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Madagascar

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Madagascar

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Flag
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Quick Facts
CapitalAntananarivo
Governmentrepublic
CurrencyMalagasy franc (MGF)
Areatotal: 587,040 sq km
water: 5,500 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
Population16,473,477 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageFrench (official), Malagasy (official)
Religionindigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%

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Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1886, but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002 the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner.


Geography

Ma-map.png
Map of Madagascar
Location 
Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Geographic coordinates 
20 00 S, 47 00 E
Map references 
Africa
Area 
total: 587,040 sq km
water: 5,500 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land boundaries 
0 km
Coastline 
4,828 km
Maritime claims 
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or 100 NM from the 2,500-m deep isobath
Climate 
tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain 
narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
Natural resources 
graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Land use 
arable land: 4.41%
permanent crops: 0.93%
other: 94.66% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
10,900 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
periodic cyclones
Environment - current issues 
soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note 
world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

People

Population 
16,473,477 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 45% (male 3,713,700; female 3,696,478)
15-64 years: 51.8% (male 4,227,931; female 4,313,940)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 241,699; female 279,729) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
3.03% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
42.41 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
12.15 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
81.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 55.74 years
female: 58.11 years (2002 est.)
male: 53.45 years
Total fertility rate 
5.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
0.15% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
11,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
870 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy
Ethnic groups 
Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Religions 
indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Languages 
French (official), Malagasy (official)
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 80%
male: 88%
female: 73% (1990 est.)

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form: Madagascar
local short form: Madagascar
former: Malagasy Republic
local long form: Republique de Madagascar
Government type 
republic
Capital 
Antananarivo
Administrative divisions 
6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Independence 
26 June 1960 (from France)
National holiday 
Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Constitution 
19 August 1992 by national referendum
Legal system 
based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: President Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 May 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Jacques SYLLA (27 May 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 December 2001 (next to be held NA November 2006); prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly
election results: percent of vote - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 40.89%, Marc RAVALOMANANA 46.21%; note - on 29 April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner by 51.5% after a recount; RATSIRIKA's prime minister was put under house arrest on 27 May 2002, and SYLLA was appointed the new prime minister by President RAVALOMANANA
Legislative branch 
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (160 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the legislature is scheduled to become a bicameral Parliament with the establishment of a Senate; two-thirds of the seats of this Senate will be filled by regional assemblies whose members will be elected by popular vote; the remaining one-third of the seats will be appointed by the president; the total number of seats will be determined by the National Assembly; all members will serve four-year terms
elections: National Assembly - last held 15 December 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - TIM 103, FP 22, AREMA 3, LEADER/Fanilo 2, RPSD 5, TTS 2, HBM 1, independents 22
Judicial branch 
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle
Political parties and leaders 
Action, Truth, Development, and Harmony or AFFA [Professor Albert ZAFY]; Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [leader vacant]; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence or AKFM/Fanavaozana [leader NA]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Rally or Fihaonana [Guy RAZANAMASY]; Group of Reflection and Action for the Development of Madagascar or GRAD/Iloafo; Judged by Your Work or AVI [Norbert RATSIRAHONANA]; Movement for the Progress of Madagascar or MFM [Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]; Tranobe (Big House) [Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
Federalist Movement; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
International organization participation 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Zina ANDRIANARIVELO-RAZAFY
consulate(s) general: New York
FAX: [1] (202) 483-7603
telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526
chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Wanda L. NESBITT
embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo 101
mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
telephone: [261] (20) 22-212-57, 22-212-73, 22-209-56
FAX: [261] (20) 22-345-39
Flag description 
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview 
Madagascar faces problems of chronic malnutrition, underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for one-third of GDP and contributing more than 70% to export earnings. Industry features textile manufacturing and the processing of agricultural products. Growth in output in 1992-97 averaged less than the growth rate of the population. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and demonstrations, a decline in world coffee prices, and the erratic commitment of the government to economic reform. The extent of government reforms, outside financial aid, and foreign investment will be key determinants of future growth.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $14 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $870 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 34%
industry: 11%
services: 55% (1999 est.)
Population below poverty line 
70% (1994 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 37% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index 
46 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
7% (2001 est.)
Labor force 
7 million (1999) (1999)
Unemployment rate 
NA%
Budget 
revenues: $553 million
expenditures: $735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Industries 
meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Industrial production growth rate 
3% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production 
820 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 37%
hydro: 63%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
762.6 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
Exports 
$680 million f.o.b. (2000)
Exports - commodities 
coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar; cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products
Exports - partners 
France 41%, US 21%, Germany 7%, Japan 4%, UK 1% (2000)
Imports 
$919 million f.o.b. (2000)
Imports - commodities 
intermediate manufactures, capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
Imports - partners 
France 38%, Hong Kong 10%, China 5%, Singapore 5%, Japan 3%
Debt - external 
$4.5 billion (2000)
Economic aid - recipient 
$838 million (1997) (1997)
Currency 
Malagasy franc (MGF)
Currency code 
MGF
Exchange rates 
Malagasy francs per US dollar - 6,531.4 (December 2001), 6,588.5 (2001), 6,767.5 (2000), 6,283.8 (1999), 5,441.4 (1998), 5,090.9 (1997)
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
55,000 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
63,100 (2000)
Telephone system 
general assessment: system is above average for the region
domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links connect regions
international: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 2 (plus a number of repeater stations), FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001)
Radios 
3.05 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
1 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
Televisions 
325,000 (1997)
Internet country code 
.mg
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
2 (2000)
Internet users 
35,000 (2002)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 893 km
narrow gauge: 893 km 1.000-m gauge (2001)
Highways 
total: 49,837 km
paved: 5,781 km
unpaved: 44,056 km (1996)
Waterways 
note: of local importance only
Ports and harbors 
Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Merchant marine 
total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 27,199 GRT/37,462 DWT
ships by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)
Airports 
130 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 29
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 92
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 46
under 914 m: 44 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
People's Armed Forces (comprising Intervention Force, Development Force, Aeronaval [Navy and Air] Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment
Military manpower - military age 
20 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 3,758,940 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 2,229,304 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
males: 153,856 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$48.7 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
1.2% (FY01)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)
Illicit drugs 
illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin