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* <see name="Juma Mosque" alt="" address="" directions="" phone="" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="" email="" fax="">The old mosque was already mentioned by the Arab traveller Mohammed al-Magisi in the 10th cent. According to the inscriptions above the entrance the actual mosque was built in the 18th cent. It covers an area of 55 x 46 m. The interior is square in plan. It has two octogonal openings in the ceiling. Apart from wooden beams and columns it has no decoration. It contains 212 ornately carved columns that support the roof, dating back to the 12th to 15th century. The wooden columns were removed from other buildings which have been destroyed. The columns are masterpieces of wood carving. The whole surface is covered by leaves, flowers and tendrils. If you watch cloisels you can see pomegrenates blossoms and acanthus leaves. The columns are peculiar in form: they are spherical at their base, get a little bit narrower and end with a part similar to an oblong drinking glass. In some columns the base is a square marble or a round piece of wood only. Similar carved columns were not only used in palaces and mosques, but also in farmers' houses where they carry the roof of the verandah. It is reported that these wooden columns are the oldest in Central Asia. Tradition says that they come from the Great Mosque of Kat, the former capital of old Choresmia. Research has proved that 15 of the deta to the 10th to 14th cent. Be sure to bring some sort of light if you plan to climb the 81 steps up to the top of the Juma minaret, which you can access from inside. Even if you buy the all-access 10000 sum pass, you'll have to pay an extra fee if you want to enter this mosque.</see>
 
* <see name="Juma Mosque" alt="" address="" directions="" phone="" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="" email="" fax="">The old mosque was already mentioned by the Arab traveller Mohammed al-Magisi in the 10th cent. According to the inscriptions above the entrance the actual mosque was built in the 18th cent. It covers an area of 55 x 46 m. The interior is square in plan. It has two octogonal openings in the ceiling. Apart from wooden beams and columns it has no decoration. It contains 212 ornately carved columns that support the roof, dating back to the 12th to 15th century. The wooden columns were removed from other buildings which have been destroyed. The columns are masterpieces of wood carving. The whole surface is covered by leaves, flowers and tendrils. If you watch cloisels you can see pomegrenates blossoms and acanthus leaves. The columns are peculiar in form: they are spherical at their base, get a little bit narrower and end with a part similar to an oblong drinking glass. In some columns the base is a square marble or a round piece of wood only. Similar carved columns were not only used in palaces and mosques, but also in farmers' houses where they carry the roof of the verandah. It is reported that these wooden columns are the oldest in Central Asia. Tradition says that they come from the Great Mosque of Kat, the former capital of old Choresmia. Research has proved that 15 of the deta to the 10th to 14th cent. Be sure to bring some sort of light if you plan to climb the 81 steps up to the top of the Juma minaret, which you can access from inside. Even if you buy the all-access 10000 sum pass, you'll have to pay an extra fee if you want to enter this mosque.</see>
  
