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Quick Facts
Capital Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government
Government Constitutional monarchy
Currency Euro (EUR)
Area 41,526 km2
Population 16 369 056 (may 2007 est.)
Language Dutch, Frisian (official), English
Religion Roman Catholic 31%, Protestant 21%, Muslim 4.4%, other 3.6%, unaffiliated 40%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Country code +31
Internet TLD .nl
Time Zone UTC +1

The Netherlands (abreviation 'NL') (also commonly called Holland in English; i.e. in reference to the two provinces of that name in the west of the Netherlands; in Dutch Noord-Holland (North-Holland) and Zuid-Holland (South-Holland)) is a Benelux country in Western Europe, facing onto the North Sea and the United Kingdom and bordered on land by Germany and Belgium. The people, language, and culture of the Netherlands are referred to as "Dutch".


The Netherlands is administratively divided into 12 provinces (provincies). The western part (Holland) is the most industrialized and about half of the population lives in and around this area. It consists of

The Randstad is a collective name for the urban areas of North-Holland, South-Holland and Utrecht (province) - Almere in Flevoland is often included.

The northern Netherlands is the least densely populated region:

N.B. The West Frisian Islands (Waddeneilanden in Dutch), five inhabited islands off the north coast, lie in three provinces (North-Holland, Friesland, Groningen).

The eastern provinces are

The southern Netherlands have a distinct cultural identity because the population is (or was) largely Catholic. The three provinces are

  • North-Brabant - central southern area bordering Belgium
  • Limburg - southern province bordering Belgium and Germany
  • Zeeland -consists of islands, and a coastal area bordering Belgium.


The Netherlands has many cities and towns of interest to travelers. Below is a list of the most notable (because of population size, status as provincial capital, or historical reasons)

Map of Netherlands
  • Amsterdam - Capital city of the Netherlands with impressive architecture, lovely canals ("grachten") that criss-cross the city (a bit like a spiderweb) and great shopping. There is something for every traveler's taste here, whether you prefer culture and history, serious partying, or just the relaxing charm of an old European city.
  • Alkmaar - This city, north of Amsterdam in the so-called 'West-Frisian region', preserves the 17th-century pattern of canals and narrow streets, and has many historic buildings. Inland is a historic agricultural landscape, with 17th century polders: one (De Beemster) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Almere - Country's newest and fastest growing city. It is expected to become the fifth largest city in a few years time. Founded in 1981 and built below sea-level on the polderland in the province of Flevoland.
  • Assen - Capital of the province of Drenthe
  • Arnhem - Capital of the province of Gelderland
  • Breda - historic city in south of Netherlands, with beautiful historic buildings but also pretty modern architecture.
  • Delft - Historic city between The Hague and Rotterdam. It's a beautiful, unspoiled town with traditional architecture, canals, bikes, and the world famous blue and white ceramics.
  • Eindhoven - This city has grown from a little village in 1232 to one of the largest cities in the Netherlands with over 210,000 inhabitants in 2005. Much of its growth is due to Philips and DAF Trucks. In 1891, brothers Gerard and Anton Philips founded a small light bulb factory that would grow into one of the largest electronics firms in the world. Nowadays Eindhoven is a mix of old industrial factories and modern architecture. Its slogan nowadays is 'Leading in Technology' and 'Brainport of the Netherlands'.
  • Groningen - Capital of the province of Groningen. One of the older cities in the North of the Netherlands: Groningen was founded around 1100 and has a rich history, which can clearly be told from the old medieval buildings in the downtown area. Groningen won the award of 'best city center' in the category of 'large cities' for 2006.
  • Haarlem - Historic city and capital of the province of North-Holland. Haarlem is the center of a flower-growing district and the export point for flower bulbs. The famous Keukenhof gardens is nearby.
  • The Hague/'s-Gravenhage (Den Haag) - Seat of the Dutch government, place of residence of the Queen, Juridical Capital of the World due to the seat of the International Court of Justice, International Criminal Court, Peace Palace and some other International Institutions. Also capital of the province of South-Holland and the third largest city of the country. The Hague offers great architecture, some of it picturesque, such as the medieval government complex of the Binnenhof, some grand and stately, like the mansions on Lange Voorhout. The museums in the city rank among the best in the country.
  • 's-Hertogenbosch (Den Bosch)- Capital of the province of North-Brabant.
  • Leiden - Known for the oldest university in the country, the birthplace of Rembrandt and for it's beautiful, old city center which is the second biggest after Amsterdam and a plethora of pubs.
  • Leeuwarden - Capital of the province of Friesland and home of CHN University.
  • Lelystad - Capital of the country's newest province: Flevoland, a part of the Noordoostpolder in the IJsselmeer, created on the bottom of the formerly Zuiderzee ('Southern Sea').
  • Maastricht - Historic city in the very south of the country and capital of the province of Limburg. Great shopping areas and many pubs in the city centre. Said to be one of the most beautiful cities in the Netherlands. Maastricht, however, is quite different in style and architecture than traditional Dutch cities. Most 'Burgundic' city, founded by the Romains and second eldest city of the country. Nowadays it hosts a large amount of European and international institutions.
  • Middelburg - Capital of the province of Zeeland
  • Nijmegen - Oldest city of the Netherlands (dates back to Roman times; said to be founded in the year 6 after Christ), known internationally for its '4 Day Marches' (120-200 km's) including '7day Summer-festivities', it's often left-wing politics, and it's large student population.
  • Rotterdam - The city was known for having the world's largest harbor, but lost the title in 2004 to Shanghai. Still it is the countries second largest city. It may feel difficult to get in touch with the heart of Rotterdam; its natural center was bombed away during WW2 in 1940, forcing the city to renew itself completely. The result is a lot of modern architecture.
  • Utrecht - Capital of the province of Utrecht. Utrecht is a central Dutch city with a long history. With 290,000 inhabitants it's the fourth largest city in the Netherlands. The history of the city goes back to 47 AD when the Roman emperor Claudius ordered his general Corbulo to build a defense line along the river Rhine whitch was the northern most border of the empire.
  • Zutphen - Ancient medieval city in the central-eastern part of the country, very well preserved center. The city was voted as having the best city center of The Netherlands in the category of small cities in 2006. Together with some other cities it formed in the past the union of 'Hanzesteden' (Hanze-cities).
  • Zwolle - Capital of the province of Overijssel.


The official language in the Netherlands is Dutch or Nederlands, as some say evolved from a Neder-German dialect. In the Northern part they also have the Frisian language as the second official language in the province of Friesland. Some city names and inhabitants are bilingual.

Due to the historic dominance by surrounding countries such as Germany, France and Great-Britain, and conquest also by Austria/Germany and Spain, the Dutch language was influenced by the German, French and English languages and vice-versa.

Today, due to education, many people speak more than the Dutch language. So you can also try to have a conversation in English or German, and even in French. In some tourist areas Spanish is also spoken. Due to globalization and the major international domination of English in the media, it has become more and more the second spoken language in the Netherlands.

