is generally impossible to visit a real local shop which serves the local population, though you might get lucky asking your guide if he/she trusts you enough.
 +
 
 +
Beware that some shops use very simple formula 1 EUR = 1 USD = 10 CNY. This of course gives you best rate in USD. Otherwise it is better to have loads of change in CNY. No coins are used (with exception of 1e and 2€ coins and maybe 50c and 20c at some places). Do not realy on that, bring plenty of 1USD bills, and change
 +
 
 +
If you pay in hard currency shops and in hotel, prices are easily 10 times higher than in local market (like Kwangbok Supermarket):
  
In reality, foreigners are expected to use Euros or as an alternative Chinese RMB, US Dollars or Japanese Yen.  Getting the local money is possible, but it is difficult to use as the shops all want foreign currency. Currency handling is often bizarre, with a frequent lack of change and a number of rule-of-thumb conversions leading to highly unorthodox transactions. So be sure to bring lots of small change. On the other hand, since you will already have paid in advance for your hotel, transportation and meals, your only expenses will be bottled water, souvenirs, snacks, drinks at the bars, laundry at the hotel (which is as expensive as in Europe) and tips for your guides.
+
Coke (can) 1 USD
 +
Coffee 3-5 USD
 +
Soju 10 CNY
 +
 
 +
Credit cards are useless, either for online usage or for non-existing ATMs.
  
 
===Souvenirs===
 
===Souvenirs===
[[Image:Pyongyang store3.jpg|thumb|240px|Pyongyang store for foreigners]]
+
[[Image:Pyongyang store3.jpg|upright=1.3|thumb|Pyongyang store for foreigners]]
There are numerous hard-currency only souvenir shops at tourist sites. Interesting souvenirs include propaganda books and videos, postcards and postage stamps. At some tourist sites (such as King Kongmin's tomb), you can purchase freshly finished paintings with your name and the artist's name at the bottom. And if you are very lucky you might be able to get hold of some socialist realism paintings, although customs officials are not keen on these things going out of the country, so do beware.
+
There are numerous hard-currency only souvenir shops at tourist sites. Interesting souvenirs include propaganda books and videos, postcards and postage stamps. At some tourist sites (such as King Kongmin's tomb), you can purchase freshly finished paintings with your name and the artist's name at the bottom. And if you are very lucky you might be able to get hold of some Socialist Realism paintings, although customs officials are not keen on these things going out of the country, so do beware.
  
On the tour to Kaesong tourists are warned not to purchase anything that could be construed as North Korean propaganda including any images of North Korean leaders such as stamps or postcards.  No biographies or books are permitted back into South Korea.  This is a South Korean restriction, it does not apply to border crossings with China. If you are leaving the country via flight to Beijing or train via Dandong you should encounter no problems bringing home any North Korean merchandise for your own personal enjoyment.  
+
On the tour to [[Kaesong]] tourists are warned not to purchase anything that could be construed as North Korean propaganda including any images of North Korean leaders such as stamps or postcards.  No biographies or books are permitted back into South Korea.  This is a South Korean restriction. It does not apply to border crossings with China. If you are leaving the country via flight to Beijing or train via Dandong you should encounter no problems bringing home any North Korean merchandise for your own personal enjoyment. Marijuana excluded, for sure.
  
You are, however, allowed to buy post cards and send them to yourself in the US or any other country except South Korea which we are told would not deliver them.
+
You are, however, allowed to buy post cards and send them to yourself in any country except South Korea which apparently will not deliver them.
  
Some excellent paintings on silk or linen were available in Kaesong directly from the artist.  Haggling for price is not permitted but the prices are very low anyway.
+
Some excellent paintings on silk or linen were available in Kaesong directly from the artist.  Haggling for price is not permitted but the prices are very low.
  
 
===Costs===
 
===Costs===
You will pay for most things up-front as part of your tour. Most sights have a shop associated with them where you can buy bottled water, souvenirs and snacks. These are reasonably priced. In August 2007, large bottles of local beer cost US$2 at the hotel bars in Pyongyang. If you haven't planned on spending money on gambling at the casino at Yanggakdo Hotel, €200 for one week should be enough to cover your costs of water, drinks at the bars, souvenirs and tips for the guides.
+
You will pay for most things up-front as part of your tour. Most sights have a shop associated with them where you can buy bottled water, souvenirs and snacks. These are reasonably priced. In August 2007, large bottles of local beer cost US$2 at the hotel bars in Pyongyang. If you haven't planned on spending money on gambling at the casino at Yanggakdo Hotel, €200 for one week should be enough to cover your costs of water, drinks at the bars, souvenirs and tips for the guides. Bring small bills.
  
 
==Eat==
 
==Eat==
Despite severe food shortages in North Korea, ''you'' are unlikely to have any problems getting food. Your guide will order all your food for you, and you will eat in hard-currency only restaurants. Vegetarians, and people with food allergies/dislikes of common foods such as seafood or eggs will need to make arrangements in advance. A visit to a "real" local restaurant may be possible; enquire with your guide. Note that although your food is better than what the majority of the population eats, it's still not necessarily great. Shortages combined with the typical use of Korean cooking styles mean that there is a relatively limited variety of food, which can get wearying on tours of more than a few days.
+
Your guide will order all your food for you, and you will eat in hard-currency only restaurants. Vegetarians and people with food allergies/dislikes of common foods such as seafood or eggs will need to make arrangements in advance. A visit to a "real" local restaurant may be possible; enquire with your guide.
 +
 
 +
There are a few western food options now in Pyongyang and these restaurants can usually be visited if arranged with the guides in advance. They will usually require additional payment though (unless you have discussed this already with your tour operator) as the costs are not included in the ''per diem fee'' charged by the Korean Travel Company. There are 2 Italian restaurants (one on Kwangbok Street which is near the Korean circus where the pizza is great, and they have imported a pizza oven and all the ingredients so the quality is very high; and one near the USS Pueblo) and 2 burger restaurants (the more accessible is in the Youth Hotel). Both are inexpensive and do inject some flavour onto a generally lacklustre eating scene - especially on long tours!  Visit the Vienna coffee house which is on the river side of Kim Jong Il square, for a pretty good coffee served like you would get in Europe.
  
 
==Drink==
 
==Drink==
 +
 +
The legal drinking/purchasing age of alcoholic beverages is '''18''' and is heavily enforced. 
  
 
The local speciality is '''insam-ju''', Korean vodka infused with ginseng roots.
 
The local speciality is '''insam-ju''', Korean vodka infused with ginseng roots.
Locally made Taedonggang beer is very good (brewery imported from Ushers in the UK) and some of the Sojus are not bad either. Local alcohol is inexpensive; a 650mL bottle of beer is 0.5 euro. However do not get drunk and cause trouble. Toe the line and show respect, or you and your guide will face serious penalties.
+
Locally made Taedonggang beer is very good--the brewery was purchased from Ushers in the UK and moved to Pyongyang--and some of the sojus are not bad either. Local alcohol is inexpensive; a 650mL bottle of beer is €0.50. Imported beers, such as Heineken, are also available at similar prices. However do not get drunk and cause trouble. Toe the line and show respect, or you and your guide will face serious penalties.
 
 
When it comes to water, stick to bottled water, as other under-developed countries, the water is not always properly treated.
 
  
 
==Sleep==
 
==Sleep==
[[Image:Kina og Nord-Korea 2007 147.jpg|thumb|240px|Yanggakdo International Hotel in [[Pyongyang|P'y&#335;ngyang]]]]
+
[[Image:Kina og Nord-Korea 2007 147.jpg|thumb|Yanggakdo International Hotel in [[Pyongyang|P'y&#335;ngyang]]]]
  
This is likely to be your principal expense while in North Korea. You may only stay at "designated tourist hotels", for which you will need to pay in hard currency. There may be discounts if you ask for lower class accommodation, if you are travelling as part of a group, or if it is low season (November – March). Costs for your tour, which will include accommodation, all sightseeing activities and meals, will range from US$70 US$200 a day, depending on these factors.
+
This is likely to be your principal expense while in North Korea. You may only stay at "designated tourist hotels", for which you will need to pay in hard currency. There may be discounts if you ask for lower class accommodation, if you are travelling as part of a group, or if it is low season (November – March). Costs for your tour, which will include accommodation, all sightseeing activities and meals, will range from US$70 to US$200 a day, depending on these factors.
  
Usually you pay for all your meals, hotel and Beijing–P'y&#335;ngyang journey to your tour operator before you leave. One week in high season at a four-star hotel will then cost something between €1300 and €1600, depending on your tour operator. See e.g. VNC Asia Travel [http://www.vnctravel.nl/northkorea/], Koryo Tours [http://www.koryogroup.com], Korea Konsult [http://www.koreakonsult.com] and Regent Holidays [http://www.regent-holidays.co.uk]. Depending on the rate of the U.S. dollar, it might also be worth checking out the American tour operator Asia Pacific Travel, Ltd. [http://www.northkorea1on1.com/],or the Asian based Canadian company Young Pioneer Tours [http://www.youngpioneertours.com], where you might get as low as €800 for one week as well as North Korea Travel [http://www.north-korea-travel.com].
+
Usually you pay for all your meals, hotel and Beijing–Pyeongyang journey to your tour operator before you leave. One week in high season at a four-star hotel will then cost something between €1,300 and €1,600, depending on your tour operator, but might get as low as €800 for five days.
  
 
==Learn==
 
==Learn==
 +
Remember that you are one of only a VERY small number of individuals (from outside of the DPRK) on the entire face of the planet who is being allowed a glimpse into this closed society! Take advantage of the opportunity to learn about a rarely-explored culture!
  
 
==Work==
 
==Work==
 +
If you are interested in teaching in North Korea, you may find success by contacting the North Korean UN Mission in New York, or contacting a North Korean university directly. Your odds of success are, however, quite low: there is only a small team of 4 English Language Instructors dealing with teaching and teacher training, with a Project Manager leading the team of three, placed in Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies and Kim Hyung Jik University of Education.
  
