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Difference between revisions of "Minnan phrasebook"

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{{pagebanner|Fujian Banner.jpg}}
 
{{pagebanner|Fujian Banner.jpg}}
  
'''Minnan Yu''' or '''Southern Min''' (閩南語 Bân-lâm-) is a Chinese Min language sub-group of several Min Chinese varieties that originate from the Southern part of [[Fujian]] province. Of which, the group of mutually intelligible Minnan dialects spoken in the area around [[Quanzhou]], [[Zhangzhou]] and [[Xiamen]] in '''Southern Fujian''', collectively known as the '''Quanzhang''' (泉漳) variety of Southern Min or '''Minnan Hua''' (閩南話 bân-lâm-ōe), is the representative variety of all the Minnan languages. Therefore, it is usually considered as the mainstream variety of Minnan. It is also the most influential and the most widely spoken variety of all the Min language varieties.
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'''Southern Min''', '''Minnan''' (Mainland China : 闽南方言 Bân-lâm-hong-giân ; Taiwan : 臺灣閩南語/臺語 Tâi-uân-Bân-lâm-gí/tâi-gí : Taiwanese Min Nan Language), is a Chinese Min language sub-group of dialects that is mainly spoken in Southern region of [[Fujian]] province and Taiwan. It is the most well known Min Chinese variety and the major Min Chinese dialect group of Fujian and Taiwan today, it is also spoken by the certain overseas chinese population whose ancestral families hail from Southern Fujian, particularly in Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Phillipines, where they make up the largest chinese language dialect group before Cantonese. In Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, the overseas chinese call it as '''Hokkien''' (福建話 Hok-kiàn-ōe), while in the Phillipines, the overseas chinese call it "Our People's Language" (咱儂話 Lán-lâng-ōe).
  
The Minnan dialects that are widely spoken in [[Taiwan]] where it is referred to as '''Taiwanese''' (臺彎話 tâi-oan-ōe). Another variant is also spoken widely in the [[Philippines]] where it is referred to as '''Lan Nang Oe''' (咱人話 lán-lâng-ōe). In Singapore, Malaysia and Medan, the Minnan dialects excluding Teochew are called '''Hokkien''' (福建話 hok-kiàn-ōe), the Minnan pronunciation of 'Fujian'.
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The four mutually intelligible Min Nan dialects are [[Quanzhou]], [[Zhangzhou]], [[Xiamen]] and [[Taiwanese]]. All the mutually intelligible Min Nan dialects spoken in Southern Fujian and Taiwan are collectively known as Hokkien-Taiwanese Quanzhang Min Nan language (闽台泉漳片闽南语). There are variants of Min Nan spoken in other parts of Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan, namely Teochew (Chaoshan, 潮汕), Hailufeng (海陆丰), Longyan (龙岩), Toubei (头北), Zhenan (浙南), Datian (大田), Zhongshan (中山), Leizhou (雷州) and Hainanese (海南).  
  
Note that this list is based on the Xiamen version of mainstream Minnan. The dialects spoken in Taiwan, other parts of mainland China, Singapore, Malaysia, Medan and other Chinese communities have some differences, due to borrowing of words from different languages and sometimes language evolution due to relative isolation. Most notably, Minnan spoken in Taiwan has borrowed some words from Japanese, so "uncle" could be said as "ojisan" in Taiwan instead of 阿伯 "a-pek" (father's elder brother), 阿叔 "a-chek" or 阿舅 "a-kū" (mother's brother) as in Xiamen. The variant spoken in [[Zhangzhou]], Fujian province has some subtle differences from the Xiamen varient but is largely mutually intelligible (eg. ''kiam nui'' instead of ''kiam neng'' for salted egg).  
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Generally, the Hokkien-Taiwanese Quanzhang (闽台泉漳片) type of Min Nan spoken in Southern Fujian and Taiwan is the mainstream form of Min Nan due to the fact that it has the largest number of speakers among all the Min Nan dialects in Mainland China, Taiwan and Southeast Asia and the influence of Taiwanese Min Nan after the post martial law peiod during the late 1980s in Taiwan today.  
  
Yet another well known Southern Min variant is the Teochew dialect spoken around [[Chaozhou]] and [[Shantou]] in [[Guangdong]], and by large foreign Chinese Teochew communities around the world including [[Hong Kong]], [[Malaysia]], [[Thailand]] and [[France]] which is significantly different (eg. chı̍t-kâi-nâng instead of chı̍t-ê-lâng for '一個人') but is still mutually intelligible with the Xiamen dialect to a small degree. The variants spoken in Singapore and Malaysia are also known to have extensive borrowing from [[Malay phrasebook|Malay]] and to a lesser extent [[Cantonese phrasebook|Cantonese]] and English.
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Although the variants of Min Nan have a historical linguistic relationship with Hokkien-Taiwanese Quanzhang (闽台泉漳片) type of Min Nan, they '''differ significantly in pronounication and use of slang which are unique to the area''', so they are not easily mutually intelligible with the Hokkien-Taiwanese Quanzhang Min Nan. For example, the Teochew (Chaoshan) variant of Min Nan spoken in Eastern region of Guangdong Province is mutually intelligible with the mainstream Min Nan to a small degree, while Hainanese variant of Min Nan has no mutual intelligibility with mainstream Min Nan.
  
While the Hainanese dialect spoken on the island of Hainan is related with Minnan due to its origin from old Minnan, it differs more significantly and is not mutually intelligible with mainstream Minnan.
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The modern standard dialect pronounications of Min Nan are Xiamen dialect accent and Taiwanese Min Nan dialect (Tainan prestige accent). The Tainan prestige accent of the Taiwanese Min Nan dialect is the dialect accent that is mostly used in Minnan television broadcasting and Minnan song production in Taiwan. The Taiwanese Min Nan dialect is influential as the Taiwanese Min Nan Television shows today and Taiwanese Min Nan songs are popular among the native Min Nan chinese speakers in Southern Fujian, Taiwan and overseas chinese in Southeast Asia. Although not all the native Min Nan chinese speakers adopt the standard Min Nan pronounication themselves, the standard Min Nan pronounication is generally understood by most. Xiamen dialect accent is very similar to the Taiwanese Min Nan dialect (Tainan prestige accent), both are mixtures of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou Min Nan dialect accents. Both Xiamen dialect and Taiwanese Min Nan dialect (Tainan prestige accent) are highly mutually intelligible (98% phonetically similar; 90% lexically similar). The difference between the two standard Min Nan dialects is that the Xiamen dialect accent is slightly inclined towards Quanzhou dialect accent while Taiwanese Min Nan dialect (Tainan prestige accent) is slightly inclined towards Zhangzhou dialect accent. The mainland Min Nan dialects and Taiwan Min Nan dialect also differ slightly in lexicon by a small extent. Futhermore, Taiwanese Min Nan has borrowed some terminology from Japanese language, due to the legacy of the Japanese colonial rule of Taiwan during the late 18th century till the Kuomingtang takeover of Taiwan.
 
 
It can be said to be '''mutually unintelligible''' with standard Mandarin and other dialects not only due to the pronunciation differences but also because of the irregular word/character conversion i.e. a non-native Minnan speaker can only understand the dialect to a small extent even when it is presented in written form (e.g. "吃甲尚好驚血壓高,水姆兌人走" : 《陳雷.歡喜就好》) It is also not mutually intelligible with the other branches of the Min dialect family such as Mindong, Minbei and Puxian.
 
  
 +
Min Nan can be said to be '''mutually unintelligible''' with standard Mandarin and other dialects not only due to the pronunciation differences but also because of the irregular word/character conversion i.e. a non-native Minnan speaker can only understand the dialect to a small extent even when it is presented in written form (e.g. "吃甲尚好驚血壓高,水姆兌人走" : 《陳雷.歡喜就好》) It is also not mutually intelligible with the other branches of the Min dialect family such as Mindong, Minbei and Puxian.
  
 
==Pronunciation==
 
==Pronunciation==
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For referring to oneself, 我 góa is used in more informal context while 阮 gún is more formal and 恁爸 lı́n-pē is very derogatory but used very commonly. (No cognates exist in Mandarin or Cantonese although phrases with the same meaning do.) Similar to [[Malay phrasebook|Malay]], there are two equivalents of the English word "we", with lan-nang including the listener in the group, and goa-nang used to exclude the listener from the group.
 
For referring to oneself, 我 góa is used in more informal context while 阮 gún is more formal and 恁爸 lı́n-pē is very derogatory but used very commonly. (No cognates exist in Mandarin or Cantonese although phrases with the same meaning do.) Similar to [[Malay phrasebook|Malay]], there are two equivalents of the English word "we", with lan-nang including the listener in the group, and goa-nang used to exclude the listener from the group.
  
Pronunciation varies from region to region (e.g. 你 (''you'') can be either ''lı́'' and ''lú''). This can make comprehension difficult sometimes even between 'native' speakers from different regions. It should also be kept in mind that most speakers of the dialect often mix Mandarin phrases into their speech due to the influence of Standard Mandarin.
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Pronunciation varies from region to region (e.g. 你 (''you'') can be either ''lı́'' and ''lú''). This can make comprehension slightly difficult sometimes even between 'native' speakers from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. It should also be kept in mind that most speakers of the dialect often mix Mandarin phrases into their speech due to the influence of Standard Mandarin.
  
 
=== Tones ===
 
=== Tones ===
  
Like other varieties of Chinese, Minnan is tonal; tones must be correct in order to convey the correct meaning. Tone sandhi is particularly common and non-standardised in Minnan, which makes it a little harder to learn than Mandarin, where tone sandhi is standardised, and Cantonese, where tone sandhi is used sparingly.
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Like other varieties of Chinese, Minnan is tonal; tones must be correct in order to convey the correct meaning. Tone sandhi is very common and complex (non-standardised) in Minnan, which makes it harder to learn than Mandarin, where tone sandhi is standardised, and Cantonese, where tone sandhi is used sparingly.
  
 
The following table shows the values of the different tones in some places, and does '''not''' show the pronunciation of the tones or tone sandhi of many areas, but may give an idea of the approximate values.
 
The following table shows the values of the different tones in some places, and does '''not''' show the pronunciation of the tones or tone sandhi of many areas, but may give an idea of the approximate values.
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==Phrase list==
 
==Phrase list==
{{style}}
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{{style}}{{transcription|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pe%CC%8Dh-o%C4%93-j%C4%AB Pe̍h-ōe-jī]}}
  
{{transcription|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pe%CC%8Dh-o%C4%93-j%C4%AB Pe̍h-ōe-jī]}}
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The Minnan phrase list below covers the mainstream Minnan dialect spoken in Southern Fujian and Taiwan.
 +
The pronounication is mostly based on Xiamen dialect or Taiwanese dialect (Tainan accent).
  
