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Mali

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Mali

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Quick Facts
CapitalBamako
Governmentrepublic
CurrencyCommunaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Areatotal: 1.24 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
Population11,340,480 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageFrench (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
ReligionMuslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

This article is an import from the CIA World Factbook 2002. It's a starting point for creating a real Wikitravel country article according to our country article template. Please plunge forward and edit it.

The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government, and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held. After his reelection in 1997, President Alpha KONARE continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE.


Geography

Ml-map.png
Map of Mali
Location 
Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Geographic coordinates 
17 00 N, 4 00 W
Map references 
Africa
Area 
total: 1.24 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries 
total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims 
none (landlocked)
Climate 
subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February
Terrain 
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources 
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use 
arable land: 3.77%
permanent crops: 0.04%
other: 96.19% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
1,380 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Environment - current issues 
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban
Geography - note 
landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan

People

Population 
11,340,480 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 47.2% (male 2,687,998; female 2,658,605)
15-64 years: 49.8% (male 2,698,789; female 2,950,276)
65 years and over: 3% (male 160,604; female 184,208) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
2.97% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
48.37 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
18.32 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
-0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
119.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 47.39 years
female: 48.64 years (2002 est.)
male: 46.18 years
Total fertility rate 
6.73 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
1.7% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
140,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
9,900 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
Ethnic groups 
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Religions 
Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%
Languages 
French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38%
male: 45%
female: 31% (1998 est.)

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
local long form: Republique de Mali
Government type 
republic
Capital 
Bamako
Administrative divisions 
8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Independence 
22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday 
Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
Constitution 
adopted 12 January 1992
Legal system 
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed Mohamed Ag HAMANI (since 9 June 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (two-term limit); election last held 12 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE elected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 64.4%, Soumaila CISSE 35.6%
Legislative branch 
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14 July and 28 July 2002 (next to be held NA July 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Hope 2002 coalition 66, ADEMA 51, other 30
Judicial branch 
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders 
Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda Traore KEITA, party chairman]; Block of Alternative for the Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE, chairman]; Movement for the Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE, chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Bonbasor KEITA, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary general]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA
International organization participation 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Vicki HUDDLESTONE
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] (2) 223-833
FAX: [223] (2) 223-712
Flag description 
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview 
Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 70% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export. In 1997, the government continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2000. In 2001, GDP decreased by 1.2% mainly due to a 50% drop in cotton production in 2000-01.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $9.2 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
-1.2% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $840 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 45%
industry: 17%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 
64% average; 30% of the total population living in urban areas; 76% of the total population living in rural areas) (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 40% (1994) (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index 
51 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
4.5% (2001 est.)
Labor force 
3.93 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation 
agriculture and fishing 80% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 
14.6% urban areas; 5.3% rural areas (2001 est.)
Budget 
revenues: $764 million
expenditures: $828 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Industries 
food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate 
NA
Electricity - production 
462 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 43%
hydro: 57%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
429.66 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports 
$575 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities 
cotton 43%, gold 40%, livestock (2001 est.)
Exports - partners 
Brazil 10.6%, South Korea 9.9%, Italy 7.3%, Canada 7% (2000)
Imports 
$600 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities 
machinery and equipment, construction materials, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners 
Cote d'Ivoire 21%, France 12.4%, Senegal 4%, Germany 4%, Benelux (2000)
Debt - external 
$3.3 billion (2000)
Economic aid - recipient 
$596.4 million (2001)
Currency 
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Currency code 
XOF
Exchange rates 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
45,000 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
40,000 (2001)
Telephone system 
general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service
domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 1, FM 28, shortwave 1
note: the shortwave station in Bamako has seven frequencies and five transmitters and relays broadcasts for China Radio International (2001)
Radios 
570,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
1 (plus repeaters) (2001)
Televisions 
45,000 (1997)
Internet country code 
.ml
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
13 (2001)
Internet users 
30,000 (2002)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 729 km
narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge
note: linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes (2001)
Highways 
total: 15,100 km
paved: 1,827 km
unpaved: 13,273 km (1996)
Waterways 
1,815 km
Ports and harbors 
Koulikoro
Airports 
27 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 2,369,578 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 1,358,646 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$50 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
2% (FY01)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
none