If you are interested in teaching in North Korea, you may find success by contacting the North Korean UN Mission in New York, or contacting a North Korean university directly. Your odds of success are, however, quite low: there is only small a team of 4 English Language Instructors dealing with teaching and teacher training, with a Project Manager leading the team of three, placed in Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies and Kim Hyung Jik University of Education.
+
There is an opportunity to [http://www.pyongyangsummerinstitute.org/2013-faculty-opportunities.html teach in Pyongyang Summer Institute during summer time] where it is opened to foreigners. It is voluntary, unpaid work.
  
 
==Stay safe==
 
==Stay safe==
{{warningbox|Under ''no circumstances whatsoever'' are you to say something that could be perceived as an insult to Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-Il, Juche, or the North Korean people or government. You and your guide are likely to face serious trouble but assume that your guide will bear the worst of it. "In trouble" does not mean a slap on the wrist. North Korea is known for extremely harsh punishments which range (for the guides) from lengthy prison sentences to a lifetime of torture and forced hard labour in the gulags, while you will most probably just be deported and banned from re-entering. However, your conversations will not be monitored, and contrary to popular belief, your hotel room will not be bugged.}}
+
{{warningbox|Under ''no circumstances'' are you to say anything that could be perceived as an insult to or critical of '''Kim Il-sung''', '''Kim Jong-Il''', '''Kim Jong-Un''', the '''Juche''' ideology, the '''Songun''' policy, the ruling '''Worker's Party of Korea''', the '''North Korean government''' in general, or the '''citizens of North Korea'''. Simply avoid these topics if you can do so. Keep in mind that anyone can be an undercover government agent, so respond accordingly when this subject is at hand, always keep in mind you might be tested and pushed into admitting your real feelings on these subjects, whatever they may be. You and your guide are likely to face serious trouble. "In trouble" does ''not'' mean a slap on the wrist. North Korea is known for extremely harsh punishments which range (for the guides) from lengthy forced labor sentences to 20 years in a Forced Labor Camp, while you are likely to be sentenced to a stay in a local prison or labor camp, deported, and banned from re-entering. Be wary of your surroundings.}}
 +
 
 +
They will probably sit down and explain the rules ahead of time. Keep your mouth closed and you will be fine. You don't have to talk about how great the Kim family is, or praise songun or Juche; just be polite, nod, and bow when others do and there will be no problems.
 +
 
 +
The authorities are very touchy, and you need to watch what you say and how you say it. Some topics such as South Korean's living standard and the capitalist reform in China will definitely infuriate officials. Just do what the guides do, praise every stop on your tour, and remember the golden rule, "If you have nothing good to say, don't say it at all."
 +
 
 +
Crime levels are practically zero, at least to tourists on a strictly controlled tour. However, pickpockets are the least of your worries. Also, the official policy is that you are not to wander around on your own.
 +
 
 +
You are expected to get permission and/or have a guide accompany you if you are leaving your hotel on your own. This will vary depending on what hotel you are in. The Yanggakdo Hotel is on an island in the middle of the Taedong River in Pyongyang. Therefore you can walk around the area a little more freely than if you are at the Koryo Hotel in the city centre. You should always be friendly and courteous to your guides and driver who will normally reciprocate by trusting you more and giving you more freedom. 
 +
 
 +
For taking photographs, one needs to exercise restraint, caution and common sense. If you appear to be looking for negative images of North Korea, the guides will not be happy and will tell you to delete any questionable images. In particular, you are not to take photos of anything military, including personnel, or anything showing the DPRK in a bad light.
  
Crime levels are practically zero, at least to tourists on a strictly controlled tour. However, pickpockets are the least of your worries.  The authorities are very touchy, and you need to watch what you say and how you say it. Just do what the guides do, praise every stop on your tour, and remember the rule, "If you can't say anything good, say nothing at all." Also, the official policy is that you are not to wander around on your own.  You are expected to get permission and/or have a guide accompany you if you are leaving your hotel on your own. This will vary depending on what hotel you are in.  The Yanggakdo Hotel is on a island in the middle of the Taedong River in Pyongyang.  Therefore you can walk around the area a little more freely than if you are at the Koryo Hotel right in the center of town.  You should always be friendly and courteous to your guides and driver who will normally reciprocate by trusting you more and giving you more freedom. For taking photographs, one needs to exercise restraint, caution and common sense.  If you appear to be looking for negative images of North Korea, the guides will not be happy and will tell you to delete any questionable images. In particular, you are not to take photos of anything military, including personnel, or anything showing the DPRK in a bad light.  Try to recognize a good photo opportunity, raise your camera at a reasonable speed, compose and take the picture, and lower the camera at a reasonable speed. Try not to spend overly long times composing a perfect masterpiece, or make fast, or furtive motions. This will only call attention to yourself and the image you are trying to take and can result, whether justified or not, in your being told to delete the image.
+
As noted before, your photographic freedom can largely depend on the type of guides that you are assigned and the rapport that you have with them. In a best case scenario, you can often take pictures without feeling as if you're trying to sneak them by anyone and without pressure capturing some truly unique images. If you are in an area that prohibits picture taking, you will also be informed of this and it is best to simply follow your guide's direction. When in doubt, always ask. Your guide might even want to try out your camera and take a picture of you for your collection.
 +
 
 +
In a worst case scenario, you can be expected to raise your camera at a reasonable speed, compose and take the picture, and lower the camera at a reasonable speed. Don't try to take pictures of anything that you have been told not to, such as military personnel or certain locales. This may call attention to yourself and the image you are trying to take and can result, whether justified or not, in your being told to delete the image.
 +
 
 +
If you are a person of Korean descent, don't ever, '''''ever''''' tell anyone in the country that you are Korean, as you may be easily suspected as a person from South Korea, and as a result you are most likely to experience severely harsh punishments as well as being mistaken for entering illegally.
 +
 
 +
Drug trafficking can be punishable by death in North Korea, and even any consumption of narcotics can be fatal. Cannabis, however, is not banned and is mostly used for producing fibre. It can be often found growing freely alongside the road in North Korea.
 +
 
 +
===Banned items===
 +
The North Korean government is known to try to control the media. Books, magazines and CDs can be confiscated if the content is considered inappropriate, although customs usually doesn't bother to take English books away if there are no explicit photos depicting politics of North Korean.  In general, use common sense.
 +
 
 +
* So-called ''Anti-North Korean Government'' materials will generally be confiscated: These include the Eyes of the Tailless Animals: Prison Memoirs of a North Korean Woman, etc, etc.
 +
 
 +
* Pornography: A heavy penalty is imposed on all pornography and penalties are counted based on the number of pieces you bring into the country. If customs considers what you bring to be too much, lets say, more than 100 videos on your devices, they will likely detain you. '''Possession of pornography within North Korea carries the death penalty and is strictly enforced.'''
 +
 
 +
{{warningbox|Sony's 2014 release of '''The Interview''' is viewed '''extremely negatively''' by the current regime and as it is considered anti-governmental material, bringing it into North Korea is highly illegal and life-threateningly dangerous, as it depicts a mockery of Kim Jong-un and '''''WILL NOT BE TOLERATED.''''' Attempting to bring this movie into the country is '''''emphatically discouraged.'''''}}
  
 
==Stay healthy==
 
==Stay healthy==
 +
North Korea is one of the poorest countries in the world. As with other under-developed countries, the water is not always properly treated and there are reports of foreigners being hospitalized in the DPRK after drinking the water, so sticking to bottled water is highly recommended.
  
Drinking water is untreated and there are reports of foreigners being hospitalized in the DPRK after drinking the water, sticking to bottled water is highly recommended. Medical facilities are clean, but outdated and often lacking in basic supplies, and if you fall ill you might be better off returning to China for treatment. Contact your embassy or consulate in North Korea (if your country has one) for assistance. US citizens may contact the Swedish Embassy in Pyongyang for advice if needed.
+
Medical facilities are clean, but very outdated and often suffer a lack of doctors who are actually healthy. If you fall ill you might be better off going to China for medical treatment. Contact your embassy or consulate in North Korea (if your country has one) for assistance. US citizens may contact the Swedish Embassy in Pyongyang for advice if needed.
  
 
==Respect==
 
==Respect==
 +
It is important to emphasize that the government of the DPRK -- in particular the leaders Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il and Kim Jong-un -- are, publicly, very highly revered in North Korean culture. While devotion is not expected from tourists, especially given that the Juche philosophy of the DPRK is specifically aimed at the Korean people only and is not applicable to foreigners, criticizing them in any way is highly offensive and illegal, and will get you and particularly your guides into trouble.  It is not worth inadvertently threatening your and their lives by insulting their leaders.
 +
 +
Also, when in North Korea, it is advisable to refer to the country as the DPRK instead when discussing it with your guides. DPRK stands for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and is the official name for the country reflecting their belief that the south (not capitalized) is occupied territory. Despite what the rest of the world may think, this is what they will refer to their country as. You will also notice this referenced in their literature in the same way (south Korea).
  
It is important to emphasize that the government of the DPRK -- in particular the leaders Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il -- are very highly revered in North Korean culture. While slavish devotion is not expected from tourists, especially given that the Juche philosophy of the DPRK is specifically aimed at the Korean people only and is not applicable to foreigners, insulting them in any way is highly offensive and illegal, and will get you and (much more so) your guides into trouble. The guides already know how the rest of the world sees their country, it is not worth inadvertently threatening their livelihood by insulting their leaders.  
+
The DPRK has very strict laws about taking pictures though there are many great photographing opportunities around the country, particularly in cities such as Pyongyang. Again, this largely depends on the guides assigned to you and how relaxed they feel to trust that you won't do anything to embarrass them. While it may have been true in the past to "not look at" or "take pictures of" people in the DPRK, you may be also surprised to be able to take a picture of a wedding couple or of a grandmother taking their grandson out for a walk waving back. Also, do not take photographs of anything that could be of strategic importance (i.e. places with a soldier(s)/policemen in front of it) or of things that you been told specifically not to. Again, as emphasized before, always ask your guides if you are ever in doubt.
  