For some of the following phrases, there is an unconventional romanization shown in parentheses and this does not describe tones, but just tries to be phonetically accurate from an (American) English speaking standpoint. Goal is to have an English speaker's first try be fairly close, without reading a bunch of rules for phonetization nor trying to distinguish between the 7 tones in Taiwanese. Unfortunately, it is difficult to cover all tones this way, especially nasal and breath differences, and thus cannot be completely accurate.
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* Also to note is the sound of "l" used below. Linguists call this sound a "flap": it is similar to the "tt" sound in Standard American pronunciation of "butter". It is also similar to the Japanese "r" and the Spanish "single-r" sounds.
  
* Asterisks precede words that are very hard to phonetize. It would be nice to get some audio on here for these.
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===Basics===
 +
; Min Nan must-know famous phrase : 愛拚才會贏 ài piànn tsiah ē iânn (Perservere till you succeed)
 +
; Hello. : 汝好。 lı́ hó
 +
; How are you? : 汝好無? lı́ hó bô?
 +
; How are you?/Have You Eaten : 食飽袂? chia̍h-pá-bē/buē
 +
; Not bad : 袂䆀 bē-bái/buē-bái
 +
; Fine, Thank you. (informal) : 好,多謝 hó,to-siā
 +
; Fine, Thank you. (formal): 好,感謝 hó,kám-siā.
 +
; What is the matter? : 啥物代誌? siáⁿ-mı̍h-tāi-tsì
 +
; Yes. : 是 sı̄ (''Note: Only some questions are answered with this. As with other varieties of Chinese, affirmation is generally done by repeating the verb in the question.'')
 +
; No. : 毋是 m̄-sı̄
 +
; Excuse me : 否勢 phái-sè
 +
; I'm sorry. (informal) : 否勢 phái-sè
 +
; I'm sorry. (formal): 失禮。sit lé.
 +
; Goodbye : 再見 chài-kiàn
  
* Also to note is the sound of "l" used below. Linguists call this sound a "flap": it is similar to the "tt" sound in Standard American pronunciation of "butter". It is also similar to the Japanese "r" and the Spanish "single-r" sounds.
+
===Addressing Strangers===
 +
; This person : 這位 tsit-uī
 +
; Male : 查埔 tsa-poo
 +
; Female : 查某 tsa-bóo
 +
; Children/Toddler : 囡仔 gín-á
 +
; Baby : 嬰仔 enn-á/inn-á 
 +
; Gentleman (formal) : 這位先生 sian-sinn
 +
; Young man (informal) : 阿弟 a-tī
 +
; Middle aged man (informal) : 阿叔 a-tsik
 +
; Old Man (informal) : 阿伯 a-peh
 +
; Lady (formal) : 這位女士 lú-sū
 +
; Young Lady (informal) : 小姐 sió-tsiá
 +
; Middle Aged Lady (informal) : 阿嫂 a-só
 +
; Old Lady (informal) : 阿姆 a-ḿ
 +
; Young person : 少年家 siàu-liân-ke
 +
; Middle Aged : 序大人 sī-tuā-lâng
 +
; Old person : 老歲仔 lāu-huè/hè-á
  
===Basics===
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===Self Introduction===
; Hello. : 你好。 lı́ hó (Li huh)
+
; What is your name? : 汝叫啥物名? lı́ kiò siáⁿ-mı̍h miâ?
; Hello (''informal'') :
 
; How are you? : 你好無? lı́ hó bô?
 
; How are you? : 食飽無? chia̍h-pá-bô (jia bah bo) ("have you eaten?")
 
; Not bad : 不歹 bōe-phái (buay pai)
 
; Fine, thank you. (informal) : 好,多謝 hó,to͘-siā (Hoh, duh shiah.)
 
; Fine, thank you. (formal): 好,感謝 hó,kám-siā. (Hoh, gahm shiah)
 
; Thank you: 多謝 to͘-siā
 
; What is your name? : 你叫啥物名? lı́ kiò siáⁿ-mı̍h miâ?
 
 
; My name is ... . : 我的名是... góa ê miâ sı̄...
 
; My name is ... . : 我的名是... góa ê miâ sı̄...
; Nice to meet you. :
+
; Nice to meet you. : 真/足歡喜熟似汝。 tsin/tsiok huann-hí si̍k-sāi lı́
; Please... (before a request): ... chhiáⁿ...
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; May i ask you.... : 請問... chhiáⁿ mn̄g...
; Please. : 拜託 Pài-thok (Bai-toh)
+
; Please. : 拜託 Pài-thok
 
; You're welcome : 免客氣 bián kheh-khı̀ ("don't be polite")
 
; You're welcome : 免客氣 bián kheh-khı̀ ("don't be polite")
; Yes. : 是 sı̄ (''Note: Only some questions are answered with this. As with other varieties of Chinese, affirmation is generally done by repeating the verb in the question.'')
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; Never Mind. It’s nothing (It’s alright) : 無要緊 無代誌 bô-iàu-kín bô-tāi-tsì
; No. : 毋是 m̄-sı̄
+
; See you again : 有緣再相會ū-iân tsài siong-huē 
; Excuse me. (''getting attention'') : 勞駕 lô-
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; I can't speak Minnan/Taiwanese well. : 我袂啥会曉講閩南語/台語... góa bē/buē siánn e-hiáu kóng bân-lâm-gı́(gú)/tâi-gı́(gú)
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') : 否勢 phái-sè (pai say)
+
; I don't know how to speak Minnan/Taiwanese and Mandarin :  
; I'm sorry. (informal) : 否勢 phái-sè (pai-say)
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我袂曉講(閩南語/台語)佮(普通話/國語)。<br/>
; I'm sorry. (formal): 失禮。sit lé. (shit-leh)
+
góa bē/buē-hiáu kóng [Bân-lâm-gı́(gú)/tâi-gı́(gú)] kah [phóo-thong-uē / kok-gí(gú)]
; Goodbye : 再見 chài-kiàn (tsai gian).
+
; Do you speak English or Mandarin? : 你敢會曉講英語抑是(普通話/國語)? lı́ kám-ē-hiáu kóng eng-gı́ ia̍h-sī [phóo-thong-uē / kok-gí(gú)]?
; Goodbye (''informal'') :
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; Is there someone here who speaks English? : 遐敢有人會曉講英語?chia kám-ū lâng ē hiáu kóng ing-gı́(gú)?
; I can't speak... [well]. : 我袂曉講... góa bōe-hiáu kóng...
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; Help! : 救命! kìu-miā!
; I don't know how to speak English : [?]曉講英語 (Wah mbay hyow gong eng-yee)
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; Look out! / Be Careful! : 細膩!sè-jī/suè-lī
; Do you speak English? : 你敢會曉講英語? lı́ kám-ē-hiáu kóng eng-gı́? (Li gah-ay-hyow gong eng-yee)
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; Good morning. : 𠢕早。 gâu-chá.
; Is there someone here who speaks English? : 遐敢有人會曉講英語?chia kám-ū lâng ē hiáu kóng ing-? (Jiah gam ou lung eh hiao gong eng gyi?)
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; Good Evening. : 暗暝好。 àm-mî-hó
; Help! : 救人! kìu-lâng!
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; Good Night : 暗安 à-man
; Look out! : 小心! sió sim!
 
; Good morning. : 賢早。 gâu-chá.
 
; Good evening. : 好暗暝。 hó-àm-mî (Amoy Hokkien)
 
; Good night. :
 
; Good night (''to sleep'') : 好睏。 hó khùn (sleep well)
 
 
; I don't understand. : 我聽無。góa thiaⁿ bô.
 
; I don't understand. : 我聽無。góa thiaⁿ bô.
; Where's the bathroom? : 便所佇佗? Piān-só· tī toh? (Ben so dee-da)
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; Where's the Toilet? :  
; You are beautiful : 你真媠 lı́ chin suí
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厕所佇"倒落"? ceh-só tī tó-lo̍h (Southern Fujian, Mainland China)<br/>
 +
便所佇"佗位"? piān-tī toh-uī? (Taiwan)
 +
; I want this/that : 我愛這個/彼個物件。 góa ài tsit-ê/hit-ê mi̍h-kiānn
 +
; I don't want this/that : 我莫這個/彼個物件 góa mài tsit-ê/hit-ê mi̍h-kiānn
 +
; Can : 会使 ē-sái
 +
; Cannot : 袂使 bē-sái/buē-sái
 +
; I know. : 我知影 góa tsai-iánn
 +
; I don't know. : 我毋知影 góa m̄ tsai-iánn
 +
; You are kind : 汝(真/足)善良 lı́ tsin/tsiok siān-liông
 +
; You are helpful : 予汝(真/足)無閒 hoo lı́ tsin/tsiok bô-îng,汝是一個好跤手 lı́ sı̄ tsit-ê hó kha tshiú。
 +
; beautiful woman : 美女 bí-lú
 +
; You are beautiful (woman) : 汝(真/足)媠 lı́ tsin/tsiok suí
 +
; handsome man : 壯兄 tsòng-hiann
 +
; You are handsome (man) : 汝(真/足)緣投 lı́ tsin/tsiok iân-tâu
 +
; Take care : 順行 sūn-kiânn
  