Due to a multicultural society in the major cities you may hear immigrant languages. From the overseas parts of the greater Kingdom of the Netherlands you can expect: Sranan-Tongo (Surinam) and Papiamento (Netherlands Antilles). Sometimes all these various languages create a special 'street-language' which is a mixture of, and used by younger crowd.



The country was part of the Holy Roman Empire until it was acquired piece by piece by the Burgundians. At the end of the middle ages, it became a Spanish possession (together with what is now Belgium). Little survives from this period, except a few historic city centers, and a few castles.

Following a revolt led by national hero Willem van Oranje (William of Orange), the mother and the son named zak of the currently ruling House van Oranje (of Orange), the Spanish were kicked out as part of the Thirty Years' War (known as the Eighty Years' War in the Netherlands: 1568-1648). The split with Belgium came when the northern provinces signed the Union of Utrecht in 1579.

It grew to become one of the major economic and seafaring powers in the world during the 17th century, which is known as the Gouden Eeuw, or Golden Age, in the Netherlands. During this period, many colonies were founded or conquered, including Indonesia ('Netherlands East Indies') and New York ('New Amsterdam'), which was later traded with the British for Suriname.

In 1805 it became a kingdom (its status being somewhat ambiguous before that) due Emperor Napoleon who appointed its borther as 'King of Holland'. And in 1815 it became its own Koninkrijk der Nederlanden (or 'Kingdom of the Netherlands') together with Belgium under Koning Willem I ('King William I'). In 1830 Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. Luxemburg (or Luxembourg) got at the end an independent 'Grand Duchy' from the Netherlands in 1863 (?), because there was no Dutch male eir in 1890. In 1946 (?) these three countries formed the union of the Benelux (or 'BeNeLux') as in which they economically (and sometimes politcally) work together.
Avoiding the liberal revolutions of 1848 and new adopted Treaty, The Netherlands quietly became a constitutional monarchy and remained neutral in World War I but suffered a brutal invasion and occupation by Germany in World War II. A modern, industrialized nation, the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO in 19.. and the European Community (EC) in 1957, and participated in the introduction of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 1999.


Quite a few travellers visit the Netherlands to enjoy its famously tolerant attitude: prostitution is legalized and licensed and the sale, possession and consumption of small quantities of cannabis or magic mushrooms, while technically still illegal, is officially tolerated by the authorities under a policy of gedogen (tolerance). Harder drugs (eg. ecstasy or cocaine) remain illegal both in theory and practice. In the same open minded atmosphere is the Dutch ease towards homosexuality, making the Netherlands one of the most gay-friendly countries on the planet. To experience these freedoms, you're best off in Amsterdam with coffeeshops and clubs. On a note unrelated to tourism— but still relating to its liberal culture— Euthanasia, abortion, wearing traditional wooden clogs (klompen) and same-sex marriage are also legal.


The Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries on the world. No matter where you go, you are never far away from civilization. Cities can be crowded especially in the Randstad area. Much of the country is flat and at or below sea level, and much of countryside is dominated by highly industrialised farming - despite its population density, The Netherlands is a net exporter of food. Though there are some beautiful spots scattered across the country, the tourist expecting a countryside full of picturesque villages, tulips and windmills may be in for a bit of a shock. The villages, tulips and windmills are there, you just have to find them. The most beautiful places are most of the times the places only known by the Dutch themselves. Asking a Dutchman (or woman) for some ideas of what to see could be helpful.

The geography of the Netherlands is dominated by water features. The country is criss-crossed with canals and dikes, and the beach is never far away.

Get in

By boat

There are three ferry services from the UK

More information, timetables and ticket prices for the North Sea ferries is available at Ferries To Amsterdam. Dutchflyer[1] is a combination ticket that includes the trainride from anywhere on the One Railways[2] network (including London and Norwich) to Harwich, the ferry, and the trainride from Hook of Holland to anywhere on the NS (dutch railways) network. Rotterdam is also the second largest port in the world, and (in theory) a good place for Freighter travel.

By bus

Eurolines are the main 'operator' for international buses to the Netherlands. (In fact the name Eurolines is a brand used by different operators). Services are limited: only a few main routes have a daily direct service.

By plane

Schiphol Airport , near Amsterdam, is a European hub, and after London, Paris and Frankfurt the largest of Europe. It is by far the biggest international airport in the country, and a point of interest in itself, being 4 metres below mean sea level (the name actually translates as Hollow of ships). From Schiphol there are excellent railway connections: The Hague, Amsterdam, Utrecht and most large cities have a direct train service. The train station at Schiphol is located underground, under the main airport hall. The train is the quickest and cheapest way to get to Amsterdam, or indeed anywhere else outside the vicinity of the airport. Taxis are expensive: legal taxis have blue number plates, others should be avoided. Some hotels in Amsterdam, and around the airport, have a shuttle bus service.

Other international airports are Rotterdam Airport, Eindhoven Airport, Maastricht/Aachen Airport and Groningen-Eelde Airport.

By train

from France and Belgium

The Thalys high-speed train ( ), which connects the Netherlands with France and Belgium, is a bit expensive, but if you book a return in advance or if you're under 26 or over 60 you can get good deals. It is also faster, normally cheaper and more convenient than flying.

For trips to Brussels or Antwerp it is usually cheaper - and almost as fast - to catch the Benelux train, which runs hourly from Amsterdam, via Schiphol, The Hague, Rotterdam, Dordrecht and Roosendaal. No seat reservations are required - just buy your ticket and get on board.

Trains from Maastricht to Liege in Belgium run hourly, and take around 30 minutes. There lie 1½ hours of tracks between Brussels and Maastricht.

from Germany

The ICE high-speed train, runs from Frankfurt to Amsterdam, via Cologne, Düsseldorf, Arnhem, and Utrecht.

Intercity trains run from Berlin and Hannover to Amsterdam, via Osnabrück, Hengelo, Deventer, Apeldoorn and Amersfoort.

There are also a number of regional trains from and to Germany:

By car

Belgium and Germany, and road access is very good. These borders are open, under the terms of the Schengen Accords. Cars can be stopped behind the border for random checks. There are car ferry services from the United Kingdom, see above. This is much less hazardous than in other countries, because of the infrastructure - cycle paths, cycle lanes, and signposted cycle routes. However, the proliferation of bicycles also means that you're seen as a serious part of traffic - motorists will hate you if you don't keep by the rules. Some things to know:

  • Cycle lanes and cycle paths are indicated by a round blue sign with a white bike icon, an icon on the asphalt, or by red asphalt. Using them is mandatory.
  • Cyclists must obey the same traffic signs as motorists, unless exempted. For example, a cycle icon under a no-entry sign, usually with the text 'uitgezonderd' (except), means cyclists may use the street in both directions.
  • Where there is no cycle lane or path, use the regular road. This is unlike the rule in Germany and Belgium, where you are supposed to use the footpath in many places.
  • On some narrow streets that do have a cycle path parallel to them, mopeds may be required to use the cycle path, rather than the main street (as is usual).
  • Bicycles must have working front (white) and rear (red) lights. Reflectors are not sufficient. You may be fined (€ 40) for cycling in the dark without a light, and you seriously endanger yourself and other traffic by doing so. Small, battery-operated LED lights attached to your person do not officially satisfy the regulations, but are usually allowed by police.

Get around

By plane

The following carriers offer domestic flights within the Netherlands:

  1. KLM (Amsterdam-Schiphol Airport, Maastricht/Aachen Airport)
  2. VLM Airlines (Amsterdam-Schiphol Airport, Groningen (Eelde Airport))

By bus

A cheap way to get across the Netherlands is to buy a "buzzer" ticket. It costs 10 euros a day, and is valid after 9am on every single Connexxion bus for two grownups and up to three children. On weekends and holidays it is also valid before 9am. Because it has a near monopoly on the bus market, you can get from Groningen to Zeeland this way in a day, and it undercuts the train. One downside though is that it's very indirect, for example if you want to travel from Amsterdam to Rotterdam, you have to change at Schiphol, Haarlem, Leiden, Den Haag and Delft to get all the way there..

By bicycle

There are four ways to use a bicycle:

  • if you are staying in a city, you can use the bike as a means of transport, to get from A to B. This is the way local people use it, for short journeys it is faster than car, bus or tram. You can use the bike to get to places near the city, which may not be accessible by public transport.
  • you can cycle around on the bike, in a city, or in the surrounding area. The bike is then a means to see places and landscapes. The many signposted cycle routes are designed for this, most of them are octagonal and take you back to the starting point. Some rural routes go through areas inaccessible by car. Signs for bicycle routes are usually white, with a red border and lettering. One thing to note that mainly in the southern part of the Netherlands, it's possible to create your own routes by connecting marked and numbered points called "knooppunten".
  • you can take the bike on a train, for a day trip to another city or region. It costs € 6, and you may not travel with a bike in the rush hour. As an alternative, you can easily hire bikes at (or near) stations. You must carry a supplementary ticket, which is easily obtained from the automated kiosks. Folding bikes can be taken on board for free when folded.
  • you can load your tent on the bike, and set off across the country. For this you do need to be fit, and not afraid of rain. The national long-distance cycle routes are designed for this type of holiday, see Cycling in the Netherlands Long-distance routes.

Bike theft

Bike theft is a serious problem in the Netherlands, especially around train stations, and in larger cities. Never park a bike near a station, use the guarded bike parking ('stalling'). In general, use 2 locks of different kinds (for example, one chain lock and one tube lock). This is because most bike thieves specialize in a particular kind of lock, or carry equipment best suited to one kind of lock. Ideally, you should lock the bike to a lamppost or similar. Bike thieves have been known to simply pickup unattached bikes and load them into a pickup truck, so they can crack open the locks at leisure.

In cities, most bikes are stolen by drug addicts, and they sell most stolen bikes too. In fact they simply offer them for sale to passers-by, if they think no police are watching. Buying a stolen bike is itself illegal, and police do arrest buyers. If you buy for a suspiciously low price (e.g. € 10 to 20), or in a suspicious place (in general, on the street), the law presumes you "know or should have known" the bike was stolen. In other words actual ignorance of the bike's origins is no excuse. Sometimes even the police themselves sell those bikes to arrest potiental buyers.

Bike shops are the best place to buy a second-hand bike legally, but prices are high. Some places where you can rent bikes will also sell their written off stock, which is usually well maintained. Most legal (and often cheap) second-hand bike sales now go through online auction sites like - the Dutch subsidiary of Ebay.

By train

The country is densely populated and urbanised, and train services are frequent. In the western Netherlands, the rail network is more like a large urban network, with up to 12 trains per hour on main routes. There are two main types of trains: 24 Intercity lines, and trains which stop at all stations, often called 'Sprinter'. (The Intercity is not as fast as 'Intercity' services in some other countries, and it stops more often). Except for a few rural lines, the minumum weekday frequency is one train every 30 minutes. On some routes (e.g. Amsterdam to the North) there are no longer any direct trains, you must change trains (e.g. at Amersfoort). Because of the high service frequency, delays are quite common. Note though that the NS boasts a punctuality of 80-85% (meaning that percentage of trains departs/arrives within 3 minutes of the scheduled time), which could be higher than you're used to. Trains can be crowded during the rush hour, especially in the morning.

The Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS) [3] operates most routes. Some local lines in the north and east are operated by Syntus and Arriva. Through tickets are available between all stations, NS and non-NS, and there is only one national tariff system. Tickets can be purchased from machines in stations using coins, debit card, or credit card. (Only credit cards with the Maestro symbol work). Only larger stations have a ticket counter - it costs €0.50 extra, per ticket. Ticket machines come in two kinds; an older version with an 2-line greenish LCD display, and a new version with a big touch screen. The latter has English-language menus available. If you have trouble using the ticket machine, ask someone else for help; almost everyone speaks English and will help you out.

Tickets cannot be purchased cheaper in advance like in some countries. The ticket price is uniform and depends on distance. Note that you can buy a ticket without a date in advance, which has to be validated when entering the platform, but this doesn't make the ticket cheaper, it's just for convenience. Return tickets (retour) are 1.67 times the price of a single (or a single is 60% of the return price) and is valid only for return on the day itself, or in case of the weekendretour (same price as a normal return) between Friday 19:00 and Monday morning 4:00. Like in many countries, there is a difference between first and second class. A second class ticket is 60% of the price of a first class ticket. The main advantage of first class is that it's less crowded, also seats and aisles are generally wider.

A common mistake made by foreigners is accidentally getting a 40%-discount ('korting') ticket from the machine. A special discount-card is required for these tickets, although you can travel on other people's discount cards too. (See Discount rail pass).

You must buy a ticket before travelling - since 2005, you can no longer simply buy a ticket from the conductor, as in some other countries. If you buy a ticket onboard, you will have to pay the normal price plus a € 35 fine. If you have a valid reason (e.g. the ticket machines were defective), the fine might be refunded, but only by written application to the NS offices. The conductor is not allowed any discretion on this policy, which was widely criticised but still in place. If you do not have either enough cash, or a passport, you could be arrested. (The more you argue with the conductor, the more likely he/she will call the railway police).

There is a convenient night train service (for party-goers and airport traffic) between Rotterdam, Delft, Den Haag, Leiden, Schiphol, Amsterdam and Utrecht, all night long, once an hour in each direction. However, travelling from Rotterdam to Utrecht this way takes nearly two hours (daytime 40 minutes).

Discount rail pass

Visitors planning to travel by train in the Netherlands should consider the Eurail pass with the Benelux package. This allows for unlimited train travel within Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg over multiple days. Europeans, not being eligible for Eurail passes, should look into Inter Rail Passes for their discount train travel.

If two or three people want to travel around the Netherlands together for a few days during the summer, the Zomertoer may be used. This pass gives them two, not necessarily consecutive, days of unlimited travel. An add-on also allows you to travel on all other public transportation in the country. In autumn weekends, the Herfsttoer also gives some discounts.