Bringing gifts like cigarettes or scotch for the men, both guides and the driver, and chocolate or skin cream for female guides, is a nice gesture. Please be respectful toward your guides, especially since North Korean guides are known to occasionally take tourists whom they trust well enough to see other places and events in North Korea that they wouldn't ordinarily go to.  
+
Bringing gifts such as cigarettes or Scotch whisky for the men, both guides and the driver, and chocolate or skin cream for female guides, is a nice gesture. Please be respectful toward your guides, especially since North Korean guides are known to occasionally take tourists whom they trust well enough to see other places and events in North Korea that they wouldn't ordinarily go to. This can also extend to how freely they may feel about your picture taking. Remember, they may be as curious about you as you are about them.
  
Most, if not all, tour groups to the DPRK are asked to solemnly bow on one or two occasions in front of statues of Kim Il Sung when visiting monuments of national importance. '''If you're not prepared to do this, do not even try to enter North Korea.'''  Just be sure you always act in a respectful manner around images of the two leaders. This includes taking respectful photos of any image of them.
+
Most, if not all, tour groups to the DPRK are asked to solemnly bow and lay flowers on one or two occasions in front of statues of Kim Il Sung when visiting monuments of national importance. '''If you're not prepared to do this, do not even try to enter North Korea.'''  Just be sure you always act in a respectful manner around images of the two leaders. This includes taking respectful photos of any image of them. When photographing statues, especially Mansudae, be sure to get the entire statue in the photo. Formal dress is also expected at important monuments such as Mansudae or in visiting the Kumsusang Memorial Palace.
  
Any trouble you cause as a tourist will likely be blamed on your tour guide's inability to control you, and he or she will bear the brunt of the penalties. Additionally, future tourists will be allowed less freedom and will face increased restriction on where they can visit and what they can photograph.  
+
Any trouble you cause as a tourist will likely be blamed on your tour guide's inability to control you, and he or she will bear the brunt of the penalties. Additionally, future tourists will be allowed less freedom and will face increased restriction on where they can visit and what they can photograph.
  
 
Other than your tour guide, you will likely not meet anyone else in your trip who speaks English; a few Korean words and phrases are a nice internationalist gesture.  
 
Other than your tour guide, you will likely not meet anyone else in your trip who speaks English; a few Korean words and phrases are a nice internationalist gesture.  
Line 234: Line 391:
  
 
==Contact==
 
==Contact==
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<div style="float: left; border: 2px solid red; background-color: green;  border-radius: 4px; text-align: center; clear: right; margin-bottom: 5px;">
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<div style="color: #efefef; font-size: 120%; margin: 5px;">'''MEDICAL EMERGENCIES'''</div>
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<div style="border-radius: 2px; background-color: #efefef; padding: 2px 5px; color: red;" >Dial: <big>'''02 382 7688'''</big> (Pyongyang number)</div>
 +
</div><div style='clear:both'></div>
  
 +
===Phones===
 +
International calling is generally possible from hotels, though it is expensive ($5 per minute to the USA as of 2016).
  
===Mobile phones===
+
There is no international roaming available in North Korea. As of January 2013 with the availability of pre-paid SIM cards, mobile phones are no longer held by customs and can be brought by visitors into the country, but a local SIM must be purchased.  
The use of mobile phones is banned in North Korea, and your guides will demand that you surrender your mobile phones to security at the airport. Recently a 3G mobile phone network was introduced in Pyongyang and is rolling out across the country and widely used by locals who can afford and long-term staying foreigners who file an application. Sim cards and phones can be purchased in International Communication Center.
 
  
===Internet===
+
A 3G mobile phone network (Koryolink) was introduced in Pyongyang in 2008 and now covers the 42 largest cities. A Mexican Telecommunications, TelMex Journey Mexico, also runs a 3G network in the country and is best used for phones originating in North/South American countries. SIM cards and phones can be purchased at the International Communication Center in Pothonggang District, opposite the Pyongyang Indoor Stadium, as well as Pyongyang airport and some hotels. For tourists, you will need to get a prepaid SIM card. The options are as follows:
Internet is mainly banned for locals, but can be used by foreigners after filing an application for permission. In the large hotels, internet access is theoretically possible, but must be applied for in some days advance. If you stay longer, or tell your inviting party early enough, it can be arranged. There are no public internet cafes or business centers with web access in the hotels.
 
  
==Cope==
+
* Purchase a prepaid SIM card for €50. This gives you the SIM card to keep indefinitely for return visits, and includes a small amount (less than €30) of calling credit.
===Foreign Embassies/Missions in Pyongyang===
+
* Rent a prepaid SIM card for two weeks for €50. This includes €30 of calling credit.
Practically all foreign embassies in Pyongyang are inside the Munsu-dong
+
* Rent a prepaid SIM card for one month for €75. This includes €55 of calling credit.
  
Other EU citizens who need consular assistance can go to one of the other EU embassies as they should offer protection due to the EU laws.
+
Your handset will need to be 2100MHz WCDMA compatible. Calling rates are €1.43 per minute to China and South East Asia; €0.68 per minute to Russia; €0.38 per minute to France and Switzerland; and €1.58 per minute to the UK and Germany. Do note that local calls (to North Korean numbers used by DPRK citizens) are generally not possible. Data plans are technically available but you will need to be a long-staying foreigner (not a tourist) to get approval for these.
  
*'''H.M British Embassy to DPR Korea'''[http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/about-the-fco/embassies-and-posts/find-an-embassy-overseas/asia-and-oceania/korea-dpr-north-korea], Munsu-dong Diplomatic Compound, Pyongyang, +850 2 381 7980 (''International dialling'') (0) 2 382 7980 (''Local dialling'')  There is a Duty Officer rota for out of hours emergencies - to contact use international dialling (''+850 2 381 7985 Fax International dialling'') email:[mailto:[email protected] [email protected]]. GMT:Mon-Fri: 0000-0830 Local Time: Mon-Fri: 0900-1730.<nowiki>*</nowiki>
+
When making international calls (either on a landline or mobile) you should assume a possibility of your calls being monitored, and act accordingly.
  
*'''Chinese Embassy'''[http://kp.chineseembassy.org/eng/ ], Kinmaul-dong, Moranbong District, Pyongyang, +850-2-3813116 fax: +850-2-3813425
+
===Internet===
 +
Internet facilities are limited, as few locals have permission to use it. There are no public internet cafes or business centres with web access in the hotels. Internet access is possible via the 3G network, and also through connections at some of the larger hotels; however, if you are a tourist on a short stay visa it's unlikely you will be able to use these services in practice.
  
*'''German Embassy'''[http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Laender/DeutscheAVen/Korea_28DemokratischeVolksrepublik_2CNordkorea_29/DeutscheVertretungen.html ], Munsu-dong Diplomatic Compound, Pyongyang, +850 2 381 7385.
+
Those on an extended stay, or traveling for business, may be able to get on-line but this needs to be confirmed and arranged some days in advance. Advise your tour operator or inviting party of your requirements well ahead of time. As with anything else in North Korea, if you do obtain access you should assume it's possible for your traffic to be monitored, and use the Internet accordingly. Also, keep in mind that the DPRK works under an intranet.
 
*'''Polish Embassy'''[http://www.phenian.polemb.net ],Tedonggang - Munsu-Dong, Pyongyang, D.P.R.K. phone: +850 2 381 7325, +850 2 381 7328, +850 2 381 7331 fax: +850 2 381 7634 fax/phone: +850 2 381 7637
 
  
*'''Swiss Embassy''' [http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/de/home/reps/asia/vdvk/afokor.html], Daedonggang District Munhundong, Yubo Street No. 3, Pyongyang. +850 2 381 76 45, email: [mailto:[email protected] [email protected].net]
+
==Cope==
 +
Few western countries have an embassy or consulate in North Korea.  For many years the '''Swedish Embassy''' in Pyongyang was the only western embassy, although today there are [[Pyongyang#Embassies|embassies]] for several European countries including the UK, Poland, Germany, Romania and Czech Republic.
  