 
===Problems===
 
===Problems===
 
+
; Go away : 閃開 siám-khui
; Go away : 走 cháu/chó͘ (tzow/zao)
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; Hurry Up : 趕緊 kuánn-kín,緊咧 kín leh
; Don't touch me! : 莫摸我 mài mo góa (mai mo1 wa) / (Mai gah-wah mbong)
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; Don't touch me! : 莫摸我 mài mo góa  
; I'll call the police. (Informal): 我叫警察 (Wah kah gien tsah.)
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; Don’t attack me! : 莫拍我mài phah góa
; I'll call the police (Formal): (Wah ay kah hoh gien tsah.)
+
; Pervert : 痴哥tshi-ko
; Police! : 警察 kéng-chhat (gien tsah) / ma-ta (from malay)
+
; Rape : 強姦kiông-kan
; Stop! : tòng (dohng) / 停 thêng (tng2)
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; I am being raped by a pervert!: 我予一個痴哥強姦。góa hōo tsi̍t ê tshi-ko kiông-kan
; I need your help. : 我需要你的幫忙 góa su-iàu lı́-ê pang-bâng (Wah soo-yow *dee-ay bahm-mahng)
+
; Don't mess with me! : 莫烏白亂來mài oo-pe̍h luān-lâi
; I'm lost. : (Wah mbo-key)
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; I'll call the police : 我去報警!góa khì pò-kíng
; I lost my purse/wallet. : 我不見[?]我的皮包 Wah pahng-key wah-ay pay-bow
+
; Police Station : 警察局 kíng-tshat-kio̍k
; I'm sick. : Wah pwah bee or Wah gahng koh
+
; Someone, please : 人啊,来救我!lâng ah, lâi kiù góa
; I've been injured. : 我著傷 guá tio̍h siong
+
; Stop There! : 停 thêng /汝共我擋咧。lí kā guá tòng leh
; I need a doctor. : 我[?]醫生 (Wah dah-ai ee-sheng)
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; Robbery!: 搶劫 tshiúnn-kiap
; Can I use your phone? : 我甘可用你的電話[?] (Wah gah-ay sai yen * li-ay dyeng-way)
+
; Chase the thief! Don’t let him/her run away. : 追那個賊仔,莫予伊逃走去。tui hit ê tsha̍t-á, mài hōo i tô-tsáu khì
; Don't lie to me! : 勿假! mài ké!
+
; I was robbed. : 我遭遇著搶劫。góa tso-gū tio̍h tshiúnn-kiap
 +
; Please catch the thief. : 請汝佮賊掠起来。Tshiánn
 +
; Don’t harm/hurt me. : 莫傷害我。mài siong-hāi góa
 +
; Don’t kill me. Spare me. : 莫刣我。饒我一命。mài thâi góa。jiâu góa tsi̍t miā
 +
; Please let me go : 請汝放我撒Tshiánn lı́ pàng góa suah
 +
; The thief stole my money, passport, handphone, jewellery, valuables. : 賊仔偷提我的錢,護照,手機仔,首飾佮貴重的物件去。tsha̍t-á thau-the̍h- góa-ê-tsînn ,hōo-tsiàu ,tshiú-ki-á ,tshiú-sik kah Kuì-tiōng ê mi̍h-kiānn khì
 +
; I need your help : 我需要汝的幫忙 góa su-iàu lı́-ê pang-bâng  
 +
; Can you help me out with my problem? : 汝敢会使佮我[鬥相共/鬥跤手/解決問題]?lı́ kám ē-sái kah góa (tàu-sann-kāng // tàu-kha-tshiú // kái-kuat būn-tê/būn-tuê)
 +
; I lost my way : 我行無路。góa kiânn-bô-lōo
 +
; I would like to ask you for directions. : 我想欲問路。góa Siūnn beh/bueh mn̄g-lōo
 +
; Can you tell me how to go to this/that place? : 汝敢会使佮我講這个所在安怎去? Lı́-kám ē-sái kah góa kóng tsit ê sóo-tsāi án-tsuánn khì?
 +
; Can you lead the path? : 汝敢会使𤆬路? Lı́-kám ē-sái tshuā lōo?
 +
; I lost my purse/wallet. : 我的皮包仔/錢袋仔放去 góa-ê (phuê-pau-á/phê-pau-á)/ tsînn--á pàng-khì
 +
; I'm sick. : 我破病 góa phuà-pēnn/phuà-pīnn
 +
; I've been injured. : 我著傷 góa tio̍h siong
 +
; My wound is bleeding. : 我的空喙佇咧流血。góa-ê khang-tshuì tī-leh lâu-hueh/lâu-huih
 +
; I felt pain. : 我感覺(真/足)疼。góa kám-kak tsin/tsiok thiànn
 +
; I am scared. : 我(真/足)驚。góa tsin/tsiok kiann
 +
; I am not feeling well. : 我袂爽快/袂舒服。góa (bē/ buē sóng-khuài) / (bē/ buē soo ho̍k)
 +
; Please call an ambulance. : 請報救护車。Tshiánn pò Kiù hōo tshia
 +
; I need a doctor. : 我欲去看醫生 góa beh/bueh khì i-sing
 +
; I need to go to clinic/hospital. : 我欲去診所 góa beh/bueh khì tsín-sóo (Mainland China : 醫院 i-īnn, Taiwan : 病院 pēnn-īnn/pīnn-īnn)
 +
; Can I borrow your phone? : 我敢会使借汝的電話用?
 +
; Don't lie to me! : 莫講白贼!mài kóng pe̍h-tsha̍t
 +
; Don’t Pretend : 莫假死 mài ké-sí / 莫搬戲mài puann-hì / 莫做戲mài tsò-hì/tsuè-hì
 +
; Don’t act dumb! : 莫佯戇mài tènn-gōng / 莫佯生mài tènn-tshenn/tìnn-tshinn
  
 
===Numbers===
 
===Numbers===
 
 
Numbers in Minnan are basically the same as numbers in other varieties of Chinese.
 
Numbers in Minnan are basically the same as numbers in other varieties of Chinese.
 
 
Please note the rules about when to use the two different words for 2 (nn̄g and jī). Jī is used in the ones, tens and hundreds place, whereas nn̄g is used for multiples of numbers 100 and greater. This is analogous to the use of 兩 and 二 in mandarin.
 
Please note the rules about when to use the two different words for 2 (nn̄g and jī). Jī is used in the ones, tens and hundreds place, whereas nn̄g is used for multiples of numbers 100 and greater. This is analogous to the use of 兩 and 二 in mandarin.
 
 
; 0: 空 khong (kong)
 
; 0: 空 khong (kong)
 
; 1 : 一 it / chi̍t (chjit)
 
; 1 : 一 it / chi̍t (chjit)
Line 263: Line 316:
  
 
; number _____ (train, bus, etc.) : _____號 hō
 
; number _____ (train, bus, etc.) : _____號 hō
; half : 半 bun
+
; half : 半 puànn 
; less : 少 síu
+
; less : 少 tsió
; more : 多 dō
+
; more : 濟 tsē/tsuē
 
 
  
 
===Ordinal Numbers===
 
===Ordinal Numbers===
Line 279: Line 331:
  
 
And so on, for any number:
 
And so on, for any number:
 
 
; Twentieth 第二十 tē-jı̄-cha̍p (day ji-tzap)
 
; Twentieth 第二十 tē-jı̄-cha̍p (day ji-tzap)
 
; Hundredth : 第一百 tē-chı̍t-pah (day chit-pah)
 
; Hundredth : 第一百 tē-chı̍t-pah (day chit-pah)
Line 285: Line 336:
  
 
===Time===
 
===Time===
 
+
; now : 這陣 chit-tsūn (Southern Fujian, Mainland China), 這馬 chit-má (Taiwan)
; what time is it? : 幾點 kúi tiám (kwee tiam)?
+
; what time is it now? : 這陣 chit-tsūn/這馬 chit-má 幾點 kúi tiám
; now : 這馬 chit-má (jeemah) / 這陣 chit-tsūn (jeetzoon)
+
; just now : 拄才 tú-tsiah
; later : kah dahng-ay or shuh dahng
+
; not long ago : 無偌久 bô-guā-kú、bô-juā-kú、bô-luā-kú
; before : ee jun
+
; Wait a moment : 且慢 tshiánn-bān,小等咧 sió-tán leh
; early : 早 chá (dtsah)
+
; a short while : 一睏仔 tsi̍t-khùn-á, 一觸久仔 tsi̍t-tak-kú-á
; earlier : 較早 kah chá (kah dtsah)
+
; during the period of time : 有一站仔 ū-tsi̍t-tsām-á,彼東陣 hit-tang-tsūn
 
+
; in the past : 以前 í-tsîng
 
+
; in the future : 以後 í-āu
; morning : 下晡 / (tao dtsah)
+
; last time : 彼時 hit-
; in the morning : 早起 chá-khí (tzai kee)
+
; next time : 後擺 āu-pái
; tomorrow morning : 明仔載 bîn-á-tsá-khí miyah tsai kee tao dtsah
+
; early : 早 chá  
; afternoon : 下晡 (ay boh)
+
; earlier : 較早 kah chá
; in the afternoon :
+
; late : 晏 uànn
; evening : ay ahm
+
; later : 較晏 kah uànn
; In the evening :
+
; during/When... : .....的時陣 ê sî-tsūn
; Night : àm
+
; early morning : 透早 thàu-tsá
; In the night : 暗時 àm-sî (ahm-sheea)
+
; in the morning : 早起 chá-khí
; Tonight : 今暗 kim-àm / 今暝 kim-mı̂ (kim mi)
+
; tomorrow morning : 明仔早起 bîn-á-tsá-khí
 +
; noon : 中晝tiong-tàu
 +
; afternoon : 下晡 ē-poo
 +
; in the afternoon : 下晝 ē-tàu
 +
; evening : 欲暗仔 beh-àm-á/bueh-àm-á
 +
; in the evening : 暗頭仔 àm-thâu-á
 +
; Night : 暗暝 àm-mê/àm-mî
 +
; In the night : 暗時 àm-sî
 +
; Tonight : 下昏 e-hng
 +
; Midnight : 半暝 puànn-/puànn-mî 
  
 
====Clock time====
 
====Clock time====
 
+
; Midnight 12 AM : 半暝十二點puànn-mê/puànn-mî cha̍p-jī (tzhap-li) tiám
; One o'clock AM : ?一點 (tao tza jeet/yi4 diam)
+
; One o'clock AM : 透早一點thàu-tsá (it) tiám
; Two o'clock AM : ?兩點 (tao tza nen/di3 diam)
+
; Nine o’ clock AM : 早起九點chá-khí káu tiám
; Noon : 中晝 tiong-tàu (dyong dow) / (ey3 bpo1)
+
; 12 Noon : 中晝十二點cha̍p-jī tiám
ē-poo
+
; One o’clock PM : 下晡二點 ē-poo jī*(li/ji/di) tiám
; Midnight : 半暝 puàⁿ-mî (bpua mi)
+
; Six o’clock PM  : 欲暗六點beh-àm/bueh-àm la̍k tiám
 +
; Nine o’clock PM : 暗暝九點 àm-mê/àm-mî káu tiám
  
 
====Duration====
 
====Duration====
 
+
; _____ minute(s) : _____ 分鐘 hun-ching  
; _____ minute(s) : _____ 分鐘 hun-ching (whhun-ching)
+
; _____ hour(s) : _____ 點鐘 tiám-ching  
; _____ hour(s) : _____ 點鐘 tiám-ching / (diam-jun)
+
; _____ day(s) : _____ 日 ji̍t  
; _____ day(s) : _____ 日 ji̍t (*leet)
+
; _____ week(s) : _____ 禮拜 lé-pài  
; _____ week(s) : _____ 禮拜 lé-pài (*lay bai)
+
; _____ month(s) : _____ 月 gue̍h  
; _____ month(s) : _____ 月 gue̍h (whay)
+
; _____ year(s) : _____ 年 nî  
; _____ year(s) : _____ 年 nî (nee)
 
