Memphis (Egypt)

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Memphis (Egypt)

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For other places with the same name, see Memphis (Egypt) (disambiguation).

Memphis is the English name for the present-day site of one of the great ancient capital cities of Egypt, located in and around several villages some 24 km (11 miles) south of the modern Egyptian capital of Cairo. Although very little remains to be seen on the surface, Memphis features a great sculpture museum and allows an evocative insight into both ancient greatness (its transitory nature!) and modern Egyptian rural life.


The ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis was first established towards the end of the 4th millennium BCE by the Pharaoh Narmer, at the time of his Unification of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. The boundary between the Two Lands was located close to the ancient city and its foundation was therefore imbued with a certain amount of political symbolism. Memphis remained the capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom period, at the time when the great Pyramids were being built. Central power returned to the city when the New Kingdom pharaohs made it once again Egypt's northern and main administrative capital, alongside the religious and ceremonial capital at Luxor in the south. Memphis was the chief cult city of the Egyptian god of wisdom and craftsmanship, Ptah. Although little remains of their achievements today, having been revaged by the depredations of time, the flood plain environment and the cannabilism of its stone for the building of medieval Cairo, the pharaohs and priests of Ptah once endowed the city with vast temple complexes and built their cemeteries on the desert hills adjoining it to the east and (especially!) to the west.

Get in

By taxi / cab

By far the easiest way of visiting Memphis is to hire a taxi for the day - a visit to the city can best be combined with visits to Saqqara and other nearby sites.

Get around


  • the Memphis Museum, located in the village of al-Badrashein, open daily 8am-5pm, admission LE£25 - the highlight of this small museum is a magnificent limestone colossus (large statue) of Ramesses II the Great, viewable from an upstairs gallery. Originally standing, the colossus now lies on its back within the main hall of the museum - make sure you climb into the gallery in order to look down upon the face of Ramesses. Many of the largely sculptural exhibits of the museum are in the open air, outside the museum. These include additional statues of Ramesses II, an alabaster sphinx of the New Kingdom period and the massive travertine platforms that were used in the mummification process of the Apis bulls, later interred in the Serapeum at Saqqara.




A small rest-house is located across the road from the museum - beware the notoriously inflated prices (best to bring drinks and snacks with you from your accommodation base!).



Get out

Visitors to Memphis should make it a priority to also visit the main ancient necropolis of the city, located nearby (3 km distance) on the desert plateau at Saqqara. The adjoining cemeteries at Abusir and Dahshur are also well worth a visit.

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