*'''Swedish Embassy''' [http://www.regeringen.se/sb/d/4189/l/en/pd/4189/e/3647], Munsu-dong, Daehak Street, Taedonggang District, Pyongyang. +850 2 381 74 85, email: [mailto:[email protected] [email protected]] <nowiki>**</nowiki>
 
  
*'''Vietnamese Embassy''' 7 Munsu Street, Pyongyang. +850 2 381 73 53, email: [mailto:[email protected] [email protected]]
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*'''Russian Embassy''' Chungang-gu, Singang-Dong, Pyongyang, phone: +850-2-3813101, +850-2-3813102 fax: +850-2-3813427, email: [mailto:[email protected]]
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<small><nowiki>*</nowiki> The British Embassy incorporates a minor Canadian diplomatic presence, this offers reasonable consular services to Canadian citizens</small>
 
 
 
<small><nowiki>**</nowiki> The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with The D.P.R.K, American citizens can receive limited consular help from the Swedish Embassy (usually emergencies only)</small>
 
 
 
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Latest revision as of 11:36, 21 September 2018

Travel Warning WARNING: Some governments advise against all travel to North Korea due to the uncertain security situation caused by North Korea’s nuclear weapons development program and related tension. There are no resident Canadian or American diplomatic offices in the DPRK. The ability of officials to provide consular assistance is extremely limited. Sweden, through its Embassy in Pyongyang, is the "Protecting Power" for Canadian, American and Australian nationals if any emergency consular assistance is required, but such assistance will likely be very limited, due to the unpredictability of the actions of the government of the DPRK. Those planning to engage in activities that the North Korean government forbids must be prepared to face imprisonment, torture, and death (22 Jan 2015).
Government travel advisories: AustraliaCanadaIrelandNew ZealandUnited KingdomUnited States

Travel Warning WARNING: As of September 2017 Americans traveling on a US passport will not be permitted to travel to North Korea without special permission from the US State Department.

https://travel.state.gov/content/travel/en/passports/requirements/passport-for-travel-to-north-korea.html

Travel Warning WARNING: North Korea has temporarily frozen current tourist visa applications and suspended tourist visa issuance until September 9. Tourists who have already been issued visas, or whose tours are scheduled after September 9, should not be affected.

https://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/north-korea-tourist-visa-freeze-tour-operators-cancel-holidays-a8492601.html

Pyongyang
Location
North Korea in its region.svg
Flag
Flag of North Korea.svg
Quick Facts
Capital Pyongyang
Government Juche unitary state, necrocracy
Currency North Korean won (₩, KPW)
Chinese renminbi (CNY)
Euro (€)
US dollar (USD)
(The renminbi, euro, and US dollar are commonly used on the black market, and often reserved for foreigners)
Area 120,540km²
Population 24,895,000 (2013 census)
Language Korean
Religion State atheism; Cheondoism, Buddhism, and Christianity are practised by a very small minority, but this is illegal.
Electricity 220V, 60Hz (European plug)
Country code 850
Internet TLD .kp
Time Zone UTC +8:30
Emergencies dial 119 or 112 from a mobile (only some operators speak English)

North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea or DPRK) is a country in East Asia occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula that lies between Korea Bay and the East Sea. It borders China to the north, Russia to the north east and South Korea to the south.

Tourist travel to North Korea is only possible as part of a guided tour. Independent travel is not permitted. If you are not prepared to accept severe limitations on your movements, behaviour, and freedom of expression, you should not travel to North Korea.

Understand[edit]

" In the past, I've visited remote places - North Korea, Ethiopia, Easter Island - partly as a way to visit remote states of mind: remote parts of myself that I wouldn't ordinarily explore." — Pico Iyer

History[edit]

Prehistory and founding of a nation[edit]

Archaeological finds of prehistoric toolmaking on the Korean Peninsula date back to 70,000 BC with the first pottery found around 8000 BC. Neolithic era comb-pattern pottery culture peaked around 3500-2000BC.

Legend has it that Korea began with the founding of Gojoseon (also called Ancient Chosun) by the legendary Dangun in 2333 BC. Archaeological and contemporaneous written records of Gojoseon as a kingdom date back to around 7th-4th century BC, functioning as a loose confederation of smaller polities. The western half fell to the encroaching Han Dynasty of China and its territories were governed by remote outposts, but was a tenuous foothold and the natives of the peninsula and Manchuria soon reclaimed the territory, namely the Three Kingdoms of Korea, Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje. The Goguryeo Kingdom (or Koguryo) ruled the entire area of modern North Korea, as well as parts of Manchuria and the northern parts of modern South Korea. Buddhist and Confucian teachings were prominent in the Goguryeo Kingdom, which adopted Buddhism as the state religion in 372. Despite repeated attempts by China, namely the Sui Dynasty and later the Tang Dynasty, to conquer the Korean Peninsula, northern-based Goguryeo managed to repel them. Eventually, Goguryeo fell to a Silla-Tang alliance, which had earlier defeated Baekje. This "unified" Korea under the Silla dynasty, however true political and cultural unification would be achieved by the Goryeo dynasty after absorbing Goguryeo remnants (Balhae) in 926. Even though Tang later invaded, Silla forces managed to drive them out, thus maintaining Korea's independence.

Buddhist learning spread during this time and the former Baekje and Goguryeo leaders were treated well under the Silla. The kingdom saw relative peace until the 8th and 9th centuries when, ironically, Goguryeo revivalists led uprisings and toppled the Silla, establishing the Goryeo (also called Koryo) dynasty, from which the name "Korea" was derived by Westerners. One highlight of the Goryeo dynasty was that in 1234 the world's first metal movable type was invented by a Korean named Choe Yun-ui (200 years before Gutenberg's printing press). During this period, the nation suffered Mongol invasions, which led to unrest and the eventual establishment of the Joseon Dynasty in 1389.

Joseon Dynasty[edit]

The Joseon Dynasty was one of the longest running dynasties in the world, ruling from 1389 until 1910. It was during the early part of the Joseon dynasty that Korean technological inventions such as the world's first water clock, ironclad ship, and other innovations took place. King Sejong the Great's rule was especially celebrated, as he helped create the Korean script, choson'gul, which allowed even the commoners to become literate. He also expanded the nation's military power to drive out Japanese pirates and northern nomads and regain territories that had been lost. Korean culture developed rapidly and flourished during the Joseon Dynasty until it was attacked by the Japanese in the 16th century and then attacked twice by China, which resulted in severed relations with Japan and Korea becoming a Chinese tributary state. In spite of its losses, the nation experienced about 200 years of peace, and its isolationist policies allowed it to further develop a uniquely Korean culture and identity.

Rapid modernization stirred by the Second Industrial Revolution created tension between China and Japan as they felt the pressures of Western expansionism, each wanting to extend their influence over Korea. This eventually led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894, which took place on the Korean Peninsula, devastating the Joseon. Then in 1905, Japan defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, making Korea a protectorate until they were finally able to annex Korea in 1910.

Japanese occupation and a divided Korea[edit]

The Japanese exercised rule of the peninsula until their defeat in World War II in 1945. Japan was forced to surrender the territory and the Allied Powers divided the nation at the 38th Parallel, with the Soviet Union occupying the northern half and the United States occupying the southern half. The divide was supposed to be temporary, however, the political struggle between the two nations to gain influence over the unified Korea led each to establish governments within their newly created territories. North Korea was established as its own nation in 1948, following the Soviet Communist model, with Kim Il-Sung as its leader.

Conflicts between the North and South were common in the early years and the tension came to a head in 1950 when North Korea launched an invasion of South Korea, starting the Korean War. The South was backed by the United States and the United Nations. The North was backed by the Soviet Union, and China later. The US/UN effort was able to drive North Korea all the way up near the Chinese border, then the Chinese sent in their army and the war continued. After 2.5 million Koreans killed or wounded, an armistice was signed in 1953, maintaining the original borders set prior to the war. Because no treaty has been signed since the armistice, the nations are officially still at war.

Modern North Korea[edit]

With the nation in a shambles after the war, Kim Il-Sung launched a campaign to unite the people by defaming the United States with Soviet support and purging the nation of dissidents and anyone thought to oppose the revolution. He sided with China during the Sino-Soviet Split on Communist philosophy because he disliked Krushchev's reforms. He began to praise the Soviet Union once again when China underwent its Cultural Revolution, straining relations with both neighbours. Consequently, he developed his own ideology, Juche (self-reliance), to create the sort of Socialism he wanted for his nation. Throughout his life he added to and altered the Juche ideology in order to justify his governing decisions.

The Korean War not only divided the people, but it also divided the labour force. When the peninsula was united, North Korea had most of the nation's industries while South Korea was the agricultural centre. This divide allowed North Korea to initially bounce back faster than the South in the rebuilding process. The Soviet Union then funded agricultural efforts in the North, in accordance with the Socialist model. This system began to unravel in the late 1970s and 1980s as the Soviet system began to falter. With the end of Soviet aid in 1991 it became impossible to continue to supply sufficient fuel, fertilizer and equipment. After so many years of government mismanagement and severe floods, the North's agricultural system collapsed in the mid-1990s leading to widespread famine and death for countless North Koreans. Kim Il-Sung died in 1994 while the nation tried to deal with the crisis, slowing government response as the new leader Kim Jong-Il inherited his father's position.

The North finally asked international relief agencies to assist and the worst aspects of the famine were contained.

Today the DPRK maintains an army of about one million men, most stationed within a few miles of the DMZ which divides the two Koreas. North Korea's long-range missile development and research into nuclear weapons and massive conventional armed forces are of major concern to the international community. In December 2002, Kim Jong-Il reneged on a 1994 "Agreed Framework" signed by his father which required the shut down of its nuclear reactors, expelling UN monitors and further raising fears that the nation would produce nuclear weapons. Missile testing was conducted in 1998, 2006, April 2009 and most recently May 2013. In October 2006 North Korea announced that it had conducted its first nuclear test. These actions have led to UN and other international sanctions.

Current negotiations, most notably the "Six-Party Talks" involving China, Russia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and the United States, are aimed at bringing about an end to the DPRK nuclear weapons program, in hopes that a peace treaty to officially end the Korean War may finally be agreed upon, paving the way for the opening of diplomatic ties between North Korea and the United States. Unfortunately, in March 2010, a South Korean ship was sunk near the 38th parallel, increasing tensions between North and South Korea. Although North Korea claims not to have attacked the ship, the blame has largely been placed on North Korea.

The death of Kim Jong-Il on 17 Dec 2011 has created many feelings of uncertainty as the world waits to see how the transfer of power will affect the nation. North Korea has also developed miltary armored vehicles since the war such as the Pokpung-ho (Storm Tiger) (M-2002), the Type 85 (YW531H), and the Chonma-ho (Pegasus)(most of which were made and developed by North Korea after the Soviet Union fell)

People[edit]

In North Korea, the vast majority of people are Korean. Because of the lack of immigration, North Korea is one of the most ethnically homogeneous nations on earth. At any one time, there are a few hundred foreigners to be found; however, most of them are tourists.

Climate[edit]

The climate is generally classed as continental, with rainfall concentrated in summer. Summer months are warm, but winter temperatures can fall as low as -30 degrees C. Late spring droughts are often followed by severe flooding. There are occasional typhoons during the early Autumn.