If you're thinking of staying a longer time in the Netherlands it can be a good deal to get the "Voordeelurenkaart" (Off-Peak Discount Pass), which gives the cardholder (and up to three additional persons travelling with him or her) 40% off for one year. 40% discount tickets are valid after 9:00 am on weekdays and the whole day in weekends, on national holidays and in the months July and August. Price 55 euro for one year (2007). The voordeel-urenkaart must be applied for in advance and can take some weeks to process. A temporary card, which can be used for four weeks, will be issued right away when you apply. Since 2007, applying for a card requires a photograph.

If you're only in the Netherlands for one day and want to see much of the country by train, you may want to get an "OV-Dagkaart". It's on all-inclusive ticket for all public transportation for € 40 (2005). But note: it may be cheaper to just buy a ticket. For example: to get your money's worth on the OV-dagkaart would require about 6 hours train travel in one day.

Slightly more adventurous is to make use of the extra advantages of 'Off-peak Discount Passes' or people who have a 'Year Pass' (most students or some cival servants). It is possible, but some people may be offended when asked by strangers. There is a way to travel cheaper without having a pass yourselves: find a student with an 'O.V.-kaart' (Year Pass for Public Transportation), or someone who possesses a 'Voordeel-urenkaart' who has the same end-destination as you. They are allowed to take up to three fellow travelers (this would be you) who can enjoy a 40% discount. You have to buy the discounted railway-ticket in advance (no need to show your Pass at the desk or buy it from an automatic ticket machine), but it won't be a problem to find someone accompanying you. This deal only works during weekends, or during weekdays after 9:00 am, on national holidays and in the summer months July and August. When the conductor asks for you 'cheaper' railway-ticket; the fellow who is accompanying you must show his 'Discount' or 'Year Pass'. It doesn't matter who it is as long as someone helps you out during your travel (when they come to check the tickets).

Other public transport

In the major cities Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague you can use the tram, bus and metro, outside these cities you can use the bus and train. Travel plan information can be found at 9292OV Reisinformatie. Information about the trains can be found at Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS) (=Netherlands Railways). Both of these sites can plan a trip for you using public transport ('Openbaar Vervoer' or 'O.V.'), but 9292OV includes almost all public transportation types. The NS website only has the trains, but it is able to display up to date infomation about train delays and detours.

(National) Strippenkaart (multiple-strip-/zone-card)

For information about the strippenkaart, this 'foldable ticket' in various lengths to be used in bus, tram and metro (but not trains), go to OV-Info. Note that, although many travellers tend to buy them in buses when boarding (i.e. as 2 or 3 or 10 strips), it is much cheaper to buy them elsewhere (i.e. as 15 or 45 strips). You can get these multiple-strip-/zone-tickets-card(s) in many places, including bus stations, post offices, cigar/magazine shops and some supermarkets (at the service desk or from a vending machine). You can use it also for multiple-party travel for yourselves and other persons at the same time; in general these 'card' is valid up till one year after new pricing. If you are eligible for discount (due to the fact that you are a Dutch student with special student-O.V.-card, or under 12 or over 65) you can buy special reduced - cheaper - pink ones, which will get you the same mileage for a better price.

Special bus-tickets of 'park-and-ride-(travel-)tickets'

Some towns and cities have special cheaper bus tickets, for outside rush hours, usually a return ticket (to the centre and back).

When using the strippenkaart, it is often most convenient to tell the bus driver your destination, and he will stamp the card in the right place. You can do it yourselves as there is a special automat-machine available. In general one basic-strip+strips according to amount of zones to be travelling.


The strippenkaart is being replaced by a pre-paid swipe card system (i.e. O.V.-chipcard) on all forms of public transport ('Openbaar Vervoer'). The system is now operational on the Amsterdam and Rotterdam metro, and will be introduced on buses and trams during 2007. At first both systems will operate in parallel. In 2008/2009 it will be expected the only way of paying your travel in Netherlands metro-/bus-/tram- and railway-system.
The O.V.-chipcard will come in three pre-paid-versions: a 'throwaway' version with the amount in euros for 2 or 3 travels. An 'unpersonal version' directly available at a special O.V.-counter for a basic-fee + re-usable and rechargable top-up-amount in euros (valid up till 5 years) for multiple travel for one person at the time. It may be handed over to some-one else for another travel at a different time; in case of theft or loss it cannot be replaced. And a 'personal version', to be registred and applyed in advance with passport-sized photo and copy of I.D. and (Dutch) bank-account. This version will be only valid for the bearer of the personalized O.V.-chipcard and works similar to the unpersonal version, but also will register all your travels and movements in the Netherlands. In case of theft or loss it can be replaced.


Amsterdam and some other big cities offer public transport at night. In general it requests extra payment on top of the ordinary ('day-time') strippenkaart or special night-bus tickets. In some cases the ordinary 'strippenkaart' is not valid at all and only to be used for daytime-travels.

(N.B. how it will work out with the O.V.-chipcard on night-busses is not determined yet.)

By car

A car is a good way to explore the countryside, especially places not connected by rail, such as Veluwe, Zeeland and The North Sea islands. Driving in the Netherlands is normally quite pleasant - the motorway network is dense, roads are well-signposted, and Dutch drivers are among the least aggressive in Europe. However, this one of the most densely populated countries in the world, so be prepared for heavy traffic and congestion in all but the northern part of the country. When driving in cities, always give priority to cyclists when turning across a cycle lane. If you are involved in a collision with a cyclist, you will be automatically assumed to be guilty (until proven innocent). If you only wish to see cities a car is not the best option. Due to limited road capacity and parking, cars are actively discouraged from entering most bigger cities.

Line bus have the priority when leaving a bus stop, so be careful as they may pull in front of you expecting that you will give way.

Drive on the right. The speed limit in built up areas is 50 km/h with some zones limited to maximum of 30 km/h. Outside of towns speed is limited to 80 km/h (this includes most N-roads). On some local roads the speed limit is 60 km/h. On the highways the limit is 120 km/h except on some roads where the limit is 100 km/h. On a few highways in the west of the country the speed limit has been reduced to 80 km/h since 2005. During rush hour signs above many roads indicate the current speed limit. On semi-highways and some of the N-roads the speed limit is 100 km/h.

Your speed will be checked nationwide by the police. Pay extra attention to Trajectcontrole signs: that means that in the road you're driving there is an automatic system that checks your average speed on a long section. Radar detectors are illegal devices to have in your car. They will be impounded and you will be fined 250 euros. Keep in mind that the police use so-called radar detector detectors to track down radar detector users, so it is best to turn them off while in Holland. Drinking and driving is not allowed and this is enforced strongly. Breathalyzer tests occur frequently, both on an individual basis (i.e. you get pulled over and the police see it necessary for you to undergo a breathalyzer test) as on a bigger scale (i.e. the police has set up a designated control checkpoint on a highway). A unbroken yellow line next to the sidewalk means no stopping, a broken yellow next to the sidewalk means no parking. Some crossings have "shark teeth" painted on the road, this means you have to give way to the other traffic.

