Khumbu (also known as the Everest Region) is a sub-region in Solu Khumbu located on the Nepalese side of Mount Everest.
The Everest region is officially called Khumbu and includes the Sagarmatha National Park (above Monju) and the Sagarmatha National Park Buffer Zone (between Lukla and Monju).
There are many villages scattered throughout Khumbu. Below is a list of nine of the most important to travelers. Others can be found on the 'Walk' section of the Everest Base Camp Trek
Famous for its spectacular mountain peaks and the loyalty and friendliness of its inhabitants (the Sherpas), the Everest region (Khumbu) is one of the most popular destinations for tourists in Nepal. While many of the routes through the mountains are arduous, there are ample places to rest and enjoy a meal along the way. Furthermore, don't worry about getting lost. Just ask a local the way to the next village on your route, and they will direct you. Most Sherpas under the age of fifty can at least understand basic English, and many speak it fluently.
While trekking is possible in this area the whole year round, the best times to visit are from the beginning of March to mid May and from the beginning of September to mid November. The winters are very cold and snow may make it difficult to travel higher than Tengboche, and also lodges may be closed above this altitude. Summers, on the other hand, are wet, and the spectacular peaks often lost in the clouds. April and early May is a good time to see the hedgerows and trees bursting into bloom, with Rhododendrons, in particular, adding a spectacular splash of color to the landscape. However, dust from the plains of India during the spring routinely provide less than ideal conditions for clear mountain views. The views are much better after the summer monsoons have cleared the atmosphere of dust, but the days are shorter and cooler.
Trekking permits are not required for the Khumbu region.
Lodges and restaurants in Khumbu only accept Nepalese rupees. Budget between 600-800rs per person per day for food and accommodation - prices rise with the altitude, though you may spend more in Namche because there is more on offer.
Sherpas speak their own language called Sherpa, which is related to Tibetan. Most Sherpas under the age of fifty can also speak English and Nepali. In addition, because many Sherpas have traveled overseas to work, it is not uncommon to meet Sherpas who are fluent in German, French and Japanese.
There are numerous flights plying the Kathmandu - Lukla route, though with a much reduced service during the off-season months. Sita is considered to be one of the more reliable airlines flying this route and operates two flights every morning from Kathmandu Domestic Airport at 7AM and 8:20AM, with return flights at 7:40AM and 9AM. Flights from Kathmandu take around 25 minutes. Be aware that during the summer rainy season there may be substantial delays, and even a wait of one week is not uncommon.
Just after the village of Monju, there is check point for entering the Sagarmatha National Park. Passports need to be shown and there is a 1,000rs entry fee.
On foot. There are no roads in the Khumbu region.
As a Zen poet once wrote: "Going deeper and deeper - still the green mountains". This could certainly have been written in Khumbu, but while the mountains are the obvious attraction, the area does offer many other sights.
The national bird, danfe (a kind of pheasant), and mountain goats are common in the Khumbu area, and because the Sherpas do not kill animals or birds, people can often get very close before they take off. Musk deer and snow leopards are also natives of the Khumbu mountains, albeit more rare - keep that camera ready.
Trek, eat, enjoy Sherpa hospitality and relish your time in such a beautiful and pristine environment.
Outside Namche, there are few souvenir shops and the handicrafts sold are similar to those on offer in Kathmandu. However, as the majority of goods are carried over from Tibet, which is much nearer to Khumbu than Kathmandu, you might find a few bargains and some unique items. Also, check out the clothing made from yak wool. This is often made locally, and so the prices may be lower than in Kathmandu. As in most parts of south-east Asia, remember to haggle for the best deal.
Most lodges offer similar menus - oatmeal, hash browns, omelettes, dal bhat, spaghetti, fried rice, apple pie, etc. - though those in Namche tend to have a wider selection, which includes such things as pizza and juice.
Bakeries, which were originally a Namche phenomena, but now also operate in Khumjung and Tengboche, offer such luxuries as freshly baked pizza, German breads, pastries and even cappuccino - or as one lodge in Monju advertised: Sherpaccino!
Local dishes include:
Rikikul - the Sherpa dish of potato pancakes, which are delicious eaten straight off the griddle and covered with dzo (female yak) butter and a sauce made of mature cheese and spices called sorma. Due to the effort involved in making them, they are generally not listed on lodge menus. However, most places will oblige if you order well in advance.
Tzen - a heavy patte made from millet and flavored with spices.
Locally bottled water is available everywhere in Khumbu, though the price rises with the altitude. A bottle in Namche costs about 50rs. Beer and juice are flown from Kathmandu to Lukla and carried from there by porters; consequently the price is very high. Tea, instant coffee and a drink made from lemon concentrate are the cheapest beverages in the region, and are available in every lodge or tea shop for between 25 to 50rs a cup. NB: As there is no way to recycle plastic bottles in Khumbu, you might consider bringing your own container and either purchasing boiled water or purifying spring water with iodine tablets.