Terrain[edit]

Mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys. The coastal plains are wide in the West; discontinuous in east. The mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated.

Read[edit]

The Real North Korea, Dr Andrei Lankov. Brilliant summary of the history and politics of North Korea from a level-headed Russian academic who has spent time on the ground in North Korea as an exchange student during the 1980s.

A Capitalist in North Korea, Felix Abt. Excellent account by a Swiss businessman who lived and worked in Pyongyang for a decade during the 2000s.

Eyes of the Tailless Animals: Prison Memoirs of a North Korean Woman by Soon Ok Lee. First-hand accounts of the prison system within North Korea

The Aquariums of Pyongyang, by Kang Chol-Hwan and Pierre Rigoulot: An account of the imprisonment of Kang Chol-Hwan and his family in the Yodok concentration camp in North Korea.

Regions[edit]

Map of North Korea with regions colour-coded
Donghae Coast (North Hamgyong, South Hamgyong, Kangwon, Kŭmgang-san)
Baekdu Mountains (Ryanggang, Chagang)
Pyongan (North P'yongan, South P'yongan, Pyongyang, Shinuiju)
Hwanghae (North Hwanghae, South Hwanghae, Kaesong)

Cities[edit]

  • Pyongyang — the capital city and the former capital of Goguryeo during the Three Kingdoms period
  • Hamhung — North Korea's second largest city
  • Chongjin — Industrial city in the North East, very rarely visited by tourists
  • Kaesong — former capital during the Goryeo dynasty
  • Wonsan — East coast port city slowly opening to tourists
  • Nampho — industrial centre and port city on the western coast
  • Rason SEZ - special economic zone that borders Russia and China

Other destinations[edit]

  • Chilbosan - the Seven Treasures Mountain with surreal rock formations accessible via car from Rason SEZ or plane from Pyongyang
  • Kumgangsan — the scenic Diamond Mountains, accessible on tours from the South
  • Myohyangsan — the Mysterious Fragrant Mountain is one of the North's best hiking spots
  • Paektusan — the tallest mountain in Korea and the Kim dynasty's mythical birthplace
  • Panmunjom — the last outpost of the Cold War in the DMZ between South and North

Get in[edit]

Visiting North Korea can be challenging, and you will not have the freedom to explore the country without a North Korean escort, either as part of a group or individual tour.

Citizens of South Korea are normally not permitted to visit North Korea. In addition, there have been reports of difficulties regarding Israeli, American and Japanese nationals. In January 2010, North Korea lifted the restrictions on American citizens who are now free to visit at any time of the year - but they are not allowed to travel by train (especially the train to Beijing) or to participate in homestay-programs. Contrary to rumour, Israelis and Jewish citizens of other countries do not face any additional restrictions. Citizens of all countries will need a visa, which will only be issued after your tour has been booked, approved by the North Korean authorities and paid for. Journalists (or those suspected of being journalists) require special permission, which is quite difficult to obtain. The North Koreans do not allow journalists to visit the country on tourist visas. A specialist North Korean travel agency can help you sort out the complex and ever-changing regulations. North Korea will rarely in practice refuse a visa to a tourist who meets the various requirements.

Tourists often arranged a tourist visa through booking a tour with the travel agencies that organise such tours. The travel agencies will usually deal with the visa on their behalf, although in some cases tourists are required to have a short telephone interview with the North Korean embassy in order to verify their identity and their job. In most cases the interviews are conducted in a friendly matter so it is nothing to be worried about. Visas are often only confirmed on the day before the tour, but rarely will a tourist ever get rejected (unless you show that you are of political status or being a journalist).

North Korean tourists visas are often issued on a tourist card. If joining a tour group, group visas are often issued on separate sheets of papers containing all the members of the group, attached with a tourist card that bear the name of the tour leader. This visa is never held by the tourists, although tourists can ask to take a photo of the visa themselves. In both case, no stamp will be put onto the passport. The only way where a visa and entrance stamp will be put on the passport is when the visa is issued in European embassies, which is very rare for tourists to visit North Korea as most travel agencies operate tours out of China (and hence only arranged the visa in China.) With prior notice via your tour operator, tourist visas can be obtained on the same day (around a 20 minute wait) for GBP20 at the DPRK Embassy in London. Groups such as Choson Exchange, which bring participants to teach entrepreneurship and business, receive an official visa instead of a tourist visa.

Kijong-dong village, in the DMZ near Panmunjom

Tours[edit]

North Korea can be visited by an organised tour or as a volunteer with an educational organization such as Choson Exchange. Prices start from around USD1,000/€900/GBP770 for a 5-day group tour including accommodation, meals and transport from Beijing, but can go up considerably if you want to travel around the country or "independently" (as your own one-person escorted group). Tour operators/travel agencies that organise their own tours to North Korea include:


  • Adventure Korea - Seoul
  • org Choson Exchange - Not a tour operator but a non-profit bringing volunteers to teach business and entrepreneurship in North Korea
  • Uri Tours Inc. - NYC, US - Largest American provider of North Korea travel and tours; exclusive ticketing agent for Air Koryo in the Americas; specializes in soft adventure and cultural tours
  • Travel Masters - Queensland, Australia
  • DDCTS - Dandong
  • Juche Travel Services - UK, Beijing
  • Korea Konsult - Stockholm
  • Korea Reisedienst - Hannover
  • Koryo Tours and Koryo Group - Beijing, Shanghai, Belgium, UK - offers a variety of itineraries; the company also organises school visits and sports exchanges and has co-produced 3 documentary films about North Korea
  • Krahun Co. - Rason SEZ, Yanji. The only travel & consulting company based in DPRK that's wholly owned and operated by North Americans since 1999.
  • Lupine Travel - Wigan, UK.
  • NoordKorea2GO - Amsterdam
  • Regent Holidays - Both group and tailor made tours to the DPRK since 1985.
  • Viatges Pujol - Barcelona, Spain. Travel agency for North Korea custom private tours and groups.
  • KTG - Shenyang, China - arranges trips at budget rates and group sizes are small
  • Asia Holidays - Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: travel agency of tour operator Phoenix Voyages operating in DPRK with offices in South-east Asia.
  • Pyongyang Travel - Berlin, Germany - Travel Agency for Travel to North Korea. Pyongyang Travel is your partner for travel and holidays in North Korea.
  • Visit North Korea- UK/Shenzhen- Organises high quality educational orientated travel, as well as study tours and other cultural orientated activities.
  • Tongil Tours - Canberra/Sydney - organizes group tours, custom private tours and study tours as well as academic and cultural exchanges, guides all speak Korean and have academic backgrounds in Korean Studies.
  • Young Pioneer Tours - Xi'an, Beijing, UK, USA - budget tours starting from €445 for a 3-day, 2-night round trip train to Pyongyang from Dandong
  • Asia Senses Travel & Tours - Hanoi, Vietnam - Directly contact with North Korea Travel company. Asia Senses offers private tours, group shared tours as well as study and cultural exchange tours.

No matter which company you decide to book with, all tours are hosted on the ground by one of the DPRK's state owned travel companies such as the Korean International Travel Company (the oldest and largest), Korea International Youth and Children's Travel Company, or Korea Sporting Travel Company and it will be their guides who show you around. The average number of tourists per group each company takes will vary considerably so you may want to ask about this before booking a trip.

Most people travelling to North Korea will travel through Beijing and you will probably pick up your visa from there (some agents arrange their visas elsewhere beforehand though). The North Korean consulate building is separate from the main embassy building at Ritan Lu, and can be found round the corner at Fangcaodi Xijie. It's open M/W/F; 09:30-11:30 plus 14:00-17:30 and Tu/Th/Sa only 09:30-11:30. Bring your travel permission, USD45 and two passport photos. You can also enter DPRK through Rason SEZ or Namyang via Yanji, China, or Dumangang City via Khasan, Russia.

Your guides will take your passport and keep it during your stay in North Korea, or at least for the first couple of days of your tour, for "security reasons" (or simply because your entry and exit dates must be registered - the black stamps on the back of your visa or passport). Make sure your passport looks decent and doesn't differ from the most common passports from your country.

Visa-free entry from South Korea[edit]

There is one place in North Korea that can be visited without needing any kind of North Korean visa:

{Until 2009, visa-free - actually, special group visa - tours were possible to two other places in North Korea — however, all travel from the ROK to these DPRK locations has been terminated as a result of the 2008 killing of South Korean tourist Park Wang Ja by a DPRK soldier in 2008. (All assets held by the former South Korean operators of these tourist facilities in the North were seized by the DPRK régime in 2011.)

The two tours, that have been suspended until further notice, were:

  • Kaesong (Gaeseong) - was open to day-long group bus tours from Seoul organized by Hyundai Asan.
  • Kumgangsan (Geumgangsan) - was accessible by group bus tours from South Korea organized by Hyundai Asan. There were daily buses from Seoul to Hwajinpo, the marshalling area for tourists, who then went by special buses through the DMZ to Kumgang. Tours were normally 2 days and 1 night, or more appropriately for foreign travellers, 3 days and 2 nights.)

Both locations were accessible to Americans, South Koreans, and most other nationalities}

Hyundai Asan was planning to open up tours to Paektusan (Baekdusan), called Changbaishan on the Chinese side of the border, involving a charter flight from Seoul to Samjiyeon near Mt. Paektu, with the rest of the tour by bus and on foot. These never materialised though, so your options are to visit the Chinese side of the mountain (no special permits required) or add it as an expensive add-on to a standard North Korea tour.

By plane[edit]

North Korea's sole airline, Air Koryo, currently has scheduled flights from Beijing, which depart at 11:30 every Tuesday and Saturday, and return from Pyongyang at 09:00 on the same days. These flights are often supplemented with additional charter flights to suit demand. Air Koryo also flies to and from Shenyang every Wednesday and Saturday, from Vladivostok every Tuesday morning, and from Kuala Lumpur every Sunday.