Note that police also use unmarked traffic surveillance cars, especially on the highways. They have a video surveillance system and often they don't stop you right after doing a violation but they keep on following you. That means if you do more violations, you'll be fined for everything you did. Note that the policemen in unmarked cars are obliged to identify themselves after pulling you over, which means you shouldn't have to ask. Policemen in marked cars only have to show their ID when you ask them for it, but they too are obliged to show it when asked.

If your car breaks down on the highway you might go to the nearest roadside emergency telephone; these "praatpalen" can be recognized as they are about 1.5m high, yellow and have a rounded bunny-eared cap on top. This is the direct connection to the emergency and assistance services. Alternatively, you might use a mobile phone to recht the ANWB autoclub via toll-free number 0800-0888; your membership of a foreign autoclub might entitle you to discount rates on their services. Leased (business) cars and rental cars are usually serviced by the ANWB services included in the lease/rental price; but you may want to check any provided booklets.

If you are involved in an accident, both drivers need to complete and counter-sign a statement for their respective insurance companies (damage form/"schadeformulier"). You are required to have this form on hand. The police need to be notified if you have damaged (public) property (especially along the highways), if you have caused any sort of injury, or if the other driver does not agree to sign the insurance statement. It is illegal to hit and run. If the other driver does this, call the police and stay at the scene. The emergency telephonenumber is 112 (tollfree, will even work from disconnected mobile phones); the telephonenumber for non-emergency police presence is 0900-8844.

Road signs with directions are plenty, but having a map is useful, especially in cities where there are many one way streets, and getting from one part of the city to another is not always so straightforward. Be careful not to drive on buslanes, often indicated with markings such as Lijnbus or Bus, nor on cycling paths, marked by the picture of a bicycle, or by a reddish color of asphalt. Also, do not use the rush-hour-lanes (Spitsstrook) when the matrix display above the designated lane indicates a red "X" - this means they cannot be used.

Fuel is easy to come by. Along highways many gas stations are open 24/7. More and more unmanned gas stations can be found, even along highways, selling petrol for a lower rate. These unattended stations accept all common debit and creditcards. All gas stations sell both petrol and dieseloil; the "premium" brands have the same octane level (they alledgedly contain compounds that improve fuel efficiency to offset the higher price). Liquid Petroleum Gas is sold at relatively many gas stations along the high ways, but it is never sold in built-up areas. The symbol for LPG gas is a green-colored gaspump-icon, set beside the general case black-colored gaspump-icon. LPG fueled cars need regular petrol to start the motor, and can also be operated using strictly petrol, though it is more expensive.

If you come in the Netherlands with your LPG fueled car, probably you will need an adaptor. If you buy in your country, ask for the specific Dutch adaptor. The plug sold as "european" (screw style), is used in Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany but won't fit Dutch pumps.

Do not use diesel oil pumps meant for trucks to fuel your cars; while the diesel oil is the same, the pressure is much higher.

Parking fees within cities can be pretty hefty. When considering to go to bigger cities, especially Amsterdam, but also cities such as Utrecht, Rotterdam or even Groningen, seriously consider going there by public transport to avoid traffic jams and the great difficulties involved in finding a parking spot. Many cities use clamps or will tow away your car if it is parked too long (or in a handicapped spot). P+R park and ride facilities are available at the outskirts of bigger cities; you can park your car cheaply there, and continue your journey via public transport. Note that Amsterdam and the Hague (though only during weekends) are the only cities that offer public transport at night, apart from the night trains.

By taxi

Taxi service was traditionally a tightly guarded monopoly. In recent years, the market was deregulated, but prices are still high. Taxi drivers are licensed, but they do not, as of yet, have to pass a proficiency exam, providing they know the streets. This is planned in the future, since the taxi market is being re-regulated.

Some taxi drivers refuse short rides (e.g. under EUR 10). This is illegal, but it's hard to enforce this prohibition. There is a maximum tarriff, and it's built into the taxi meters. If you negotiote a price before you get in, the price you have to pay is the negotiated price, or the metered price, whichever is lower. Getting in a cab without enough money to pay for the ride is illegal, so it's wise to negotiate a price.

All legal taxis have blue license plates. So do some other vehicles for group transport, such as minibus services for the handicapped.

By thumb

Generally okay. Not okay for a quick travel from small towns or non-highway due to lack of traffic; sometimes you will get help from hospitable locals. But gas-stations at highways are quite good places. So try to stay on the highways/motor-ways! However, the large amount of highway crossings in the Netherlands and the lack of fuel stations between them in the Randstad makes it difficult to travel fast over long distances.
At the beginning of or where it leads to highways/motorways it is not officially but mosttimes allowed as long as you stay before the traffic-sign highway/motorway on a spot where cars have slow-speed and it is possible for drivers to let you quickly step in. Also traffic-lights are sometimes an option.

There are official hitchhiking spots (liftershalte(s)) (lift-stops) at the center or edge of 7 major cities:


  • Prins Bernhardplein , before NS Station Amsterdam Amstel (on east side of the river Amstel) (past the bus stop). Leads to the ramp of the S112 of the A10, direction E231-A1/E35-A2. It is recommended for the directions Middle-/East-Netherlands. For other directions/routes try also alternative spots.
Alternative spots / other directions:

(It is recommended for the directions West-/South-Netherlands)

  • Amstel (on the west side of the river Amstel) near traffic-lights/Utrechtsebrug and near beginning-/end-stop of Tram-line 25. Leads to the ramp of the S111 of the A10, directions E35-A2-E25/E231-A1.
  • Junction S109 of the A10, close to NS Station RAI (RAI Congress Centre; specially when there are large events or congresses). Leads to the ramp of the S109 of the A10, directions E35-A2-E25/E19-A4/E231-A1.


  • Westerval, at the Parkweg, direction A1.

Den Haag

  • Utrechtsebaan next to the northside of the Malieveld, at the beginning of the E30-A12 towards Utrecht. Also possibilities towards E19-A4 Delft-Rotterdam or E19-A44 Leiden-Amsterdam
Alternative spots / other directions:
  • edge northwest-side of Malieveld/crossing Zuid-Holland-laan/Utrechtse baan/Benoordenhoutseweg, towards Leidsestraatweg N44 and Leiden E19-A44 and Amsterdam E19-A4.


  • Emmaviaduct (200m west of Centraal Station), on the road to A28


  • at the beginning of A2 near the soccer-football stadium 'De Geusselt', to E25-A2 (Eindhoven) and A79 (Heerlen).


  • Graafseweg (Venlo and Den Bosch), at the major city-centre roundabout (verkeersplein) Keizer Karelplein
  • near the Waalbrug/before the bridge in direction Arnhem,
  • at the Annastraat, close to the Radboud University (RU)/University Medical Centre (UMC)


  • close to petrol station and ramp of the Waterlinieweg near 'De Galgewaard' soccer-football-stadium, north to A27/A28, south to A2/A12/A27.


The national language in the Netherlands is Dutch. It's a charming, lilting language punctuated by phlegm-trembling glottal g's and sch's (also found, for example, in Arabic). Written Dutch might be semi-intelligble to someone who knows other germanic languages (English, German, Scandinavian languages), but the spoken language sounds rather different from English. Near the southern border, and in Belgium, the dialect is markedly different.

Officially the Netherlands is bilingual, as Frisian is also an official language. When travelling through Frysland you will come across many roadsigns in two languages (similar to that of Wales). Everybody speaks Dutch, but the Frisians are so protective of the minority language that ordering a beer in it might just get you the next one free.

The hackneyed phrase "They all speak English there" is in fact pretty accurate for the Netherlands. Education from an early age in English and other European languages, makes the Dutch some of the most fluent polyglots on the continent. Oblivious travelers to the major cities should be able to make their way without learning a word of Dutch.

Dealing with seniors, however - or finding yourself in a family atmosphere - will probably require learning a bit of the native tongue.



Accommodation and food is on the expensive side. Rail travel, museums, and attractions are relatively cheap. Retail prices for clothing, gifts, etc. are similar to most of Western Europe; consumer electronics are a bit more expensive.


The Netherlands is a good place to buy flowers. Outside florists, you can buy them pre-packaged in most supermarkets.


The famous "wooden shoes" are surprisingly comfortable and very useful in any rural setting. Think of them as all-terrain footwear; easy to put on for a walk in the garden, field or dirt road. If you live in a rural area at home, consider taking a pair of these with you if you can. Avoid the kitschy tourist shops at schiphol and Amsterdam's damrak street, and instead look for a regular vendor which can usually be found in towns and villages in rural areas. The northern province of Friesland has a lot of stores selling wooden shoes, often adorned with the bright colors of the Frisian flag.


Haring, ready to eat

Dutch traditional cuisine is basic. However, due to influences from Indonesian, Surinam, Chinese and (North) African immigrants there is an abundancy of foodcultures to choose from.

In the big cities you can eat good Thai food (on the Nieuwmarkt in Amsterdam for instance) for a bargain price, and in the Chinese quarters you can get authentic Chinese food, though of a basic nature. You will also be able to find a restaurant from every corner of the world (especially in Amsterdam).

Every bigger village has its own Chinese restaurant where you can eat a lot for a little money, but the taste is aimed at the Dutch citizen with little 'taste' for adventure (no herbs, a lot of sugar). They have been influenced by the Dutch-East Indies from the times as they were a colony of the Netherlands, like the famous 'Dutch Indien Ricetable' with a variety of small dishes. It is also a bit comparible with Chinese or Eastern take-away-shops in other countries. These restaurants often advertise as "Chin.Ind." for "Chinese/Indien (Indonesian)". They mosttimes have a sit-in area and a counter or seperate entrance for take-away with lower prices. Some restaurants do have a separate menu with specialties from a specific region, like Schezuan.

Also around every corner in a city centre, near public transportation areas or even in more quiet quarters is a 'friture', also known as 'snackbar' or 'cafetaria', which mainly sells french fries (also known as "Patat" or "Friet" (pommes-frites)). You can have a lot of things added to your french fries: mayonaise ('frites sauce'), (tomato-)ketchup, curry, pinda sauce (heated 'peanut'butter' sauce or sateh sauce), cutted raw onions, cold apple sauce etc. They also sell all kinds of other fried snacks, like "kroketten" ('croquette') and "frikandellen".
Snacks you could try there, are: "Broodje Kroket" (a breadroll with a ragout-filled, crispy covered kroket snack), "Frikandel speciaal" (a long cylinder of spiced meat, cut open and adorned with mayonaise, ketchup or currysauce, and optionally sprinkled with raw onion) and "patatje/frites oorlog (=war)" or sometimes called '-Feest' (=Party or Fiesta) or '-Vrede' (=Peace) (i.e. french fries, mayonaise, pinda sauce , optionally sprinkled with onion). Note that "mayonnaise" in the context of french fries is distinctly different from french mayonnaise, and is more accurately described as "frietsaus" (fries sauce); it is firmer, sweeter and contains less fat, whilst remaining just as unhealthy. The snacks listed here are very much the antithesis of high cuisine, but among with other "typically dutch" foodstuffs some of the things Dutch expats miss most about their country.

Modern Dutch restaurants and cafés serve better food lately, mostly meat, vegetables, served with fries/fried potatoes and salad. If you eat in a café then food is affordable, you can also go to upscale restaurants where prices go up equally. Most of the time profit is made from the drinks, so be careful there if you're on a budget.

Expect service in restaurants to be pretty slow, especially if you are American. This is not because you're being treated differently, but because the Dutch, like most Europeans, tend to live at a much more relaxed place. There is not as much emphasis on fast or overly-attentive service.

Traditional highlights are:

  • Herring eaten raw ('haring'). New herrings ('Hollandse Nieuwe') is a special treat available around june.
  • sweet ("zoet") or ... ("hartig") Pancakes in variety of tastes like with apple, syrup, cheese, bacon etc. ('pannenkoeken' available in 'pannenkoekenhuizen')
  • small or miniature pancakes ('poffertjes' available in 'poffertjeshuizen')
  • Mashed potatoes with onions, carrots and bacon (hotch-potch 'hutspot')
  • Pea soup ('erwtensoep' or 'snert') made of green-peas
  • Stroopwafel. Two thin layers with syrup in between. Available packaged from any supermarket or made fresh on most street markets.

Other "typically dutch" foodstuffs are;

  • Chocolate sprinkles ("Hagelslag"), used to sprinkle on top of buttered slices of bread (much like jam),
  • Chocolate spread on bread,
  • Bars of unadorned chocolate,
  • Dutch peanut butter on bread, which is considerably different from e.g. US peanut butter. (And sometimes extra topped with chocolate sprinkles to make it not so 'dry' to eat)
  • A bread roll with butter and a slice of cheese for lunch, rather than more elaborate lunches,
  • Dutch coffee (dark, high caffeine grounds, traditionally brewed),
  • Oranjebitter (orange, bitter liquor drunk only on Koninginnedag), jenever (a sort of gin), Dutch beers
  • Rookworst (literally "smoked sausage"), available to go from HEMA outlets,
  • "Limburgse vlaai" (predominantly in the South of the Netherlands) a kind of cold pie, usually with a fruit topping.

Some of these "typically dutch" foodstuffs taste significantly different from, but do not necessarily improve upon, specialties from other countries. For example, while Dutch coffee and chocolate can instill feelings of homesickness in expats and might be seen as "soulfood", fine Belgian chocolate and Italian coffees (espresso, etc.) are considered to be delicacies.

Liquorice ("drop", originally a black candy) is something you love or hate, you can buy all kinds of varieties. You can get it from sweet to extremely salty (Double salt) and in a hard or soft bite.


The legal drinking age is 16 for LOW alcohol percentages ( beer, wine) and 18 for high alcohol percentages (brandy, whiskey etc).