  
 
====Days====
 
====Days====
  
; today : 今日/今仔日 kin-á-jit / (gyah *de *deet)
+
; today : 今仔日 kin-á-jit (lit)
; yesterday : 昨昏 chah-hng (dtsah-ung)
+
; yesterday : 昨昏 chah-hng  
; tomorrow : 明仔載 bîn-á-chài (miyah tsai) or 明日 miyah-jit
+
; tomorrow : 明仔載 bîn-á-chài
; the day before last : 昨日 cho̍h--ji̍t (tzuh *leet)
+
; the day before last : 昨日tsa-ji̍t
; the day after tomorrow : 後日 āu--ji̍t (ow *leet)
+
; the day after tomorrow : 後日 āu ji̍t (lit)
; this week : 這禮拜 chit lé-pài (tsi *lay bai)
+
; this week : 這禮拜 chit lé-pài  
; last week : (den *lay-bai)
+
; last week : 頂禮拜tíng lé-pài
; next week : 後禮拜 āu lé-pài (ow *lay-bai)
+
; next week : 後禮拜 āu lé-pài  
 
+
; Sunday : 禮拜日 lé-pài-jı̍t (lit)
; Sunday : 禮拜日 lé-pài-jı̍t (le-bai-*leet)
+
; Monday : 拜一 pài-it
; Monday : 拜一 pài-it (bai-eet)
+
; Tuesday : 拜二 pài-jı̄  
; Tuesday : 拜二 pài-jı̄ (bai-*dee)
+
; Wednesday : 拜三 pài-saⁿ  
; Wednesday : 拜三 pài-saⁿ (bai-sa)
+
; Thursday : 拜四 pài-sı̀  
; Thursday : 拜四 pài-sı̀ (bai-shee)
+
; Friday : 拜五 pài-gō͘  
; Friday : 拜五 pài-gō͘ (bai-go)
+
; Saturday : 拜六 pài-la̍k  
; Saturday : 拜六 pài-la̍k (bai-*lahk)
 
  
 
====Months====
 
====Months====
Line 357: Line 416:
  
 
===Colors===
 
===Colors===
 +
; colour : 色sik
 +
; black : 烏色 o·-sik
 +
; white : 白色 pe̍h-sik
 +
; grey : 灰色 hoe-sik
 +
; red : 紅色 âng-sik
 +
; blue : 藍色 nâ-sik
 +
; yellow : 黃色 n̂g-sik
 +
; green : 青色 chhiⁿ-sik
 +
; orange : 柑仔色 kam-á-sik : (''"mandarin orange color"'')
 +
; purple : 茄仔色 kiô-á-sik : (''"eggplant color"'')
 +
; brown : 土色 thó·-sik : (''"dirt color"'')
 +
; dark __colour : 深__色 tshim ___ sik
 +
; light___colour : 淺___色tshián____sik
  
; color : 色 sek
+
===Money===
; black : 烏色 o·-sek
+
; Money : 錢 tsînn
; white : 白色 pe̍h-sek
+
; Cash : 現金 hiān-kim
; grey : 灰色 hoe-sek
+
; Cash Notes : (Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 紙字 tsuá-lī), (Taiwan : 銀票 gîn/gûn-phiò)
; red : 紅色 âng-sek
+
; Coins : (Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 銅錢 tâng-tsînn, 鈍囝 tun-kiánn) ; (Taiwan : 銀角仔 gîn/gûn-kak-á)
; blue : 藍色 nâ-sek
+
; Debit card : 借記卡 tsioh-kì-kha̍h
; yellow : 黃色 n̂g-sek
+
; Credit card : 信用卡 sìn-iōng-kha̍h
; green : 青色 chhiⁿ-sek
 
; orange : 柑仔色 kam-sek : (''"mandarin orange color"'')
 
; purple : 茄色 kiô-sek : (''"eggplant color"'')
 
; brown : 土色 thó·-sek : (''"dirt color"'')
 
  
 
===Transportation===
 
===Transportation===
 +
; Vehicles : 車輛 tshia-lióng
 +
; Car : 汽車 khì-tshia
 +
; Bus : 公共汽車 kong-kiōng khì-tshia (Southern Fujian, Mainland China), 公車 kong-tshia (Taiwan)
 +
; Taxi : 出租車 tshut-tsoo-tshia (Southern Fujian, Mainland China), 計程車 kè-thîng-tshia (Taiwan)
 +
; Motorbike : 摩托車 môo-thok-tshia (Southern Fujian, Mainland China), "Autobike" (Taiwan;Japanese Loanword)
 +
; Van/Minibus : 麵包車 mī-pau-tshia
 +
; Train : 火車 hué/hé-tshia
 +
; Subway : 地鐵 tē-thih
 +
; High Speed Train : 高鐵 ko-thih
 +
; Bicycle : 跤踏車 kha-ta̍h-tshia
 +
; Electric Scooter : 電動滑板車 tiān-tōng-ku̍t-pán-tshia
 +
; Boat/Ferry : 渡船 tōo-tsûn
 +
; Plane : 飛機 pue-ki/hue-ki
 +
; One (Road Vehicle) : 一頂車tsi̍t-tíng-tshia
 +
; One Boat/Plane : 一隻船/飛機  tsi̍t tsiah tsûn/ pue-ki/hue-ki
 +
; Bus Stop, Train station : 車站 tshia-tsām.
 +
; Taxi Stand : (Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 出租車停靠站 tshut-tsoo-tshia-thîng-khò-tsām) ; (Taiwan : 計程車停靠站 thîng-khò-tsām-thîng-khò-tsām)
 +
; Bus Terminal : (Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 公共汽車終點站 kong-kiōng khì-tshia tsiong-tiám-tsām) ; (Taiwan : 公車終點站 kong-tshia-tsiong-tiám-tsām)
 +
; Ferry Terminal : 輪渡碼頭 lûn-tōo-bé-thâu
 +
; Service staff : 服務員 ho̍k-bū-uân
 +
; I want to book ticket : 我愛訂票 goá-ài-tīng-phiò
 +
; I want to reserve seat : 我愛預訂坐位 goá-ài-ī/ū-tīng-tsē-uī
 +
; Which date and what time do you prefer? : 汝愛底時佮幾點 goá-ài-tī-sî-kah-kuí-tiám
 +
; Which seat do you prefer? : 汝愛坐佗一位? lí-ài-tsē-tó-tsi̍t-uī
 +
; I want the seat positioned at the second row and third column : 我愛坐佇咧第二排,第三列的位置。goá-ài-tsē-tī-leh-tē-jī/lī-pâi-tē-sann-lia̍t-ê-uī-tì
 +
; Ticket counter : 賣票口 bē/bué-phiò-kháu
 +
; Ticket Machine : 賣票機 bē/bué-phiò-ki
 +
; Buy Transport Ticket : 買車票 bé-tshia-phiò/bué-tshia-phiò
 +
; Transport Card : 交通卡 kau-thong-khah
 +
; Pay deposit : 付定金/押金 hù-tiānn-kim/hù-ah-kim
 +
; Collect Refund (for deposit) : 領退款 niá-thè-khuán
 +
; Top-Up/Recharge Transport Card : 充卡 tshiong-ka/共交通卡提去充錢 kah-kau-thong-khah-the̍h-khì-tshiong-tsînn
 +
; Scan Transport Card on card reader : 佇讀卡器掃描交通卡 tī-tha̍k-khah-ki-sàu-biâu-kau-thong-khah
 +
; Scan QR code on code reader : 佇代碼讀數器掃描二維碼 tī-tāi-bé-tha̍k-sòo-ki-sàu-biâu-jī/lī-uî-bé
 +
; I am unable to move through the ticket barrier : 我袂使通过檢票口 goá-bē/buē-sái-thong-kuè/kè-kiám-phiò-kháu
 +
; How many passengers? : 幾個車客?kuí-ê-tshia-kheh?
 +
; Two passengers : 兩個車客。nn̄g-ê-tshia-kheh
 +
; One Transport ticket : 一張車票 tsi̍t-tiunn-tshia-phiò
 +
; How much is one ticket? : 一張車票是幾箍?tsi̍t-tiunn-tshia-phiò-kuí-khoo
 +
; What is the total cost? : 攏總偌多錢?lóng-tsóng-guā-tsē/tsuē-tsînn
 +
; Which place are you going to? : (Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 汝欲去倒落? lí-beh/bueh-khì-tó-lo̍h?) ; (Taiwan : 汝欲去佗位? lí-beh/bueh-khì-tó-uī?) ; 汝欲去佗一个所在? lí-beh/bueh-khì-tó-tsi̍t-ê-sóo-tsāi
 +
; How long does it take for the bus/train to reach the destination? : (Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 車愛坐偌久才會到目的地?tshia-ài-tsē-guā-kú-tsiah-ē-kàu-bo̍k-tik-tuē); (Taiwan : 車愛坐偌久才會到位?tshia-ài-tsē-guā-kú-tsiah-ē-kàu-uī)
 +
; It takes approximately about 1 hour 45 minutes. : 量約一點鐘四十五分鐘 liōng-iok-tsi̍t-tiám-tsing-sì-tsa̍p-gōo-hun-tsing
 +
; Where does this bus/train go to? : (Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 這幫車去倒落? tsit-pang-tshia-khì-tó-lo̍h?) ; (Taiwan : 這幫車去佗位? tsit-pang-tshia-khì-tó-uī?) ; 這幫車去佗一个所在? tsit-ê-tshia-khì-tó-tsi̍t-ê-sóo-tsāi
 +
; Does this bus/train go to this place ? : 這幫車敢有去這個所在?tsit-pang-tshia-kám-ū-khì-tsi̍t-ê-sóo-tsāi?
 +
; What time does this bus/train leave? : 這幫車底時起行?tsit-pang-tshia-tī-sî-khí-kiânn?
 +
; What time will this bus/train arrive? : 這幫車底時到站?tsit-pang-tshia-tī-sî-kàu-tsām?
 +
; Driver Please stop! : 司機 拜託,等我!我欲上車 su-ki pài thok,tán-goá!goá-beh/bueh-tsiūnn-tshia.
 +
  
====Bus and train====
 
  
; Ticket : [?]票 phiò (dyu pyuh)
 
; One ticket : 一票 chit phiò (jeet-pyuh)
 
; How much is one ticket? : 一票是幾箍? chit phiò sī kuí khoo (Jeet-pyuh shee gwee-koh?)
 