Accommodation is in an abundance in Khumbu, and ranges from the luxurious Everest View Hotel near Khumjung to the very comfortable lodges in Namche right down to those offering very basic faciities. Generally, the higher the altitude, the simpler the accommodation.
Khumbu is a very safe region and violent crime is almost unheard of. However, due to the amount of people flowing through the area on treks, it is advisable to always keep your valuables in sight.
Altitude sickness affects even young and healthy people and is a genuine problem in Khumbu. If you feel dizzy, suffer palpitations or a severe headache, return immediately to lower altitude. Do not take altitude sickness lightly. It can and does kill!
Yaks may be photogenic, but they are aggressive and unpredictable. Always stand on the upper slope (i.e., above the path, away from the drop-off) to let yaks pass. Every Sherpa has a tale about Westerners who have stood on the lower side of a trail to let a herd of yaks pass and been killed after being pushed off.
Don't drink the water no matter how pristine it appears. Use iodine tablets as a purifier or purchase boiled water. Exceptions: Namche and Phortse have clean water supplies that the locals drink directly from the faucet. However, this may not be a good idea for outsiders lacking immunity to local bacteria, but certainly it should be ok for brushing teeth.
There is an emergency rescue center  based in Namgyal lodge  in the village of Machermo  in the Gokyo Valley manned by two volunteer doctors. Note: This is purely an emergency rescue center, and the doctors will not treat common ailments.
There are currently no telephone lines or mailing addresses in the Everest region.
Namche has a post office, but there are mixed reports of letters reaching their destinations. Postage stamps are also available in local shops.
International phone calls can be made in Namche, however this is very expensive compared to Kathmandu. The cheapest place is the one-phone government telephone office, on the second floor of the nondescript wooden building behind Hotel Buddha, identified with an official yellow sign in Nepalese with a faded paper sign in English stuck on to it. Expect a lengthy queue on Saturdays (market day).
Namche also has several Internet cafes. Satellite access costs between 20-25rs per minute, so keep a sharp eye on the clock when online.
According to the customs of respect in Tibetan Buddhism (which most Sherpas adhere), always pass mani stones and other religious objects with your right side nearest to the object and circumambulate stupas and turn prayer wheels in a clockwise direction. Never sit on mani stones, stupas or religious objects.
Eco-tourism and the environment
Due to the sheer amount of trekkers passing through this valley, the eco-sructure is under severe strain. Therefore, it is important for visitors to be as sensitive to their surroundings as possible. Obviously, wildlife and flora should not be disturbed, but in addition, trekkers can help by not leaving any kind of non-biodegradable material, but instead take it back to Kathmandu for disposal. You can help protect the fragile environment and culture of the Khumbu as well as benefit the local economy through a little awareness, preparation and thoughtfulness.
What to bring:
Before you come, pack with care. Bring what is needed to protect water sources, cultural sensitivities, the environment and health of everyone in your group. Use biodegradable soap and shampoo to avoid contaminating water sources. Use filters, iodine or purification tablets for water. Remember mineral water bottles are a major source of rubbish, which is difficult to dispose of. Asking for boiled water increases the amount of wood burned in an area where deforestation is a major problem.
Repack you luggage into re-usable containers or bags to minimize the trash you bring with you. Be prepared to carry back plastics, batteries and other trash that can't be easily burnt or buried.
Wood for fires should be used sparingly, and not at all when possible. Keep in mind that at higher elevations, asking for hot water requires the use of wood to heat the water - further contributing to deforestation. Try to limit dependence on canned foods, but instead order meals made from local produce, such as rikikul (potato pancakes) and dishes made of yak cheese.
Order your food in lodges in advance and try to eat at the same time as your fellow guests. This can save a tremendous amount of firewood. If a fire has to be started up for one plate of chips it is extremely wasteful. Stay in Lodges that have back boilers and use fuel efficiently. Avoid lodges that use wood burning stoves, and do not order hot showers heated by burning wood.
Toilet tents are banned in many areas of the Khumbu as public facilities have been provided. If in areas where you have to use them make sure they are placed well away from water sources and insist a decent hole is dug. Wash away from water sources and throw the wastewater on to the ground. Remember it is offensive to strip off and wash nude in public places.
Respect the culture, your behavior does matter and can offend. Dress modestly at all times. Wear long loose fitting skirts or trousers on the trail.
If you photograph local people ask permission first. Please don't give money to children who beg or want their photos taken. If you have bought pens or small gifts for children give them to their teachers or parents to be distributed. Giving directly to young children encourages begging. Do not give out sweets, children may not have access to good dental care.
See article Leave-no-trace camping