Air Koryo is the only one star airline on Skytrax's list. To date, Air Koryo has only had one incident resulting in death, in Africa in 1983. The Air Koryo fleet consists largely of Soviet-made aircraft built between 1965 and 1990. However, most Soviet-era aircraft are restricted to operating domestic flights only. Currently, a small fleet of modern (less than 10 years old) Tupolev Tu-204 and Antonov An-148 jets handle international routes. Domestically, you'll most likely end up on one of their four Ilyushin IL-62-Ms (1979-1988 vintage), but Air Koryo also flies Tu-154s dating back to the seventies and Tu-134s from 1983.

The only other airline with scheduled service to North Korea is Air China, a member of the Star Alliance, which flies three times weekly from Beijing to Pyongyang. Neither Aeroflot nor China Southern continue to fly to North Korea.

By train[edit]

Train K27/K28 connect Pyongyang to Beijing in China via Tianjin, Tangshan, Beidaihe, Shanhaiguan, Jinzhou, Shenyang, Benxi, Fenghuangcheng, Dandong and Shinuiju four times a week. There is only one class on the international train between Beijing and Pyongyang: soft sleeper. It can be booked at the station in Beijing, but reservations must be made several days in advance. Your tour agency will usually do this for you, unless you are travelling on work purposes. It has been increasingly difficult to book space on the Beijing–Pyongyang route, so confirm your tickets well in advance.

Once a week train K27/K28 also conveys direct sleeping cars from Moscow via China to Pyongyang and vice versa. The route is Moscow - Novosibirsk - Irkutsk - Chita - Harbin - Shenyang - Dandong - Shinuiju - Pyongyang. Departure from Moscow is every Friday evening, arrival at Pyongyang is one week later on Friday evening. Departure from Pyongyang is Saturday morning, arrival at Moscow is Friday afternoon.

Tourists from Dandong are often arranged to take the train from Dandong to Sinuiju (just across the Yalu River from Dandong), or a bus from Dandong to Sinuiju. North Korean officers come into the train to check the passport and give it to the tour guide. North Korean officers also do a manual check of the entire luggage, and will ask to look at some of the photos taken in North Korea. Tourists then change to a domestic train (sometimes a special tourist train with a/c) to travel from Sinuiju to Pyongyang. Returning from Pyongyang, tourists often take the domestic train (or again, the special tourist train) back to Sinuiju where they either buses to the border and take the bus back to Dandong or change back to the Dandong-Sinuiju train back to Dandong. Immigration procedures in the North Korean side are taken on the train or before boarding the bus.

There is also a direct rail link into Russia, crossing the North Korean/Russian border at Tumangan/Khasan. This route is served by a direct sleeping car Moscow - Pyongyang and vice versa and runs twice monthly (11th and 25th from Moscow), arriving Pyongyang 9 days later. However, since the mid-nineties this has not been an officially permitted route for tourists, and KITC refuses to organize trips using this route; two Western tourists have been successful in taking this train into North Korea, but report that further trips on this route would probably be unsuccessful.

Some agents can arrange to cross the border from Dandong to Sinuiju by minibus and then board a domestic North Korean train to Pyongyang. Usually you will be seated in a hard seat carriage with KPA soldiers and party workers travelling with their families. There is access to a restaurant car which stocks imported beers (Heineken) and soft drinks as well as some local beers and spirits. Taking photographs on this train is strictly forbidden. This train is supposed to take around 4 hours to reach Pyongyang but has been known to take as long as 14. If travelling in winter be prepared that temperatures inside the carriage can be as low as -10°C.

American and Japanese citizens are currently restricted from taking the train into and out of the DPRK due to poor bilateral relations.

By boat[edit]

There is an unscheduled cargo-passenger ship between Wonsan and Niigata, Japan. Only available for use by some Japanese and North Korean nationals, the boat service has been suspended indefinitely due to North Korea's reported nuclear testing; Japan has banned all North Korean ships from entering Japanese ports, and has banned North Koreans from entering the country. Be careful about getting too close to the North Korean border in a boat; many South Korean fishermen are still waiting to leave North Korea.

Besides the unscheduled ferry there is also a cruise ship that operates between the coast of Northeastern China, and Mt. Kumgang. Joint operated by China and North Korea the cruise line uses a 40 year old ship. The cruise trip is 22 hours long at each leg, and is 44 hours long in total, but as a person outside of China you may not be allowed to go on the cruise to Mt. Kumgang.

By bus[edit]

A bus is theoretically available from Dandong, China, across the Yalu River to Sinuiju. It's run by the "Dandong China Travel Company" but is only open to Chinese citizens at present. You can also take a private bus from Dandong over the Sino-Korea Friendship Bridge (the same bridge ove the Yalu river that the trains take) but it is booked through the travel company you are using to enter North Korea as part of the tour.

Get around[edit]

Typical highway scene in North Korea: tidy strands of trees with a large (and empty) patch of asphalt in between

All your transport needs will be dealt with by your tour company. Most of the time this means buses, although tour groups visiting remote sites (eg. Paekdusan, Mount Chilbo) occasionally use chartered or even regular flights by Air Koryo. Orang Airport (serves Chongjin, Mt Chilbo and Rason) has extremaly rudimentary facilities. Do not exect paved roads in this area.

Wandering around on your own is not allowed, and you are required to have a guide to escort you at all times.

A carefully stage-managed five-station ride on the P'yŏngyang metro is included on the itinerary of most trips to Pyongyang, but use of any other form of local public transport is generally impossible.

If travelling in a small enough group it is also possible to organise a walk through some areas of Pyongyang with some travel agents (Koryo).

There are four major highways leading our from Pyongyang. The one to the DMZ is quite OK, expect average speed about 75 km/h. The one to Mt. Myohang (north) is a little worse but still OK, say 70 km/h average. Highway (very, very wide, in fact the only super-wide highway in North Korea) leading to Nampo port is partialy reconstructed, allowing 100+ km/h, however the old part is way slower and bumpy. Highway to Wonsan (leading also to Masik Ski Resort) is very, very bad. Crumbling concrete, maybe 45 km/h is average speed for bus, little more for cars. Together 4 lanes (no divide in the middle), tunnels with 2 lanes only. At places narrowed to 2 lanes by rocks. You may see lot of workers but no real highway reconstruction work is done, just patching.

Map here on wikitravel also show highway from Wonsan to Mt Kumgang (South Korean border), and despite there in fact is highway sign on this road, this 100 km road is what it is, 2nd class road with no resemblence of a highway. Concrete, slow, may take 3 hours to get from Wonsan to the "reuning families" hotel under Mt. Kumgang. Quite lot of local trafic - bikes, ox carts.

Talk[edit]

The official language is Korean. Note that North Koreans are quite picky about referring to Korean as Choseonmal, not hangukmal. Unlike South Korea, North Korea has abolished Chinese hanja characters and uses hangeul characters, known as Choseongul, exclusively.

Your guides will speak fairly decent and understandable English (some better than others) and will translate something if you wish. Other guides have the ability to speak both Korean and either Mandarin, German, Russian, Japanese, or Spanish, depending on where you come from.

Although locals may be discouraged from speaking with foreigners due to government propaganda that implies foreigners are generally up to no good, and language can prove to be an additional barrier, there is no formal law preventing citizens of the DPRK from interacting with tourists. A visit to the DPRK around their holidays may give you more of a chance to interact with the locals.

See[edit][add listing]

All tours are accompanied by a guide from a local state owned travel company (not "minders", and not from the government except in the broadest sense that everyone in the DPRK has on paper a job at some state-owned institution or another), who will decide what you can and cannot see. From the moment you leave your hotel, expect to be accompanied by one or more guides. Besides ensuring that tourists do not stray outside of the designated tourist areas, their jobs include inspecting any photographs which they think do not portray North Korea or its government in a good light, and ordering photographers to delete them. It is generally advisable to listen to what your guide is saying, and agree with it. Asking awkward socio-political questions will result in vague, evasive replies at best, and several hours of interrogation at worst.

If you are uncertain about taking pictures anywhere, ask your guide. (Permission for subjects seems to vary wildly; you may get a guide that is relatively relaxed and will allow you to take pictures from a bus or within a city. On the other hand, you may get one that will strictly adhere to controlling where you take pictures restricting anything taken from a tour bus or of certain areas, like Pyongyang's city streets, in general. There is simply no way to tell until you are actually on a tour.) If you think a particular photograph might be embarrassing to the DPRK in general, ask or simply don't risk taking it at all.

Photography of military personnel is also generally prohibited. Again, if in doubt, ask your guide. However, there are instances where it is impossible not to photograph certain sites without including a few military personnel within the picture such as at Mansudae (the monument site for the statues of Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il) or at a local funfair. Reactions seem to vary between being ignored to curiosity, although you will be told where it is strictly prohibited from taking pictures (such as at certain areas of the DMZ) and the guards/soldiers there will react unfavourably to being photographed in general. Other areas where photographs are prohibited is inside the Friendship Exhibition displaying gifts from around the world to Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il and within the Kumsusan Memorial Palace.

The majority of sightseeing consists of visits to various war memorials, monuments to the Great Leader and the Workers Party of Korea, and numerous museums (mostly war-related, like the statues and monuments). The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) is a popular destination for most tour groups in North Korea.

Please note that whilst you are in North Korea, the prevailing viewpoint places blame on the Americans for starting the Korean War; disagreeing with this position is likely to cause problems for both you and your guide particularly as the two Koreas are still technically at war with only a cease-fire between them. Despite its misleading name, the DMZ is heavily guarded and dotted with minefields and other booby-traps. Under no circumstances must you stray from your group, or take any photographs of military installations. However, the "peace village" Panmunjom may be photographed, and boasts the world's third tallest flagpole.