; bus : 公車 / [?] (kay-wun)
 
; train : 火車 hóe-chhia (whey-chiah)
 
; Where does this bus go? : chit-ê (Dze-day kay-wun kee-dah?)
 
; Does this train go to ____? : (Dze-day whey-chiah gah-oo kee ____?)
 
; What time does this train leave? : (Dze-day whey-chiah gwee diam tsooh-whaht?)
 
; What time will this bus arrive? : (Dze-day kay-wun gwee diam ay gow-wee?)
 
; Please stop! : 拜託,擋! pài thok,tòng (Pbai-toh, dong!)
 
  
 
====Directions====
 
====Directions====
Line 404: Line 510:
 
====Taxi====
 
====Taxi====
  
; Taxi : (gay-dyen chiah)
+
; Taxi : 計程車 kè-thîng-tshia(gay-dyen chiah)
; Drive me to ____ : [?]我去。 dzai wah kee ____
+
; Drive me to ____ : [?]我去 ____。 (dzai wah kee ____)
; How much to go ____ : [?]去幾箍? mbay kee ____ gwee koh?
+
; How much to go ____ : 欲去 ____幾箍? beh khì  ____ kuí khoo?(mbay kee ____ gwee koh)?
  
 
===Lodging===
 
===Lodging===
Line 429: Line 535:
 
; Please clean my room : 拜託 我的 房間 (Pbai toh kyeng wah-ay bahn-gyun)
 
; Please clean my room : 拜託 我的 房間 (Pbai toh kyeng wah-ay bahn-gyun)
 
; Can you wake me at ... ? : ,好無?... gah-way gyuh kiah, huhbuh?
 
; Can you wake me at ... ? : ,好無?... gah-way gyuh kiah, huhbuh?
 
===Money===
 
 
; Credit card : (swah kah)
 
; Where can I exchange money? : (Dway ay-dahng wah gjee?)
 
  
 
===Eating===
 
===Eating===
Line 465: Line 566:
 
===Bars===
 
===Bars===
  
===Shopping===
+
===Basic Necessities===
 
+
; Basic Necessities : 生活用品 sing-ua̍h-iōng-phín
; How much? : 偌濟? jōa-chōe (luaa zwuei)
+
; Mineral Water : 礦泉水 khòng-tsuânn-tsuí
; How many dollars/yuan? : 幾箍? kúi kho͘ (gwee koh)
+
; toothbrush : 齒抿 khí-bín
; Too much : 傷 shyoo-(gke4) zwuei3
+
; toothpaste : 齒膏 khí-ko
; Don't want : 莫/勿 mbwai / mmm...-mai3
+
; detergent : 洗衫粉 sé/sué-sann-hún
; I need... : (Wah dah-ai...)
+
; soap : 茶箍 tê-kho͘
; ...toothbrush : 齒抿 khí-bín (kee-mbeeng)
+
; shampoo : 洗頭液 sé/sué-thâu-i̍k
; ...soap : 茶箍 tê-kho͘ (day koh)
+
; clothes hanger : 衫仔弓 sann-á-king/ 衫架仔 sann-kè-á
; ...shampoo : 洗頭毛 sóe thâu-mn̂g (suay tow-mun) (''literally "wash hair"'')
+
; towel : 巾仔 kin/kun-á
; ...paper : 紙 chóa (dzwah)
+
; tissue : 紙巾 tsuá-kin/kun
; ...pen : 筆 pit (mbeetd / pbeet)
+
; Toilet Paper : 衛生紙 uē-sing-tsuá
; ...books : 書 chu (dzoo) / 冊 chheh (tz-cheh)
 
  
 
===Authority===
 
===Authority===

Latest revision as of 09:41, 5 February 2018

Southern Min, Minnan (Mainland China : 闽南方言 Bân-lâm-hong-giân ; Taiwan : 臺灣閩南語/臺語 Tâi-uân-Bân-lâm-gí/tâi-gí : Taiwanese Min Nan Language), is a Chinese Min language sub-group of dialects that is mainly spoken in Southern region of Fujian province and Taiwan. It is the most well known Min Chinese variety and the major Min Chinese dialect group of Fujian and Taiwan today, it is also spoken by the certain overseas chinese population whose ancestral families hail from Southern Fujian, particularly in Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Phillipines, where they make up the largest chinese language dialect group before Cantonese. In Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, the overseas chinese call it as Hokkien (福建話 Hok-kiàn-ōe), while in the Phillipines, the overseas chinese call it "Our People's Language" (咱儂話 Lán-lâng-ōe).

The four mutually intelligible Min Nan dialects are Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Xiamen and Taiwanese. All the mutually intelligible Min Nan dialects spoken in Southern Fujian and Taiwan are collectively known as Hokkien-Taiwanese Quanzhang Min Nan language (闽台泉漳片闽南语). There are variants of Min Nan spoken in other parts of Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan, namely Teochew (Chaoshan, 潮汕), Hailufeng (海陆丰), Longyan (龙岩), Toubei (头北), Zhenan (浙南), Datian (大田), Zhongshan (中山), Leizhou (雷州) and Hainanese (海南).

Generally, the Hokkien-Taiwanese Quanzhang (闽台泉漳片) type of Min Nan spoken in Southern Fujian and Taiwan is the mainstream form of Min Nan due to the fact that it has the largest number of speakers among all the Min Nan dialects in Mainland China, Taiwan and Southeast Asia and the influence of Taiwanese Min Nan after the post martial law peiod during the late 1980s in Taiwan today.

Although the variants of Min Nan have a historical linguistic relationship with Hokkien-Taiwanese Quanzhang (闽台泉漳片) type of Min Nan, they differ significantly in pronounication and use of slang which are unique to the area, so they are not easily mutually intelligible with the Hokkien-Taiwanese Quanzhang Min Nan. For example, the Teochew (Chaoshan) variant of Min Nan spoken in Eastern region of Guangdong Province is mutually intelligible with the mainstream Min Nan to a small degree, while Hainanese variant of Min Nan has no mutual intelligibility with mainstream Min Nan.

The modern standard dialect pronounications of Min Nan are Xiamen dialect accent and Taiwanese Min Nan dialect (Tainan prestige accent). The Tainan prestige accent of the Taiwanese Min Nan dialect is the dialect accent that is mostly used in Minnan television broadcasting and Minnan song production in Taiwan. The Taiwanese Min Nan dialect is influential as the Taiwanese Min Nan Television shows today and Taiwanese Min Nan songs are popular among the native Min Nan chinese speakers in Southern Fujian, Taiwan and overseas chinese in Southeast Asia. Although not all the native Min Nan chinese speakers adopt the standard Min Nan pronounication themselves, the standard Min Nan pronounication is generally understood by most. Xiamen dialect accent is very similar to the Taiwanese Min Nan dialect (Tainan prestige accent), both are mixtures of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou Min Nan dialect accents. Both Xiamen dialect and Taiwanese Min Nan dialect (Tainan prestige accent) are highly mutually intelligible (98% phonetically similar; 90% lexically similar). The difference between the two standard Min Nan dialects is that the Xiamen dialect accent is slightly inclined towards Quanzhou dialect accent while Taiwanese Min Nan dialect (Tainan prestige accent) is slightly inclined towards Zhangzhou dialect accent. The mainland Min Nan dialects and Taiwan Min Nan dialect also differ slightly in lexicon by a small extent. Futhermore, Taiwanese Min Nan has borrowed some terminology from Japanese language, due to the legacy of the Japanese colonial rule of Taiwan during the late 18th century till the Kuomingtang takeover of Taiwan.

Min Nan can be said to be mutually unintelligible with standard Mandarin and other dialects not only due to the pronunciation differences but also because of the irregular word/character conversion i.e. a non-native Minnan speaker can only understand the dialect to a small extent even when it is presented in written form (e.g. "吃甲尚好驚血壓高,水姆兌人走" : 《陳雷.歡喜就好》) It is also not mutually intelligible with the other branches of the Min dialect family such as Mindong, Minbei and Puxian.

Pronunciation[edit]

Like all other Chinese languages and their dialects, Minnan uses Chinese characters but employs its own 'unique' pronunciation. However, it should be noted that similar to Japanese kanji, most characters have two or more pronunciations in Minnan, which means that many characters would be pronounced differently depending on context, even if their Mandarin pronunciation remains the same in both instances.

This is partly due to the fact that, because standard written Chinese is based on Mandarin, many words in Minnan are written with characters of the same meaning in standard written Chinese.

For example, the words ài and beh both roughly mean 'want', so they are usually written with the character 要 (although they are also written with 愛 and 欲 respectively). Consequently, the pronuncation of the character 要 can change between ài, beh and iàu depending on context.

The ordinary word for person, lâng, is usually written with the character 人, which also has the reading jı̂n or lîn. The character 生 is is pronounced seⁿ or siⁿ as a verb used alone, but the word 人生 is pronounced lı̂n-seng.

Also, note how the words m̄ (is not, does not) and bē/bōe (cannot) are all often written with 不, so while 不要 might be read as m̄-ài or m̄-beh, 不能/不可 can be read as bē-sái or bōe-sái.

For referring to oneself, 我 góa is used in more informal context while 阮 gún is more formal and 恁爸 lı́n-pē is very derogatory but used very commonly. (No cognates exist in Mandarin or Cantonese although phrases with the same meaning do.) Similar to Malay, there are two equivalents of the English word "we", with lan-nang including the listener in the group, and goa-nang used to exclude the listener from the group.

Pronunciation varies from region to region (e.g. 你 (you) can be either lı́ and ). This can make comprehension slightly difficult sometimes even between 'native' speakers from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. It should also be kept in mind that most speakers of the dialect often mix Mandarin phrases into their speech due to the influence of Standard Mandarin.

Tones[edit]

Like other varieties of Chinese, Minnan is tonal; tones must be correct in order to convey the correct meaning. Tone sandhi is very common and complex (non-standardised) in Minnan, which makes it harder to learn than Mandarin, where tone sandhi is standardised, and Cantonese, where tone sandhi is used sparingly.

The following table shows the values of the different tones in some places, and does not show the pronunciation of the tones or tone sandhi of many areas, but may give an idea of the approximate values.