  • Beer

Although the Dutch beer "Heineken" is one of the most prestigious beers in the world, it is just one of the many beer brands in the Netherlands. You can get all kind of beers from white beer to dark beer. Popular brands are Heineken, Grolsch, Brand, Bavaria, Amstel etc.

Traditional beers come from monasteries in South of the Netherlands (Brabant and Limburg) or Belgium. You can visit a traditional beer brewer in for instance 'Berkel-Enschot' at the 'Trappistenklooster'. It needs to be said that the brewery is now owned by the big brewer Bavaria, so it's not so traditional anymore.

Most breweries have nowadays also produce a non-alcoholic variant of ther beers, like Bavaria Malt or Amstel Malt. Which consist sometimes 0% or less then 0,5 alcohol ans is very suitable for people who would like to drive and don't drink (or sometimes called "de Bob" as promoted in its campaign).

In Amsterdam you can visit a local brewery located in a windmill called "brouwerij 't IJ"

  • Tea

Dutch drink black tea, and they keep it as watery as possible and comes in many diffrent tastes, from traditional to fruit infusions etc. Luckily, if you're English, you get the teabag served with a cup of hot (but never boiling!) water, so you can make your own version. Milk in your tea is almost unheard of and only given to children.

  • Coffee

Coffee is almost compulsory when you are going to visit people. One of the first questions when coming through the door is often "Koffie?" and it is served in small cups (half a mug) with cookies.

If you're from the States or Canada, you can drink one cup of Dutch coffee in the morning and add water the rest of the day! If you order 'koffie verkeerd' (which literally means a "wrong coffee") you get the French 'café au lait' which is less strong with fresh milk.

  • Hot chocolate

Hot chocolate with whipped cream is a winter tradition in the Netherlands. It really fills you after a cold walk. In the summer you can also get it in every decent bar, however sometimes it's made from powder as opposed to traditionally, and doesn't taste that good.

  • Bitters

Also popular in winter are alcoholic bitters. From the province of Friesland the bitter called Beerenburg originated which is served in the entire country. Almost all other regions and produce their local, less famous variants of a bitter.


The Netherlands are renowned for their liberal drug policy. While technically still illegal, mostly to comply to international treaties, personal use of (soft) drugs are regulated by the Ministry of Justice under an official policy of gedogen; literally this means to accept or tolerate, legally it is a doctrine of non-prosecution on the basis that action taken would be so highly irregular as to constitute selective prosecution.

You are allowed to buy and smoke small doses (under 5 grams) of cannabis or hash. For this you have to visit a coffeeshop. These are abundant in most larger towns. Only a small handful of Coffeeshops are allowed to sell alcoholic beverages (i.e. most do not sell alcohol, but a few such as 'Rookies' in the Leidseplein area of Amsterdam have a special license to sell both), and minors (under 18) are not allowed inside. They are also prohibited from advertising, so many use the Rastafari red-yellow-green colors to hint at the products available inside, while others are more discreet and sometimes almost hidden away from plain view.

Fresh (but not dried) hallucinogenic ("magic") mushrooms are entirely unregulated, on the basis that these occur readily in natural forests. These may be bought at a smartshop, along with other natural highs and smart drugs. The latter are drugs that are designed to have the same effect as illegal substances (such as ecstasy) by using chemically similar substances. Often, effective smart drugs are outlawed after a while. The Dutch government has announced its intention to ban fresh mushrooms in the near future.

Beware that cannabis sold in the Netherlands is generally much stronger than varieties outside, so be careful when you take your first spliff, and be particularly wary of cannabis-laced pastries ("space cake") as it's easy to eat too much by accident. Magic mushrooms have even greater potential to trip up the unaccustomed, so be sure to consult the staff concerning proper dosage and other precautions.

It is forbidden to drive any motorized vehicle while impaired, which includes driving under the influence of both illegal and legal recreational or prescribed drugs (such as cocaine, ecstasy, cannabis and mushrooms) as well as alcohol, and medication that might affect your ability to drive.

Buying soft drugs from dealers in the streets is always illegal and is commonly discouraged. The purchase of other (hard) drugs, eg. ecstasy, cocaine, or processed/dried mushrooms, is still dealt with by the law. However, often people who are caught in possession of small amounts of illegal drugs for personal use are not prosecuted.

The act of consuming any form of drugs is legal, even if possesion is not. If you are seen taking drugs, you may theoretically be arrested for possession, but not for use. This has one important effect; do not hesitate to seek medical help if you are suffering from bad effects of drug use, and inform emergency services as soon as possible of the specific (illegal) drugs you have taken. Medical services are unconcerned with where you got the drugs, they will not contact the police, their sole intention is to take care of you in the best way possible.

At some parties, a "drug testing desk" is offered, where you can have your (synthetic) drugs tested. This is mainly because many pills contain harmful chemicals in addition to the claimed ingredients; for example, many pills of "ecstasy" (MDMA) will also contain speed (amphetamines) or even poisons such as strychnine. Some pills don't even contain any MDMA at all. The testing desks are not meant to encourage drug use, since venue owners face stiff fines for allowing drugs in their venues, but they are tolerated or 'gedoogd' since they mitigate the public health risks. Note: the desk won't return the drugs tested.

Please note that there are significant risks associated with drug use, even in The Netherlands' liberal climate

  • while marihuana bought at coffeeshops is unlikely to be hazardous, hard drugs like cocaine and heroin and synthetic drugs like ecstasy are still illegal, and not regulated well. These hard drugs are likely to be in some way contaminated, especially when bought from street dealers.
  • some countries have legislation in place that make it illegal to plan a trip for the purpose of commiting illegal acts in another jurisdiction, so you might be apprehended in your home country after having legally smoked pot in The Netherlands.


A wide range of accomodation is available, concentrated on the major tourist destinations. They include regions popular for internal tourism, such as the Veluwe. In non-touristed areas, accomodation may be very limited.

Since all countries use different rating systems it might be convenient to check the Dutch Hotel star rating system in English here:

Prices are generally high. Budget accommodation starts at around € 20 per night and prices go upwards from there. Seasonal demand affects availability, especially in Amsterdam.

Official Dutch Youth Hostels are called since they changed their name in 199. "Stay Okay". They are not as widespread as in Great Britain. Also there is no kitchen available for guests, so either you eat what's on menu or you eat out. Stay Okay

Short-term apartment rental is also common. Generally the cost is comparable to a hotel stay, but the advantage is that you have a fully furnished apartment (kitchen, living room, etc) and can easily locate yourself closer to specific neighborhoods of interest. While most have a 3 night minimum stay, the process of making reservations and checking in is generally identical to that of staying in a hotel, the notable exception being that most require a credit card deposit, and the balance payment in € on arrival. You can find many great places (including boats, apartments and full houses) by searching google, or by using a service such as CityMundo.

If you are traveling by bicycle or by foot, there is a list of addresses where you can stay at private homes with bed and breakfast for no more than € 17 per person per night, although you must also pay € 9 for membership of this scheme. It is called Vrienden op de fiets.



