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Difference between revisions of "Mexico"

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Mexico

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==Respect==
 
==Respect==

Revision as of 20:32, 28 March 2005

Flag
Mx-flag.png
Quick Facts
CapitalMexico City (Distrito Federal)
Governmentfederal republic
CurrencyMexican peso (MXN)
Areatotal: 1,972,550 sq km
land: 1,923,040 sq km
water: 49,510 sq km
Population103,400,165 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageSpanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages
Religionnominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%, other 5%

Mexico is a country in North America, lying between the United States of America to the north, Belize to the southeast and Guatemala to the southwest, it has both a Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico coast to the east and a North Pacific Ocean coast to the west.

Map of Mexico

Regions

  • The Bajio -- historic cities in traditional silver-mining region

Cities

Mexico has many cities; these are some of the most travelled.

Other destinations

Cozumel Quintana Roo State

Understand

Some information in this section has been adapted from a CIA World Factbook 2002 import.

History

The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations, Mexico came under Spanish rule for three centuries before achieving independence early in the 19th century. A devaluation of the peso in late 1994 threw Mexico into economic turmoil, triggering the worst recession in over half a century. The nation continues to make an impressive recovery. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states. Elections held in July 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that the opposition defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) was sworn in on 1 December 2000 as the first chief executive elected in free and fair elections.

Geography

Area - comparative 
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Climate 
varies from tropical to desert
Terrain 
high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m

People

Population 
103,400,165 (July 2002 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Mexican(s)
adjective: Mexican
Ethnic groups 
mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%
Religions 
nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%, other 5%

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: United Mexican States
conventional short form: Mexico
local short form: Mexico
local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Government type 
federal republic
Capital 
Mexico (Distrito Federal)
Administrative divisions 
31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan, Zacatecas

Get in

From the United States

Keep your visa documents when leaving the United States of America

  • If you are not a US citizen holding a visa for the US (including the green "waiver" visas people from Western countries get at US borders), you will have both a visa stamp in your passport and a loose immigration document (often a green card) that the US customs officer puts in your passport. When entering Mexico from the US (either by land or by plane): if you intend to come back to the US after your stay, do not try to hand the green immigration document back to US customs (they normally don't ask for it). You can enter the US multiple times during the time allocated to your visa (for Western tourists, normally 90 days), but you need to have the immigration document as well to validate the visa. If you come back from the US without that document, you will not only have to apply again for a new visa (which is on land borders as in Tijuana costly (6-20 $) and may take a whole afternoon if you happen to be in a queue with hundreds of Mexican applicants), but you will also be asked severe questions by US immigration. So keep the immigration document with you until you leave North America for good.

By plane

By train

By car

By bus

By boat

Get around

Traveling in Mexico is most practical by bus, car, or air. Passenger transport by train is almost nonexistent.

Due to a government scheme in the early 90's to create infrastructure, the best roads are toll roads. Toll roads can be relatively costly, 400-800 pesos is not uncommon on longer trips, but are much faster and better maintained. Buses generally travel by toll roads (and the toll is obviously included in the ticket price).

If travelling by bus, be sure to take the express buses, if available. Other buses often stop at many smaller stations along the way, making the trip a lot longer. If you have experience with Greyhound buses in the US, you're in for a pleasant surprise. Book direct travel within Mexico on ejecutivo buses departing in the evening. You'll be able to sleep on luxury buses with as few as 18 seats. Some even have complimentary beer. With the advent of NAFTA, some bus companies are now offering service from US cities.

Talk

Mexican Spanish is the main language. You can get by with English in most major cities or tourist destinations, but much of the country is monolingual.

Mexican Spanish is slightly different from both the Castilian Spanish spoken in most of Spain and the Spanish spoken in South American countries. All three are mutually intelligible -- it's about the same as the differences in English spoken in various countries -- but you can expect some funny looks if you speak only Castilian. Mexican Spanish is the variant most often taught in the United States of America, so if you learned Spanish there, you should be OK.

In some regions, the native language like Mayan or Nahuatl is still widely spoken.

See also: Spanish phrasebook

Buy

Economy

Economy - overview 
Mexico has a free market economy with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity, natural gas distribution, and airports. Income distribution remains highly unequal. Trade with the US and Canada has tripled since the implementation of NAFTA in 1994. Following 6.9% growth in 2000, real GDP fell 0.3% in 2001, with the US slowdown the principal cause. Positive developments in 2001 included a drop in inflation to 6.5%, a sharp fall in interest rates, and a strong peso that appreciated 5% against the dollar. Mexico City implemented free trade agreements with Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and the European Free Trade Area in 2001, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. Foreign direct investment reached $25 billion in 2001, of which $12.5 billion came from the purchase of Mexico's second largest bank, Banamex, by Citigroup.
Population below poverty line 
40% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 
urban - 3% plus considerable underemployment (2001)
Currency 
Mexican peso (MXN)
Exchange rates 
Mexican pesos per US dollar - 9.1614 (January 2002), 9.3423 (2001), 9.4556 (2000), 9.5604 (1999), 9.1360 (1998), 7.9185 (1997), 11.20 (2003)

Eat

Traditional Mexican food can often be very spicy; if you are not used to peppers, always ask if your food includes it.

  • Tacos
  • Tamales
  • Tortas
  • Quesadillas
  • Mole


Drink

  • Tequila
  • Pulque
  • Atole
  • Mezcal

Learn

Work

Stay safe

Stay Healthy

Drinking the water out of the tap is generally a bad ide, but some areas are okay. Check with locals.

Respect

Contact

Internet country code 
.mx

External links

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