Tones of Minnan
Number Name POJ Pitch Description After tone sandhi
1 yin level a 55 high 7
2 yin rising á 51 falling 1
3 yin departing à 31~21 low falling 2
4 yin entering ah 32 mid stopped 2 (h final), 8 (otherwise)
5 yang level â 14~24 rising 3 (Taipei), 7 (Tainan)
6 yang rising á 51 falling 1
7 yang departing ā 33 mid 3
8 yang entering a̍h 4 high stopped 3 (h final), 4 (otherwise)

Consonants[edit]

Minnan has many different consonants, even more so than standard Mandarin or Cantonese, and pronouncing them all correctly is a challenge for English speakers. While Mandarin only distinguishes between aspirated and unaspirated (unvoiced) consonants, and English only distinguishes between voiced and unvoiced consonants meaning-wise, Minnan makes a distinction in both cases. This means that aspirated unvoiced (pʰ, tʰ, kʰ), unaspirated unvoiced (p, t, k), and unaspirated voiced (b, d, g) are all separate phonemic consonants in Minnan.

To highlight the distinction, the words for "open" (開) and "close" (關), in some pronunciations (khui and kui respectively) sound almost identical to a native English speaker, only difference being that "open" uses an aspirated initial k while "close" uses an unaspirated initial k! The j sound in English is also used along with the j sound in Mandarin hanyu pinyin. Labial initials such as the m sound are also present. However, unlike in Mandarin, there is no "tongue rolling" (pinyin r) initial consonant.

Initial consonanats of POJ
Letter IPA English example Notes
b b ban voiced pinyin 'b'
p p span pinyin 'b'
ph pan pinyin 'p'
j dz/ʑ fads voiced pinyin 'z'
ch ts/tɕ cats pinyin 'z' or 'j'
chh tsʰ/tɕʰ - pinyin 'c' or 'q'
s s/ɕ sun pinyin 's' or 'x'
g g get goiced pinyin 'g'
k k skin pinyin 'g'
kh kin pinyin 'k'
t t Stan pinyin 'd'
th tan pinyin 't'
h h hat English 'h'

Like Cantonese but unlike Mandarin, Minnan retains all the final consonants (m, n, ŋ, p, t, and k) of Middle Chinese. In POJ, the nasal consonants m, n and ng are pronounced the same as English, but the others are different.

The stop consonants p, t and k are unreleased. This means that the mouth moves into the position of making the consonant, but no burst of air is released.

Furthermore, an h at the end of a syllable in POJ represents a glottal stop (ʔ); this is the sound in the middle of the English word 'uh-oh'.

Vowels[edit]

The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced as they are in many languages, such as Spanish. Minnan also has the vowel [ɔ] written as (with a dot) or oo.

Vowels of POJ
Letter IPA English example Notes
a a father
e e whey
i i see
o o soap
ɔ law also written 'oo'
u u goose

Vowels in Minnan can be nasalized, and in POJ this is indicated with a superscript n 'ⁿ' after the vowel. It can also be indicated with a capital n (N) or a double n (nn). IPA notes this with a tilde (~) above the last vowel.

Common diphthongs[edit]

There are many dipthongs in Minnan, and there pronunciation from the POJ spelling is generally fairly obvious. However, note that oe is "ui/uei" and oai is "uai".


Dipthongs of POJ
Letter IPA English example Notes
ai my pinyin 'ai'
au cow pinyin 'ao'
ia ɪa -
iu iu -
io ɪo -
oa ua - pinyin 'wa'
oe ui way pinyin 'wei'
iau ɪaʊ - piyin 'yao'
oai uai why pinyin 'wai'

Phrase list[edit]

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Phrases in this section are not consistently transcribed with Pe̍h-ōe-jī and Wikitravel's romanization guidelines. If you are familiar with the language, please help fix them up!


The Minnan phrase list below covers the mainstream Minnan dialect spoken in Southern Fujian and Taiwan. The pronounication is mostly based on Xiamen dialect or Taiwanese dialect (Tainan accent).

  • Also to note is the sound of "l" used below. Linguists call this sound a "flap": it is similar to the "tt" sound in Standard American pronunciation of "butter". It is also similar to the Japanese "r" and the Spanish "single-r" sounds.

Basics[edit]

Min Nan must-know famous phrase 
愛拚才會贏 ài piànn tsiah ē iânn (Perservere till you succeed)
Hello. 
汝好。 lı́ hó
How are you? 
汝好無? lı́ hó bô?
How are you?/Have You Eaten 
食飽袂? chia̍h-pá-bē/buē
Not bad 
袂䆀 bē-bái/buē-bái
Fine, Thank you. (informal) 
好,多謝 hó,to-siā
Fine, Thank you. (formal)
好,感謝 hó,kám-siā.
What is the matter? 
啥物代誌? siáⁿ-mı̍h-tāi-tsì
Yes. 
是 sı̄ (Note: Only some questions are answered with this. As with other varieties of Chinese, affirmation is generally done by repeating the verb in the question.)
No. 
毋是 m̄-sı̄
Excuse me 
否勢 phái-sè
I'm sorry. (informal) 
否勢 phái-sè
I'm sorry. (formal)
失禮。sit lé.
Goodbye 
再見 chài-kiàn

Addressing Strangers[edit]

This person 
這位 tsit-uī
Male 
查埔 tsa-poo
Female 
查某 tsa-bóo
Children/Toddler 
囡仔 gín-á
Baby 
嬰仔 enn-á/inn-á 
Gentleman (formal) 
這位先生 sian-sinn
Young man (informal) 
阿弟 a-tī
Middle aged man (informal) 
阿叔 a-tsik
Old Man (informal) 
阿伯 a-peh
Lady (formal) 
這位女士 lú-sū
Young Lady (informal) 
小姐 sió-tsiá
Middle Aged Lady (informal) 
阿嫂 a-só
Old Lady (informal) 
阿姆 a-ḿ
Young person 
少年家 siàu-liân-ke
Middle Aged 
序大人 sī-tuā-lâng
Old person 
老歲仔 lāu-huè/hè-á

Self Introduction[edit]

What is your name? 
汝叫啥物名? lı́ kiò siáⁿ-mı̍h miâ?
My name is ... . 
我的名是... góa ê miâ sı̄...
Nice to meet you. 
真/足歡喜熟似汝。 tsin/tsiok huann-hí si̍k-sāi lı́
May i ask you.... 
請問... chhiáⁿ mn̄g...
Please. 
拜託 Pài-thok
You're welcome 
免客氣 bián kheh-khı̀ ("don't be polite")
Never Mind. It’s nothing (It’s alright) 
無要緊 無代誌 bô-iàu-kín bô-tāi-tsì
See you again 
有緣再相會ū-iân tsài siong-huē
I can't speak Minnan/Taiwanese well. 
我袂啥会曉講閩南語/台語... góa bē/buē siánn e-hiáu kóng bân-lâm-gı́(gú)/tâi-gı́(gú)
I don't know how to speak Minnan/Taiwanese and Mandarin 

我袂曉講(閩南語/台語)佮(普通話/國語)。
góa bē/buē-hiáu kóng [Bân-lâm-gı́(gú)/tâi-gı́(gú)] kah [phóo-thong-uē / kok-gí(gú)]

Do you speak English or Mandarin? 
你敢會曉講英語抑是(普通話/國語)? lı́ kám-ē-hiáu kóng eng-gı́ ia̍h-sī [phóo-thong-uē / kok-gí(gú)]?
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
遐敢有人會曉講英語?chia kám-ū lâng ē hiáu kóng ing-gı́(gú)?
Help! 
救命! kìu-miā!
Look out! / Be Careful! 
細膩!sè-jī/suè-lī
Good morning. 
𠢕早。 gâu-chá.
Good Evening. 
暗暝好。 àm-mî-hó
Good Night 
暗安 à-man
I don't understand. 
我聽無。góa thiaⁿ bô.
Where's the Toilet? 
厕所佇"倒落"? ceh-só tī tó-lo̍h (Southern Fujian, Mainland China)
便所佇"佗位"? piān-só tī toh-uī? (Taiwan)
I want this/that 
我愛這個/彼個物件。 góa ài tsit-ê/hit-ê mi̍h-kiānn
I don't want this/that 
我莫這個/彼個物件 góa mài tsit-ê/hit-ê mi̍h-kiānn
Can 
会使 ē-sái
Cannot 
袂使 bē-sái/buē-sái
I know. 
我知影 góa tsai-iánn
I don't know. 
我毋知影 góa m̄ tsai-iánn
You are kind 
汝(真/足)善良 lı́ tsin/tsiok siān-liông
You are helpful 
予汝(真/足)無閒 hoo lı́ tsin/tsiok bô-îng,汝是一個好跤手 lı́ sı̄ tsit-ê hó kha tshiú。
beautiful woman 
美女 bí-lú
You are beautiful (woman) 
汝(真/足)媠 lı́ tsin/tsiok suí
handsome man 
壯兄 tsòng-hiann
You are handsome (man) 
汝(真/足)緣投 lı́ tsin/tsiok iân-tâu
Take care 
順行 sūn-kiânn

Problems[edit]