  • 'Koninginnedag' (queen's day) is held every year at april 30 (except sundays, when it will be held the next monday) all over the country. In every village and town, you will find frollicking Dutch, freemarkets and authentic Dutch games. In several larger cities (notably The Hague and Utrecht) the festivities start in the evening of the 29th.
  • Three-day Pinkpop popfestival every year with Pentecost ("Pinksteren") in Landgraaf, Limburg.
  • Lowlands popfestival - every last weekend of August at Biddinghuizen, Flevoland.
  • SummercarnavalA big parade through the center of Rotterdam. One of the biggest events in The Netherlands.
  • Heineken Dance Parade - A big dance parade through Rotterdam. Much in the spirit of the popular Love Parade in Germany.
  • Northsea Jazz Festival - Big summer jazz festival, held in the Ahoy stadion, Rotterdam since 200. as it moved there from The Hague. Around 1800 jazz, blues, funk, soul, hip Hop, latin and r&b acts play during this 3 day event.



Work opportunites for those from outside the European Union are very restricted. Only when an employer can prove they've searched in the EU, they are allowed to hire a non-EU citizen. Official policy is to deter all non-EU immigration, unless there is an economic necessity.

Students from other European countries are only eligible for study financing when they have a fixed 32 hour/month work contract, or when they have lived in the Netherlands for five years.

Since 2005, the Dutch law enables what they call “knowledge immigration” the idea is to allow local companies to “import” foreign employees to work in the Netherlands. The process is straightforward and takes between 4 to 10 weeks.

Stay safe

The Netherlands is generally considered a safe country. However, be alert in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and other large cities that are plagued by pickpockets and bicycle theft (the latter almost being a national sport). In the larger cities, certain areas are unsafe at night. A small number are also unsafe in daylight.

  • Police, ambulance and fire brigade have one general emergency number 112. There is one police force, organised in 25 police regions. Mostly visitors will deal with the regional police. Some specialised forces, such as the railway police and the highway police on main roads, are run by a separate national force (highway police being the KLPD - Korps Landelijke Politie Diensten, and railway police being the spoorwegpolitie). When calling 112, if you can, advise on what emergency services you are in need of.
  • Border controls, and port and airport security, are handled by a separate police force, the Marechaussee (or abreviation 'KMar' - Koninklijke Marechaussee), a gendarmerie. They are an independent service of the Dutch armed forces (making them a military service, not a civil one), and have among their duties the mentioned security tasks.
  • In most cities, there are municipal services (stadswacht, Toezichthouder Openbare Ruimte (abreviation: TOR) or stadstoezicht) with some police tasks, e.g., issuing parking and litter fines. They often have police-style uniforms to confer some authority, but their powers are limited. For instance, only the police carry a gun.

Stay healthy

In the whole of the Netherlands 'tap water' is drinkable, cleaned, carefully distributed to every household and controlled and by 'water authorities'. Food (either bought in a supermarket or eaten at a restaurant) shouldn't pose a problem either. The healthcare system is up to par with the rest of Europe and most cities have hospitals where someone will speak English. Otherwise it's a case of common sense (i.e. washing hands before eating is always adviseable).

In summer, open air recreational (mainly fresh water) swimming areas might suffer from the notorious "blauwalg", a rather smelly cyanobacteria which when it dies, releases toxins into the water. When these occur, a signpost at the entrance to the area or near the water should tell you so by stating something like "waarschuwing: blauwalg". If in doubt, ask someone.


The Dutch are among the most informal and easy-going peoples in Europe, and there are few social taboos to speak of. It is unlikely that Dutch people will be offended simply by your behaviour or appearance. (Xenophobia is another matter, but that does not affect most short-term visitors). In fact it is more likely that visitors will be offended by overly direct conversation. Neverthless, the standards for overt rudeness and hostility are similar to those in other western European countries. If you feel you are deliberately being treated offensively, then you probably are.

The Dutch people suffered a great deal under Nazi occupation during WWII (1940-1945). Many members of the older generation (and some younger people too) still hold grudges against Germany and some of them will always give people who talk German (or maybe even with a German accent) wrong directions. Avoid overt comparisons between Dutch and German culture, as they are likely to offend. A common faux-pas is to refer to the Dutch language as a "German dialect". Don't do it. It will not be appreciated by most Dutch people, and is incorrect anyway, as the two spoken languages are not mutually intelligible, as well as the (especially for Anglophonics, surprising) fact that the Dutch language is sometimes called more related to English, than to German.


The international calling code for the Netherlands is 31. The outbound international prefix is 00, so to call the US, substitute 001 for +1 and for the UK 00 44 for +44.

The cellular phone network in the Netherlands is GSM 900/1800. The cell phone networks are operated by KPN, Telfort (owned by KPN), Vodafone, Orange and T-Mobile; other operators use one of these 5 networks. The networks are high quality and cover every corner of the Netherlands. With the exception of some low-end service providers, all mobile operators support GPRS. KPN and Vodafone offer UMTS (and HSDPA) service in some parts of Holland.

There are few public phone booths left in the Netherlands. They are mostly found at train stations. Telfort booths accept coins, whereas most KPN booths only accept prepaidcards or creditcard. Some new public phones have been installed which accept coins again. Be aware of public phones in a more public area as well as the same types in a more public-private area, where tarrifs (per unit or amount of calling time) can differ.

(National) Directory Inquiries can be reached -since 2007- on 1888, 1850 and various other 'Inquiry-operators'. Rates differ by operator, but are usually rather high, more than 1 euro per call, as well as per-second charges.

International Directory Inquiries can be reached on ...

Phone numbers can also be found on the Internet, free of charge, on De or Nationale

0800 numbers are toll-free and for 09xx numbers are charged at premium rates. Mobile phones have numbers in the 06 range, and calls to cell phones are also priced at higher rates.

If you're bringing your own (GSM) cell phone, using your existing plan to call (or receive calls) whilst in The Netherlands can be very expensive due to "roaming" charges. Receiving phone calls on a cell phone using a Dutch SIM card is free in most cases; charges apply if you're using a foreign SIM card, as the call is theoretically routed through your country of origin. It's cheaper to buy a pay-as-you-go SIM card to insert into your GSM phone, or even to buy a very cheap pay-as-you-go card+phone bundle. For example: lebara and ortel are providers that specialize in cheap rates to foreign countries. [4] targets those traveling through multiple countries.

To enjoy cheap international calls from the Netherlands you can use low-cost dial-around services such as Qazza, BelBazaar, pennyphone, SlimCall, telegoedkoop, beldewereld or teleknaller. Dial-around services are directly available from any landline in the Netherlands. No contract, no registration is required. Most dial-around services offer USA, Canada, Western Europe and many other countries at the price of a local call so you can save on your phone expenses easily. They also work from public payphones.

Internet cafés can be found in most cities, usually they also provide international calling booths. Many public libraries provide Internet access. Wireless Internet access using Wi-Fi is becoming increasingly popular and is available in many hotels, pubs, stations and on Schiphol, either for free, or at extortionate prices through one of the national "networks" of hotspots.

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