Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is a region in the Upper Volga, bordering Ryazan Oblast to the southwest, Vladimir Oblast to the west, Ivanovo Oblast to the northwest, Kostroma Oblast to the north, Kirov Oblast to the northeast, Mari El to the east, Chuvashia to the southeast, and Mordovia to the south.
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is one of the most populous and economically important regions of the Volga Region, centered on its capital Nizhny Novgorod. Aside from the capital itself, the region is perhaps best known outside of Russia for its tradition of making painted, wooden matryoshka dolls.
See Russian phrasebook.
The city of Nizhny Novgorod is one of the first major stops from Moscow on one of the main routes of the Trans-Siberian Railway (8 hour trip). Several trains form Moscow terminate in Nizhny Novgorod (two overnight trains and one or two faster day trains). Many others continue beyond, to Kirov, Perm, Yekaterinburg, and points east, up to Vladivostok and Beijing. Some of these trains also stop at a number of other stations as they cross the oblast, e.g. Dzerzhinsk before reaching the Nizhny, or Semenov beyond it. These trains usually leave from Moscow's Kursk Station or Yaroslavl Station.
There is also a direct daily train to Nizhny Novgorod from Saint Petersburg, and, at least during the summer seasons, from a number of destinations on the Black Sea shore, such as Adler (for Sochi). Trains from Nizhny Novgorod also travel south, to/from Saransk (Mordovia) and Kazan (via the Kanash junction in Chuvashia.
Some cities in southern part of the oblast (Navashino, Arzamas, Sergach) are easily reachable by trains running on another route (Moscow-Kazan) of the Trans-Siberian system. They leave from Moscow's Kazan Station.
Nizhny Novgorod's small and idiosyncratic airport has expensive direct flights to/from Frankfort on Lufthansa, as well as far cheaper domestic flights from major Russian cities—the flight from Moscow is as cheap as $35. Kaliningrad based KD Avia offers flights to Kaliningrad and then on to a number of Russian and international destinations.
Nizhny Novgorod is frequently included as a stop on summer boat cruises on the Volga River.
The main train station in Nizhny Novgorod is the Moscow Station (Московский Вокзал), located in the Lower City (Zarechnaya Chast, i.e. across the Oka River from the old city center). Besides serving all of the long-distance trains, it is also sends commuter trains in 6 directions throughout much of the oblast:
There is also a little known terminal station of Myza, near Gagarin Avenue in the Upper City of Nizhny Novgorod (i.e., east of the Oka). Inconveniently located several miles south of the city center, it only sends a few trains a day to the Metallist branch and to the Zeletsino branch (south-east), for Kstovo.
There is no rail line due east of Nizhny Novgorod. Instead, one can take a bus along the M7 highway (the Kazan highway). Commuter buses for Kstovo and other destinations nearby go from the Sennaya bus station a few blocks east of Sennaya Square; to go further east, take a bus from the Main Bus Station (Avtovokzal) near Lyadov Square.
One can also take a bus from the Main Bus Station to various points throughout the southern half of the oblast, e.g. Arzamas.
In the summer, hydrofoil boats (colloquially known as Raketa, after the first model of them) run from Nizhny Novgorod's River Terminal (Rechnoy Vokzal) down the Volga, to Rabotki, Makaryevo, and beyond.
Ferryboats from downtown Nizhny Novgorod run to Bor across the river.