Go away 
閃開 siám-khui
Hurry Up 
趕緊 kuánn-kín,緊咧 kín leh
Don't touch me! 
莫摸我 mài mo góa
Don’t attack me! 
莫拍我mài phah góa
Pervert 
痴哥tshi-ko
Rape 
強姦kiông-kan
I am being raped by a pervert!
我予一個痴哥強姦。góa hōo tsi̍t ê tshi-ko kiông-kan
Don't mess with me! 
莫烏白亂來mài oo-pe̍h luān-lâi
I'll call the police 
我去報警!góa khì pò-kíng
Police Station 
警察局 kíng-tshat-kio̍k
Someone, please 
人啊,来救我!lâng ah, lâi kiù góa
Stop There! 
停 thêng /汝共我擋咧。lí kā guá tòng leh
Robbery!
搶劫 tshiúnn-kiap
Chase the thief! Don’t let him/her run away. 
追那個賊仔,莫予伊逃走去。tui hit ê tsha̍t-á, mài hōo i tô-tsáu khì
I was robbed. 
我遭遇著搶劫。góa tso-gū tio̍h tshiúnn-kiap
Please catch the thief. 
請汝佮賊掠起来。Tshiánn
Don’t harm/hurt me. 
莫傷害我。mài siong-hāi góa
Don’t kill me. Spare me. 
莫刣我。饒我一命。mài thâi góa。jiâu góa tsi̍t miā
Please let me go 
請汝放我撒Tshiánn lı́ pàng góa suah
The thief stole my money, passport, handphone, jewellery, valuables. 
賊仔偷提我的錢,護照,手機仔,首飾佮貴重的物件去。tsha̍t-á thau-the̍h- góa-ê-tsînn ,hōo-tsiàu ,tshiú-ki-á ,tshiú-sik kah Kuì-tiōng ê mi̍h-kiānn khì
I need your help 
我需要汝的幫忙 góa su-iàu lı́-ê pang-bâng
Can you help me out with my problem? 
汝敢会使佮我[鬥相共/鬥跤手/解決問題]?lı́ kám ē-sái kah góa (tàu-sann-kāng // tàu-kha-tshiú // kái-kuat būn-tê/būn-tuê)
I lost my way 
我行無路。góa kiânn-bô-lōo
I would like to ask you for directions. 
我想欲問路。góa Siūnn beh/bueh mn̄g-lōo
Can you tell me how to go to this/that place? 
汝敢会使佮我講這个所在安怎去? Lı́-kám ē-sái kah góa kóng tsit ê sóo-tsāi án-tsuánn khì?
Can you lead the path? 
汝敢会使𤆬路? Lı́-kám ē-sái tshuā lōo?
I lost my purse/wallet. 
我的皮包仔/錢袋仔放去 góa-ê (phuê-pau-á/phê-pau-á)/ tsînn-tē-á pàng-khì
I'm sick. 
我破病 góa phuà-pēnn/phuà-pīnn
I've been injured. 
我著傷 góa tio̍h siong
My wound is bleeding. 
我的空喙佇咧流血。góa-ê khang-tshuì tī-leh lâu-hueh/lâu-huih
I felt pain. 
我感覺(真/足)疼。góa kám-kak tsin/tsiok thiànn
I am scared. 
我(真/足)驚。góa tsin/tsiok kiann
I am not feeling well. 
我袂爽快/袂舒服。góa (bē/ buē sóng-khuài) / (bē/ buē soo ho̍k)
Please call an ambulance. 
請報救护車。Tshiánn pò Kiù hōo tshia
I need a doctor. 
我欲去看醫生 góa beh/bueh khì i-sing
I need to go to clinic/hospital. 
我欲去診所 góa beh/bueh khì tsín-sóo (Mainland China : 醫院 i-īnn, Taiwan : 病院 pēnn-īnn/pīnn-īnn)
Can I borrow your phone? 
我敢会使借汝的電話用?
Don't lie to me! 
莫講白贼!mài kóng pe̍h-tsha̍t
Don’t Pretend 
莫假死 mài ké-sí / 莫搬戲mài puann-hì / 莫做戲mài tsò-hì/tsuè-hì
Don’t act dumb! 
莫佯戇mài tènn-gōng / 莫佯生mài tènn-tshenn/tìnn-tshinn

Numbers[edit]

Numbers in Minnan are basically the same as numbers in other varieties of Chinese. Please note the rules about when to use the two different words for 2 (nn̄g and jī). Jī is used in the ones, tens and hundreds place, whereas nn̄g is used for multiples of numbers 100 and greater. This is analogous to the use of 兩 and 二 in mandarin.

0
空 khong (kong)
一 it / chi̍t (chjit)
二 jī (li/ji/di) / 兩 nn̄g (nng)
三 saⁿ (sa)
四 sì (si)
五 ngō (go)
六 la̍k (lak)
七 chhit (chit)
八 pueh / peh (bpui)
九 káu (kau)
10  
十 cha̍p (tzhap)
11 
十一 cha̍p-it (tzhap-it)
12 
十二 cha̍p-jī (tzhap-li)
13 
十三 cha̍p-saⁿ (tzhap-sa)
14 
十四 cha̍p-sì (tzhap-si)
15 
十五 cha̍p-gō· (tzhap-go)
16 
十六 cha̍p-la̍k (tzhap-lak)
17 
十七 cha̍p-chhit (tzhap-chit)
18 
十八 cha̍p-peh (tzhap-peh)
19 
十九 cha̍p-káu (tzhap-kau)
20 
二十 jī-cha̍p (li-tzhap)
21 
二十一 jī-cha̍p-it (li-tzhap-it)
22 
二十二 jī-cha̍p-jī (li-tzhap-li)
100 
一百 chi̍t-pah (chit-pah)
200 
兩百 nn̄g-pah (nng-pah)
222
兩百二十二 nn̄g-pah-jī-cha̍p-jī (nng-pah-li-chap-li)
1000 
一千 chi̍t-chhien (chit-chien)
2000 
兩千 nn̄g-chhien
10,000 
一萬 chi̍t-bān
20,000 
兩萬 nn̄g-bān
100,000 
十萬 cha̍p-bān
1,000,000 
一百萬 chi̍t-pah bān
10,000,000 
一千萬 chi̍t-chhing bān
100,000,000 
一億 chi̍t-ik
1,000,000,000 
十億 cha̍p-ik
10,000,000,000 
一百億 chi̍t-pah ik
100,000,000,000 
一千億 chi̍t-chhing ik
1,000,000,000,000 
一兆 chi̍t-tiāu
number _____ (train, bus, etc.) 
_____號 hō
half 
半 puànn 
less 
少 tsió
more 
濟 tsē/tsuē

Ordinal Numbers[edit]

Ordinal numbers in Chinese are expressed by prepending the number with '第', pronounced in Minnan.

First 
第一 tē-it (day-it)
Second 
第二 tē-jı̄ (day-ji)
Third 
第三 tē-saⁿ (day-sa)
Fourth 
第四 tē-sı̀ (day-si)
Fifth 
第五 tē-gō͘ (day-go)

And so on, for any number:

Twentieth 第二十 tē-jı̄-cha̍p (day ji-tzap)
Hundredth 
第一百 tē-chı̍t-pah (day chit-pah)
Thousandth 
第一千 tē-chı̍t-chhian (day chit-chien)

Time[edit]

now 
這陣 chit-tsūn (Southern Fujian, Mainland China), 這馬 chit-má (Taiwan)
what time is it now? 
這陣 chit-tsūn/這馬 chit-má 幾點 kúi tiám
just now 
拄才 tú-tsiah
not long ago 
無偌久 bô-guā-kú、bô-juā-kú、bô-luā-kú
Wait a moment 
且慢 tshiánn-bān,小等咧 sió-tán leh
a short while 
一睏仔 tsi̍t-khùn-á, 一觸久仔 tsi̍t-tak-kú-á
during the period of time 
有一站仔 ū-tsi̍t-tsām-á,彼東陣 hit-tang-tsūn
in the past 
以前 í-tsîng
in the future 
以後 í-āu
last time 
彼時 hit-sî
next time 
後擺 āu-pái
early 
早 chá
earlier 
較早 kah chá
late 
晏 uànn
later 
較晏 kah uànn
during/When... 
.....的時陣 ê sî-tsūn
early morning 
透早 thàu-tsá
in the morning 
早起 chá-khí
tomorrow morning 
明仔早起 bîn-á-tsá-khí
noon 
中晝tiong-tàu
afternoon 
下晡 ē-poo
in the afternoon 
下晝 ē-tàu
evening 
欲暗仔 beh-àm-á/bueh-àm-á
in the evening 
暗頭仔 àm-thâu-á
Night 
暗暝 àm-mê/àm-mî
In the night 
暗時 àm-sî
Tonight 
下昏 e-hng
Midnight 
半暝 puànn-mê/puànn-mî 

Clock time[edit]

Midnight 12 AM 
半暝十二點puànn-mê/puànn-mî cha̍p-jī (tzhap-li) tiám
One o'clock AM 
透早一點thàu-tsá (it) tiám
Nine o’ clock AM 
早起九點chá-khí káu tiám
12 Noon 
中晝十二點cha̍p-jī tiám
One o’clock PM 
下晡二點 ē-poo jī*(li/ji/di) tiám
Six o’clock PM  
欲暗六點beh-àm/bueh-àm la̍k tiám
Nine o’clock PM 
暗暝九點 àm-mê/àm-mî káu tiám

Duration[edit]

_____ minute(s) 
_____ 分鐘 hun-ching
_____ hour(s) 
_____ 點鐘 tiám-ching
_____ day(s) 
_____ 日 ji̍t
_____ week(s) 
_____ 禮拜 lé-pài
_____ month(s) 
_____ 月 gue̍h
_____ year(s) 
_____ 年 nî

Days[edit]

today 
今仔日 kin-á-jit (lit)
yesterday 
昨昏 chah-hng
tomorrow 
明仔載 bîn-á-chài
the day before last 
昨日tsa-ji̍t
the day after tomorrow 
後日 āu ji̍t (lit)
this week 
這禮拜 chit lé-pài
last week 
頂禮拜tíng lé-pài
next week 
後禮拜 āu lé-pài
Sunday 
禮拜日 lé-pài-jı̍t (lit)
Monday 
拜一 pài-it
Tuesday 
拜二 pài-jı̄
Wednesday 
拜三 pài-saⁿ
Thursday 
拜四 pài-sı̀
Friday 
拜五 pài-gō͘
Saturday 
拜六 pài-la̍k

Months[edit]

January 
一月 it-go̍eh
February 
二月 jı̄-go̍eh
March 
三月 saⁿ-go̍eh
April 
四月 sı̀-go̍eh
May 
五月 gō͘-go̍eh
June 
六月 la̍k-go̍eh
July 
七月 chhit-go̍eh
August 
八月 poeh-go̍eh
September 
九月 káu-go̍eh
October 
十月 cha̍p-go̍eh
November 
十一月 cha̍p-it-go̍eh
December 
十二月 cha̍p-jı̄-go̍eh

Colors[edit]

colour 
色sik
black 
烏色 o·-sik
white 
白色 pe̍h-sik
grey 
灰色 hoe-sik
red 
紅色 âng-sik
blue 
藍色 nâ-sik
yellow 
黃色 n̂g-sik
green 
青色 chhiⁿ-sik
orange 
柑仔色 kam-á-sik : ("mandarin orange color")
purple 
茄仔色 kiô-á-sik : ("eggplant color")
brown 
土色 thó·-sik : ("dirt color")
dark __colour 
深__色 tshim ___ sik
light___colour 
淺___色tshián____sik

Money[edit]

Money 
錢 tsînn
Cash 
現金 hiān-kim
Cash Notes 
(Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 紙字 tsuá-lī), (Taiwan : 銀票 gîn/gûn-phiò)
Coins 
(Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 銅錢 tâng-tsînn, 鈍囝 tun-kiánn) ; (Taiwan : 銀角仔 gîn/gûn-kak-á)
Debit card 
借記卡 tsioh-kì-kha̍h
Credit card 
信用卡 sìn-iōng-kha̍h

Transportation[edit]