Whilst on these guided tours, especially to the state museums and monuments, you will undoubtedly endure an ongoing barrage of propaganda, consisting largely of anecdotes about things that Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il did for their country. Some of these claims may seem bizarre and even amusing to the outsider; however, a straight face is generally advisable. It is generally safest to at least appear to take everything they say seriously, even if it contradicts everything you were ever taught in history class or defies even the most basic human reasoning.

See more: [Tumen]

Do[edit][add listing]

As mentioned above, there is very little to do beyond the watchful eye of your designated minder(s), with most recreational activity taking place within the confines of the tourist resorts. Bowling and karaoke are among the latest additions to its surprising abundance of recreational activities. The karaoke videos are often accompanied by dramatic historical footage of the Korean War, or goose-stepping People's Army soldiers.

Interestingly enough, North Korea has three amusement parks, two of which are abandoned due to mutual lack of interest and electricity. Sadly, the Kaeson Youth Fair has now closed, taking the infamous "Roller Coaster of Death" along with it. Still visible are the shooting-galleries with backdrops of snarling American and Japanese soldiers; however, it is unlikely that your guide will let you venture into any abandoned areas. The one remaining amusement park contains some rides which are actually quite modern and non-lethal, at least by North Korean standards, and is about as worthy of a visit as everything else you'll see whilst in North Korea.

Each year the government, along with various tourist agencies, operates a marathon in Pyongyang and, in 2015, a on the sacred Mount Paekdu in the remote north of the country. The latter is a sacred place to both North and South Koreans.

The night life in Pyongyang is remarkably safe and non-violent, compared to the capitals of other nations. In general, the civilians are not a threat. The plain-clothes secret police, however, may or may not be a threat, depending on what you say or do. The North Korean definition of popular music is at least two decades behind the rest of the world; expect an onslaught of 80s hits from the West (some obviously are copies unauthorised by the original artists, to judge by the quality), punctuated by the eerie caterwauling of Korean folk songs, and at least try to look enthusiastic about the whole scene. Fortunately, alcohol is cheap and plentiful, although it is not advisable to become intoxicated and make a scene of oneself. Furthermore, both the trafficking and consumption of narcotics are punished VERY severely by authorities; traffickers can expect to face the death penalty if caught, although Marijuana isn't treated as a narcotic in North Korea and is considered legal. Note that Marijuana is considered as a narcotic in China, and transporting any of them back to China may get you into a jail or even death penalty as transporting narcotics is one of the non-negotiable crimes in China.

Finally, please note that power cuts may hit without warning in the middle of any activity. Whilst you might welcome this if the jukebox is starting to get to you, this is not a desirable outcome if you are in the middle of an amusement-park ride, particularly as these blackouts can last for hours at a time.

Buy[edit][add listing]

In 2002 Foreign Exchange Certificates (FEC) were abolished and along with them went all the different coloured currencies. Now there is just the standard North Korean won, which officially trades at approximately 100 per US dollar or euro (you get more for euro usually) (Sep 2018) but has the same symbol as the South Korean won: . This however is the tourist rate and is only used in shops where won absolutely CANNOT be used (hotel shops, some tourist shops with books or stamps). Real rate in exchange places (if you can visit any) is about 9400 won per 1 euro. If you can buy something in real shop prices are:

Various snacks - 1000 won Draft beer - 1500-2000 won Soju (local alcohol) - 1300 won and up Small cake - 500-1000 won Tie - 20 000 won and up Hotdog 5000-10000 won Ice Cream 1-3000 won


Importing or exporting Korean won is strictly forbidden and life threateningly dangerous. Conversely, were you to sneak out some won, they are practically worthless outside the country, but make unique souvenirs.

In reality, foreigners are expected to use euros or, as an alternative, Chinese yuan or US dollars. Getting the local money is possible, but it is difficult to use as many shops want foreign currency. Currency handling is often bizarre, with a frequent lack of change and a number of rule-of-thumb conversions leading to highly unorthodox transactions. So be sure to bring lots of small change. On the other hand, since you will already have paid in advance for your hotel, transportation, and meals, your only expenses will be bottled water, souvenirs, snacks, drinks at the bars, laundry at the hotel (which is as expensive as in Europe), and tips for your guides.

Prices will be given in won, and you'll then have to ask, "How much is this in euro? And in dollars?". In August 2012, euro got you the best value for your money. Bring some small change, there's not always enough.

In any case, the only shops you will be likely allowed to visit are the state-run souvenir shops at your hotel and at the various tourist attractions. It is generally impossible to visit a real local shop which serves the local population, though you might get lucky asking your guide if he/she trusts you enough.

Beware that some shops use very simple formula 1 EUR = 1 USD = 10 CNY. This of course gives you best rate in USD. Otherwise it is better to have loads of change in CNY. No coins are used (with exception of 1e and 2€ coins and maybe 50c and 20c at some places). Do not realy on that, bring plenty of 1USD bills, and change

If you pay in hard currency shops and in hotel, prices are easily 10 times higher than in local market (like Kwangbok Supermarket):

Coke (can) 1 USD Coffee 3-5 USD Soju 10 CNY

Credit cards are useless, either for online usage or for non-existing ATMs.

Souvenirs[edit]

Pyongyang store for foreigners

There are numerous hard-currency only souvenir shops at tourist sites. Interesting souvenirs include propaganda books and videos, postcards and postage stamps. At some tourist sites (such as King Kongmin's tomb), you can purchase freshly finished paintings with your name and the artist's name at the bottom. And if you are very lucky you might be able to get hold of some Socialist Realism paintings, although customs officials are not keen on these things going out of the country, so do beware.

On the tour to Kaesong tourists are warned not to purchase anything that could be construed as North Korean propaganda including any images of North Korean leaders such as stamps or postcards. No biographies or books are permitted back into South Korea. This is a South Korean restriction. It does not apply to border crossings with China. If you are leaving the country via flight to Beijing or train via Dandong you should encounter no problems bringing home any North Korean merchandise for your own personal enjoyment. Marijuana excluded, for sure.

You are, however, allowed to buy post cards and send them to yourself in any country except South Korea which apparently will not deliver them.

Some excellent paintings on silk or linen were available in Kaesong directly from the artist. Haggling for price is not permitted but the prices are very low.

Costs[edit]

You will pay for most things up-front as part of your tour. Most sights have a shop associated with them where you can buy bottled water, souvenirs and snacks. These are reasonably priced. In August 2007, large bottles of local beer cost US$2 at the hotel bars in Pyongyang. If you haven't planned on spending money on gambling at the casino at Yanggakdo Hotel, €200 for one week should be enough to cover your costs of water, drinks at the bars, souvenirs and tips for the guides. Bring small bills.

Eat[edit][add listing]

Your guide will order all your food for you, and you will eat in hard-currency only restaurants. Vegetarians and people with food allergies/dislikes of common foods such as seafood or eggs will need to make arrangements in advance. A visit to a "real" local restaurant may be possible; enquire with your guide.

There are a few western food options now in Pyongyang and these restaurants can usually be visited if arranged with the guides in advance. They will usually require additional payment though (unless you have discussed this already with your tour operator) as the costs are not included in the per diem fee charged by the Korean Travel Company. There are 2 Italian restaurants (one on Kwangbok Street which is near the Korean circus where the pizza is great, and they have imported a pizza oven and all the ingredients so the quality is very high; and one near the USS Pueblo) and 2 burger restaurants (the more accessible is in the Youth Hotel). Both are inexpensive and do inject some flavour onto a generally lacklustre eating scene - especially on long tours! Visit the Vienna coffee house which is on the river side of Kim Jong Il square, for a pretty good coffee served like you would get in Europe.

Drink[edit][add listing]

The legal drinking/purchasing age of alcoholic beverages is 18 and is heavily enforced.

The local speciality is insam-ju, Korean vodka infused with ginseng roots. Locally made Taedonggang beer is very good--the brewery was purchased from Ushers in the UK and moved to Pyongyang--and some of the sojus are not bad either. Local alcohol is inexpensive; a 650mL bottle of beer is €0.50. Imported beers, such as Heineken, are also available at similar prices. However do not get drunk and cause trouble. Toe the line and show respect, or you and your guide will face serious penalties.

Sleep[edit][add listing]

Yanggakdo International Hotel in P'yŏngyang

This is likely to be your principal expense while in North Korea. You may only stay at "designated tourist hotels", for which you will need to pay in hard currency. There may be discounts if you ask for lower class accommodation, if you are travelling as part of a group, or if it is low season (November – March). Costs for your tour, which will include accommodation, all sightseeing activities and meals, will range from US$70 to US$200 a day, depending on these factors.

Usually you pay for all your meals, hotel and Beijing–Pyeongyang journey to your tour operator before you leave. One week in high season at a four-star hotel will then cost something between €1,300 and €1,600, depending on your tour operator, but might get as low as €800 for five days.

Learn[edit]

Remember that you are one of only a VERY small number of individuals (from outside of the DPRK) on the entire face of the planet who is being allowed a glimpse into this closed society! Take advantage of the opportunity to learn about a rarely-explored culture!

Work[edit]

If you are interested in teaching in North Korea, you may find success by contacting the North Korean UN Mission in New York, or contacting a North Korean university directly. Your odds of success are, however, quite low: there is only a small team of 4 English Language Instructors dealing with teaching and teacher training, with a Project Manager leading the team of three, placed in Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies and Kim Hyung Jik University of Education.

There is an opportunity to teach in Pyongyang Summer Institute during summer time where it is opened to foreigners. It is voluntary, unpaid work.