* <see name="Pahlawan Mahmud Mausoleum" alt="" address="" directions="south of Juma Mosque" phone="" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="" email="" fax="">The mausoleum is one of the most popular places of pilgrimage in Uzbekistan. ''Pahlawan Mahmud ("the strong man")'' was famous for his extraordinary bravery, physical strength as well as his good nature. He was a furrier, but also a wrestler, doctor, poet and saint. The people gave him the title "Pahlavan", meaning brave and handsome hero, as he defended the poor and is said to have had mystical powers. Pahlavan Mahmud is also revered in Persia and India. His grave became an important shrine for pilgrims and became the burial place of the Khans of Khiva. Tradition says that the firts building was erected over Pahlavan Mahmud furrier's shop. The present building was erected in the 18th cent. It covers an area 100 x 50 m wide, on which the saint's grave, prayer rooms, a pilgrims' lodge, a summer and a winter mosque have been built. According to an inscription the building was erected by architect ''Abdullah Djin''. It is considered as one of the most important buildings of Islamic Central Asia due to its interior totally covered with glazed tiles and due to its artfully facade. In the 19th cent. the mausoleum became a necopolis of the princes of the Kungrat dynasty. It is considered as the last great mausoleum building in Central Asia. The ''southern entrance'' is the oldest part of the present building. It has an inscription on the wooden door indicating the date 1701. The mausoleum has an oval turquoise dome with white ornaments on the lower edges. Within the mausoleum are the richly decorated sarcophagus of ''Khan Mohammed Rahim'' and two sarcophagi of black marble of the historian ''Khan Abu Al Gazi'' who died in 1663 and of ''Khan Anush'' who died in 1681. Beside the prayer room is the crypt with the grave of Pahlavan Mahmud. The walls are covered with ornaments all over, depicting interlacing stalks of flowers, leaves and zig-zag or crossing lines. The wooden door with ivory work, the wooden columns and the glazed tiles make Pahlawan Mahmud Mausoleum to the best museum of applied arts in Khiva.</see>
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* <see name="Pahlawan Mahmud Mausoleum" alt="" address="" directions="south of Juma Mosque" phone="" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="" email="" fax="">The mausoleum is one of the most popular places of pilgrimage in Uzbekistan. ''Pahlawan Mahmud ("the strong man")'' was famous for his extraordinary bravery, physical strength as well as his good nature. He was a furrier, but also a wrestler, doctor, poet and saint. The people gave him the title "Pahlavan", meaning brave and handsome hero, as he defended the poor and is said to have had mystical powers. Pahlavan Mahmud is also revered in Persia and India. His grave became an important shrine for pilgrims and became the burial place of the Khans of Khiva. Tradition says that the firts building was erected over Pahlavan Mahmud furrier's shop. The present building was erected in the 18th cent. It covers an area 100 x 50 m wide, on which the saint's grave, prayer rooms, a pilgrims' lodge, a summer and a winter mosque have been built. According to an inscription the building was erected by architect ''Abdullah Djin''. It is considered as one of the most important buildings of Islamic Central Asia due to its interior totally covered with glazed tiles and due to its artfully facade. In the 19th cent. the mausoleum became a necopolis of the princes of the Kungrat dynasty. It is considered as the last great masusoleum building in Central Asia.</see>
  
 
*<see name="Islam Khoja Minaret" alt="" address="" directions="" phone="" url="" hours="" price="3000uzs" lat="" long="">The minaret is 45 m high and 10 m wide atb its base. It was built in 1908, however using the same methods as the much older minarets at Bukhara, Wabkent and Konye Urgench. You can see the minaret from every place in Khiva and even from far away in the desert. It is probable that the minaret served military purposes as well. ''Islam Khoja'' was great vizier of Khan Asfendijar. He undertook moderate reforms, opened the first secular school and the first hospital and introduced mail and railways. ''Khan Asfendijar'' ruled from 1910 to 1920. He mistrusted everyone. He stayed in a mirror hall, observed all persons arriving through the mirrors and called the palace guards on the most trifling occasions. But to the greatest extent he feared his own vizier. Thus, he ordered that nobody was allowed to leave his house in order to pray for the health and the spiritual welfare of the khan. He called for Islam Khoja, kept him in his palace until dark and on his way home Islam Khoja was killed by bandits.  </see>
 
*<see name="Islam Khoja Minaret" alt="" address="" directions="" phone="" url="" hours="" price="3000uzs" lat="" long="">The minaret is 45 m high and 10 m wide atb its base. It was built in 1908, however using the same methods as the much older minarets at Bukhara, Wabkent and Konye Urgench. You can see the minaret from every place in Khiva and even from far away in the desert. It is probable that the minaret served military purposes as well. ''Islam Khoja'' was great vizier of Khan Asfendijar. He undertook moderate reforms, opened the first secular school and the first hospital and introduced mail and railways. ''Khan Asfendijar'' ruled from 1910 to 1920. He mistrusted everyone. He stayed in a mirror hall, observed all persons arriving through the mirrors and called the palace guards on the most trifling occasions. But to the greatest extent he feared his own vizier. Thus, he ordered that nobody was allowed to leave his house in order to pray for the health and the spiritual welfare of the khan. He called for Islam Khoja, kept him in his palace until dark and on his way home Islam Khoja was killed by bandits.  </see>

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