Vehicles 
車輛 tshia-lióng
Car 
汽車 khì-tshia
Bus 
公共汽車 kong-kiōng khì-tshia (Southern Fujian, Mainland China), 公車 kong-tshia (Taiwan)
Taxi 
出租車 tshut-tsoo-tshia (Southern Fujian, Mainland China), 計程車 kè-thîng-tshia (Taiwan)
Motorbike 
摩托車 môo-thok-tshia (Southern Fujian, Mainland China), "Autobike" (Taiwan;Japanese Loanword)
Van/Minibus 
麵包車 mī-pau-tshia
Train 
火車 hué/hé-tshia
Subway 
地鐵 tē-thih
High Speed Train 
高鐵 ko-thih
Bicycle 
跤踏車 kha-ta̍h-tshia
Electric Scooter 
電動滑板車 tiān-tōng-ku̍t-pán-tshia
Boat/Ferry 
渡船 tōo-tsûn
Plane 
飛機 pue-ki/hue-ki
One (Road Vehicle) 
一頂車tsi̍t-tíng-tshia
One Boat/Plane 
一隻船/飛機 tsi̍t tsiah tsûn/ pue-ki/hue-ki
Bus Stop, Train station 
車站 tshia-tsām.
Taxi Stand 
(Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 出租車停靠站 tshut-tsoo-tshia-thîng-khò-tsām) ; (Taiwan : 計程車停靠站 thîng-khò-tsām-thîng-khò-tsām)
Bus Terminal 
(Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 公共汽車終點站 kong-kiōng khì-tshia tsiong-tiám-tsām) ; (Taiwan : 公車終點站 kong-tshia-tsiong-tiám-tsām)
Ferry Terminal 
輪渡碼頭 lûn-tōo-bé-thâu
Service staff 
服務員 ho̍k-bū-uân
I want to book ticket 
我愛訂票 goá-ài-tīng-phiò
I want to reserve seat 
我愛預訂坐位 goá-ài-ī/ū-tīng-tsē-uī
Which date and what time do you prefer? 
汝愛底時佮幾點 goá-ài-tī-sî-kah-kuí-tiám
Which seat do you prefer? 
汝愛坐佗一位? lí-ài-tsē-tó-tsi̍t-uī
I want the seat positioned at the second row and third column 
我愛坐佇咧第二排,第三列的位置。goá-ài-tsē-tī-leh-tē-jī/lī-pâi-tē-sann-lia̍t-ê-uī-tì
Ticket counter 
賣票口 bē/bué-phiò-kháu
Ticket Machine 
賣票機 bē/bué-phiò-ki
Buy Transport Ticket 
買車票 bé-tshia-phiò/bué-tshia-phiò
Transport Card 
交通卡 kau-thong-khah
Pay deposit 
付定金/押金 hù-tiānn-kim/hù-ah-kim
Collect Refund (for deposit) 
領退款 niá-thè-khuán
Top-Up/Recharge Transport Card 
充卡 tshiong-ka/共交通卡提去充錢 kah-kau-thong-khah-the̍h-khì-tshiong-tsînn
Scan Transport Card on card reader 
佇讀卡器掃描交通卡 tī-tha̍k-khah-ki-sàu-biâu-kau-thong-khah
Scan QR code on code reader 
佇代碼讀數器掃描二維碼 tī-tāi-bé-tha̍k-sòo-ki-sàu-biâu-jī/lī-uî-bé
I am unable to move through the ticket barrier 
我袂使通过檢票口 goá-bē/buē-sái-thong-kuè/kè-kiám-phiò-kháu
How many passengers? 
幾個車客?kuí-ê-tshia-kheh?
Two passengers 
兩個車客。nn̄g-ê-tshia-kheh
One Transport ticket 
一張車票 tsi̍t-tiunn-tshia-phiò
How much is one ticket? 
一張車票是幾箍?tsi̍t-tiunn-tshia-phiò-kuí-khoo
What is the total cost? 
攏總偌多錢?lóng-tsóng-guā-tsē/tsuē-tsînn
Which place are you going to? 
(Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 汝欲去倒落? lí-beh/bueh-khì-tó-lo̍h?) ; (Taiwan : 汝欲去佗位? lí-beh/bueh-khì-tó-uī?) ; 汝欲去佗一个所在? lí-beh/bueh-khì-tó-tsi̍t-ê-sóo-tsāi
How long does it take for the bus/train to reach the destination? 
(Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 車愛坐偌久才會到目的地?tshia-ài-tsē-guā-kú-tsiah-ē-kàu-bo̍k-tik-tuē); (Taiwan : 車愛坐偌久才會到位?tshia-ài-tsē-guā-kú-tsiah-ē-kàu-uī)
It takes approximately about 1 hour 45 minutes. 
量約一點鐘四十五分鐘 liōng-iok-tsi̍t-tiám-tsing-sì-tsa̍p-gōo-hun-tsing
Where does this bus/train go to? 
(Southern Fujian, Mainland China : 這幫車去倒落? tsit-pang-tshia-khì-tó-lo̍h?) ; (Taiwan : 這幫車去佗位? tsit-pang-tshia-khì-tó-uī?) ; 這幫車去佗一个所在? tsit-ê-tshia-khì-tó-tsi̍t-ê-sóo-tsāi
Does this bus/train go to this place ? 
這幫車敢有去這個所在?tsit-pang-tshia-kám-ū-khì-tsi̍t-ê-sóo-tsāi?
What time does this bus/train leave? 
這幫車底時起行?tsit-pang-tshia-tī-sî-khí-kiânn?
What time will this bus/train arrive? 
這幫車底時到站?tsit-pang-tshia-tī-sî-kàu-tsām?
Driver Please stop! 
司機 拜託,等我!我欲上車 su-ki pài thok,tán-goá!goá-beh/bueh-tsiūnn-tshia.



Directions[edit]

How do I get to ____? 
[?] 按怎去 (mbay ahndswah kee ____?)
...the train station? 
火車站 hué-chhia-chām / (whey chiah dyoo?)
...the bus station? 
(kay-wun dyoo?)
...the airport? 
(whey-deng-gee dyoo?)
...downtown? 
(chee dyong sheemg?)
...the hotel? 
旅館 lú-kuán (*lee-guang?)
...the restaurant? 
飯店 pn̄g-tiàm (bung-diam?)
Where are there a lot of ____? 
(Dway oo jote-tsay ____?)
Do you have a map? 
(*lee gah-oo day-doh?)
street/road 
路 lō͘/lo̍h (*loh)
left 
倒 tò (duh) / 左 chó
right 
正 chiàⁿ (jyah)
turn left 
倒[?] (duh wah)
straight ahead 
直直去 tı̍t-tı̍t khı̀ (dee-deet kee) / 直直行 ti̍t-ti̍t kiâⁿ (dee-deet gyah)

Taxi[edit]

Taxi 
計程車 kè-thîng-tshia(gay-dyen chiah)
Drive me to ____ 
[?]我去 ____。 (dzai wah kee ____)
How much to go ____ 
欲去 ____幾箍? beh khì ____ kuí khoo?(mbay kee ____ gwee koh)?

Lodging[edit]

Do you have any rooms available? 
有房間無 ū pâng-king bô? (Oo bahn-gyun mbo?)
How much for one room? 
一間[?]? (Jeet gyun, wah-tsay gyee?)
One person 
一個人 chı̍t-ê-lâng (dzeday lahng)
Two persons 
兩個人 n̄ng-ê-lâng (nungay lahng)
Does it have ____? 
敢有____? kám-ū ____ ? (Gah oo ____ ?)
a bathroom 
便所 piān-só͘? (beng soh?)
a telephone 
電話 tiān-ōe (dyung way?)
a TV 
電視 tiān-sī
May I see it first? 
[?]先看?(Gah-ay-dahng shung kwah?)
Do you have something more ____? 
敢有較____?

kám-ū kah|khah (Gah oo kah)

big 
大的 tōa-ê (dwah-ay)
cheap 
俗的 sio̍k-ê (shohg-ay)
OK, I'll sleep here for ____ nights. 
好,[?]暗 Huh, mbay-kuhng ____ ahm.
Is there another hotel? 
[?]有[?] 旅館 (Gah oo bahg-ay *lee-guang?)
What time is breakfast? 
早頓幾點? (Dzah-dun gwee-diam?)
Please clean my room 
拜託 我的 房間 (Pbai toh kyeng wah-ay bahn-gyun)
Can you wake me at ... ? 
,好無?... gah-way gyuh kiah, huhbuh?

Eating[edit]

Have some tea 
飲茶 lim tê
Make tea 
泡茶 phàu tê
Breakfast 
早頓 chá-tǹg (dzah-dun)
Lunch 
中頓 tiong-tǹg
Dinner 
暗頓 àm-tǹg
Snack 
點心 tiám-sim
I want... 
我欲 góa beh (gwah beh)
Tea 
茶 tê (teh)
Coffee 
咖啡 ka-pi (kopi)
Chicken Meat
雞肉 ke-bah/koe-bah (bah = meat)
Beef Meat
牛肉 gû-bah
Eggs 
雞卵 ke-nn̄g/koe-nn̄g
Fruit 
水果 chúi-kó, 果子 kóe-chí/ké-chí
Vegetable 
菜 chhài
Fish 
魚仔 hî-á (hee-ah) / 魚 hî/hû (hhu2/hhw2; sounds like a long 'huh' without the vowel)
Bread 
pahng (from Portugese) / (bin taw) / 麵包 mī-pau (mee-bao)
Noodles 
麵 mı̄ (mee)
Rice (uncooked) 
米 bı́ (bee)
Rice (cooked) 
飯 pn̄g (buhng)
Beer 
啤酒 (bee chiu)
Salt 
鹽 iâm (yahm)
Pepper 
hyahm / 胡椒粉 hô͘-chio-hún (hhoh chjio hun)
Done eating 
食飽了 chia̍h-pá-liáu (jyah pah lyow)
Good to eat 
好食 hó-chia̍h (huh jyah)
Good to drink 
好啉 hó-lim (huh lim)

Bars[edit]

Basic Necessities[edit]

Basic Necessities 
生活用品 sing-ua̍h-iōng-phín
Mineral Water 
礦泉水 khòng-tsuânn-tsuí
toothbrush 
齒抿 khí-bín
toothpaste 
齒膏 khí-ko
detergent 
洗衫粉 sé/sué-sann-hún
soap 
茶箍 tê-kho͘
shampoo 
洗頭液 sé/sué-thâu-i̍k
clothes hanger 
衫仔弓 sann-á-king/ 衫架仔 sann-kè-á
towel 
巾仔 kin/kun-á
tissue 
紙巾 tsuá-kin/kun
Toilet Paper 
衛生紙 uē-sing-tsuá

Authority[edit]

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