Stay safe[edit]

Travel Warning WARNING: Under no circumstances are you to say anything that could be perceived as an insult to or critical of Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-Il, Kim Jong-Un, the Juche ideology, the Songun policy, the ruling Worker's Party of Korea, the North Korean government in general, or the citizens of North Korea. Simply avoid these topics if you can do so. Keep in mind that anyone can be an undercover government agent, so respond accordingly when this subject is at hand, always keep in mind you might be tested and pushed into admitting your real feelings on these subjects, whatever they may be. You and your guide are likely to face serious trouble. "In trouble" does not mean a slap on the wrist. North Korea is known for extremely harsh punishments which range (for the guides) from lengthy forced labor sentences to 20 years in a Forced Labor Camp, while you are likely to be sentenced to a stay in a local prison or labor camp, deported, and banned from re-entering. Be wary of your surroundings.

They will probably sit down and explain the rules ahead of time. Keep your mouth closed and you will be fine. You don't have to talk about how great the Kim family is, or praise songun or Juche; just be polite, nod, and bow when others do and there will be no problems.

The authorities are very touchy, and you need to watch what you say and how you say it. Some topics such as South Korean's living standard and the capitalist reform in China will definitely infuriate officials. Just do what the guides do, praise every stop on your tour, and remember the golden rule, "If you have nothing good to say, don't say it at all."

Crime levels are practically zero, at least to tourists on a strictly controlled tour. However, pickpockets are the least of your worries. Also, the official policy is that you are not to wander around on your own.

You are expected to get permission and/or have a guide accompany you if you are leaving your hotel on your own. This will vary depending on what hotel you are in. The Yanggakdo Hotel is on an island in the middle of the Taedong River in Pyongyang. Therefore you can walk around the area a little more freely than if you are at the Koryo Hotel in the city centre. You should always be friendly and courteous to your guides and driver who will normally reciprocate by trusting you more and giving you more freedom.

For taking photographs, one needs to exercise restraint, caution and common sense. If you appear to be looking for negative images of North Korea, the guides will not be happy and will tell you to delete any questionable images. In particular, you are not to take photos of anything military, including personnel, or anything showing the DPRK in a bad light.

As noted before, your photographic freedom can largely depend on the type of guides that you are assigned and the rapport that you have with them. In a best case scenario, you can often take pictures without feeling as if you're trying to sneak them by anyone and without pressure capturing some truly unique images. If you are in an area that prohibits picture taking, you will also be informed of this and it is best to simply follow your guide's direction. When in doubt, always ask. Your guide might even want to try out your camera and take a picture of you for your collection.

In a worst case scenario, you can be expected to raise your camera at a reasonable speed, compose and take the picture, and lower the camera at a reasonable speed. Don't try to take pictures of anything that you have been told not to, such as military personnel or certain locales. This may call attention to yourself and the image you are trying to take and can result, whether justified or not, in your being told to delete the image.

If you are a person of Korean descent, don't ever, ever tell anyone in the country that you are Korean, as you may be easily suspected as a person from South Korea, and as a result you are most likely to experience severely harsh punishments as well as being mistaken for entering illegally.

Drug trafficking can be punishable by death in North Korea, and even any consumption of narcotics can be fatal. Cannabis, however, is not banned and is mostly used for producing fibre. It can be often found growing freely alongside the road in North Korea.

Banned items[edit]

The North Korean government is known to try to control the media. Books, magazines and CDs can be confiscated if the content is considered inappropriate, although customs usually doesn't bother to take English books away if there are no explicit photos depicting politics of North Korean. In general, use common sense.

  • So-called Anti-North Korean Government materials will generally be confiscated: These include the Eyes of the Tailless Animals: Prison Memoirs of a North Korean Woman, etc, etc.
  • Pornography: A heavy penalty is imposed on all pornography and penalties are counted based on the number of pieces you bring into the country. If customs considers what you bring to be too much, lets say, more than 100 videos on your devices, they will likely detain you. Possession of pornography within North Korea carries the death penalty and is strictly enforced.
Travel Warning WARNING: Sony's 2014 release of The Interview is viewed extremely negatively by the current regime and as it is considered anti-governmental material, bringing it into North Korea is highly illegal and life-threateningly dangerous, as it depicts a mockery of Kim Jong-un and WILL NOT BE TOLERATED. Attempting to bring this movie into the country is emphatically discouraged.

Stay healthy[edit]

North Korea is one of the poorest countries in the world. As with other under-developed countries, the water is not always properly treated and there are reports of foreigners being hospitalized in the DPRK after drinking the water, so sticking to bottled water is highly recommended.

Medical facilities are clean, but very outdated and often suffer a lack of doctors who are actually healthy. If you fall ill you might be better off going to China for medical treatment. Contact your embassy or consulate in North Korea (if your country has one) for assistance. US citizens may contact the Swedish Embassy in Pyongyang for advice if needed.

Respect[edit]

It is important to emphasize that the government of the DPRK -- in particular the leaders Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il and Kim Jong-un -- are, publicly, very highly revered in North Korean culture. While devotion is not expected from tourists, especially given that the Juche philosophy of the DPRK is specifically aimed at the Korean people only and is not applicable to foreigners, criticizing them in any way is highly offensive and illegal, and will get you and particularly your guides into trouble. It is not worth inadvertently threatening your and their lives by insulting their leaders.

Also, when in North Korea, it is advisable to refer to the country as the DPRK instead when discussing it with your guides. DPRK stands for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and is the official name for the country reflecting their belief that the south (not capitalized) is occupied territory. Despite what the rest of the world may think, this is what they will refer to their country as. You will also notice this referenced in their literature in the same way (south Korea).

The DPRK has very strict laws about taking pictures though there are many great photographing opportunities around the country, particularly in cities such as Pyongyang. Again, this largely depends on the guides assigned to you and how relaxed they feel to trust that you won't do anything to embarrass them. While it may have been true in the past to "not look at" or "take pictures of" people in the DPRK, you may be also surprised to be able to take a picture of a wedding couple or of a grandmother taking their grandson out for a walk waving back. Also, do not take photographs of anything that could be of strategic importance (i.e. places with a soldier(s)/policemen in front of it) or of things that you been told specifically not to. Again, as emphasized before, always ask your guides if you are ever in doubt.

Bringing gifts such as cigarettes or Scotch whisky for the men, both guides and the driver, and chocolate or skin cream for female guides, is a nice gesture. Please be respectful toward your guides, especially since North Korean guides are known to occasionally take tourists whom they trust well enough to see other places and events in North Korea that they wouldn't ordinarily go to. This can also extend to how freely they may feel about your picture taking. Remember, they may be as curious about you as you are about them.

Most, if not all, tour groups to the DPRK are asked to solemnly bow and lay flowers on one or two occasions in front of statues of Kim Il Sung when visiting monuments of national importance. If you're not prepared to do this, do not even try to enter North Korea. Just be sure you always act in a respectful manner around images of the two leaders. This includes taking respectful photos of any image of them. When photographing statues, especially Mansudae, be sure to get the entire statue in the photo. Formal dress is also expected at important monuments such as Mansudae or in visiting the Kumsusang Memorial Palace.

Any trouble you cause as a tourist will likely be blamed on your tour guide's inability to control you, and he or she will bear the brunt of the penalties. Additionally, future tourists will be allowed less freedom and will face increased restriction on where they can visit and what they can photograph.

Other than your tour guide, you will likely not meet anyone else in your trip who speaks English; a few Korean words and phrases are a nice internationalist gesture.

Despite the sharp political differences, North and South Koreans generally share a common culture; the various tips in the South Korea article under respect (such as using two hands to pour drinks) will also help here.

Contact[edit]

MEDICAL EMERGENCIES
Dial: 02 382 7688 (Pyongyang number)

Phones[edit]

International calling is generally possible from hotels, though it is expensive ($5 per minute to the USA as of 2016).

There is no international roaming available in North Korea. As of January 2013 with the availability of pre-paid SIM cards, mobile phones are no longer held by customs and can be brought by visitors into the country, but a local SIM must be purchased.

A 3G mobile phone network (Koryolink) was introduced in Pyongyang in 2008 and now covers the 42 largest cities. A Mexican Telecommunications, TelMex Journey Mexico, also runs a 3G network in the country and is best used for phones originating in North/South American countries. SIM cards and phones can be purchased at the International Communication Center in Pothonggang District, opposite the Pyongyang Indoor Stadium, as well as Pyongyang airport and some hotels. For tourists, you will need to get a prepaid SIM card. The options are as follows:

  • Purchase a prepaid SIM card for €50. This gives you the SIM card to keep indefinitely for return visits, and includes a small amount (less than €30) of calling credit.
  • Rent a prepaid SIM card for two weeks for €50. This includes €30 of calling credit.
  • Rent a prepaid SIM card for one month for €75. This includes €55 of calling credit.

Your handset will need to be 2100MHz WCDMA compatible. Calling rates are €1.43 per minute to China and South East Asia; €0.68 per minute to Russia; €0.38 per minute to France and Switzerland; and €1.58 per minute to the UK and Germany. Do note that local calls (to North Korean numbers used by DPRK citizens) are generally not possible. Data plans are technically available but you will need to be a long-staying foreigner (not a tourist) to get approval for these.

When making international calls (either on a landline or mobile) you should assume a possibility of your calls being monitored, and act accordingly.

Internet[edit]

Internet facilities are limited, as few locals have permission to use it. There are no public internet cafes or business centres with web access in the hotels. Internet access is possible via the 3G network, and also through connections at some of the larger hotels; however, if you are a tourist on a short stay visa it's unlikely you will be able to use these services in practice.

Those on an extended stay, or traveling for business, may be able to get on-line but this needs to be confirmed and arranged some days in advance. Advise your tour operator or inviting party of your requirements well ahead of time. As with anything else in North Korea, if you do obtain access you should assume it's possible for your traffic to be monitored, and use the Internet accordingly. Also, keep in mind that the DPRK works under an intranet.

Cope[edit]

Few western countries have an embassy or consulate in North Korea. For many years the Swedish Embassy in Pyongyang was the only western embassy, although today there are embassies for several European countries including the UK, Poland, Germany, Romania and Czech Republic.


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