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*<see name="City walls" alt="" address="" directions="" phone="" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="The surrounding walls are 6 to 8 m high and 6 m thick at their base. A great part of the city walls has been destroyed, but a part 2,2 km long has been preserved. As in other cities in Central Asia the city walls were built of sun-dried bricks. The city walls were destroyed several times, but they were always rebuilt. According to the archaeologists the oldest parts of the city wall date from the 5th to 6th cent.AD">The surrounding walls are 6 to 8 m high and 6 m thick at their base. A great part of the city walls has been destroyed, but a part 2,2 km long has been preserved. As in other cities in Central Asia the city walls were built of sun-dried bricks. The city walls were destroyed several times, but they were always rebuilt. According to the archaeologists the oldest parts of the city wall date from the 5th to 6th cent.AD</see>
 
*<see name="City walls" alt="" address="" directions="" phone="" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="The surrounding walls are 6 to 8 m high and 6 m thick at their base. A great part of the city walls has been destroyed, but a part 2,2 km long has been preserved. As in other cities in Central Asia the city walls were built of sun-dried bricks. The city walls were destroyed several times, but they were always rebuilt. According to the archaeologists the oldest parts of the city wall date from the 5th to 6th cent.AD">The surrounding walls are 6 to 8 m high and 6 m thick at their base. A great part of the city walls has been destroyed, but a part 2,2 km long has been preserved. As in other cities in Central Asia the city walls were built of sun-dried bricks. The city walls were destroyed several times, but they were always rebuilt. According to the archaeologists the oldest parts of the city wall date from the 5th to 6th cent.AD</see>
  
*<see name="City Gates" alt="" address="" directions="" phone="" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="long" main="main" sights="sights" lie="lie" within="within" the="the" massive="massive" which="which" contains="contains" almost="almost" all="all" of="of" ancient="ancient" buildings="buildings" there="There" are="are" four="four" gates="gates" on="On" each="each" side="side" gate="Gate" is="is" closest="closest" to="to" trolleybus="trolleybus" and="and" taxi="taxi" it="it" also="also" called="called" entry="entry" exit="exit" caravanserai="caravanserai" large="large" building="building" house="house" best="best" preserved="preserved" in="in" its="its" passage="passage" 60="60" m="m" with="with" deep="deep" niches="niches" both="both" 17th="17th" 18th="18th" was="was" prison="prison" serving="serving" as="as" prisoners="prisoners" had="had" solicit="solicit" alms="alms" order="order" not="not" die="die" slaves="Slaves" who="who" escaped="escaped" were="were" captured="captured" again="again" nailed="nailed" their="their" ears="ears" palwan="Palwan" darwase="Darwase" public="public" executions="executions" took="took" place="place" front="front" right="right" hand="hand" near="near" walls="walls" itshan="Itshan" kala="Kala" wasthe="wasthe" slave="slave" bukhara="Bukhara" khiva="Khiva" famous="famous" for="for" nomadic="nomadic" tribes="tribes" moving="moving" through="through" desert="desert" earning="earning" living="living" by="by" robbery="robbery" reliable="reliable" suppliers="suppliers" probably="probably" least="least" except="except" locals="locals" live="live" inside="inside" or="or" those="those" staying="staying" at="at" asia="Asia" point="point">The main sights lie within the massive '''Ichon-Qala''', which contains almost all of the ancient buildings of Khiva. There are four gates on each side of the wall;  
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*<see name="City Gates" alt="" address="" directions="" phone="" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="The main sights lie within the massive '''Ichon-Qala''', which contains almost all of the ancient buildings of Khiva. There are four gates on each side of the wall;  
 
* '''North Gate (Bachtscha Darwase)''' is closest to the trolleybus and taxi stand; it is also called ''Urgench Gate''  
 
* '''North Gate (Bachtscha Darwase)''' is closest to the trolleybus and taxi stand; it is also called ''Urgench Gate''  
 
* '''East Gate (Palwan Darwase)''' is the entry and exit to the caravanserai (a large building to house caravans); It is the best preserved gate in Khiva, its passage passage is 60 m long with deep niches on both sides. In the 17th and 18th cent. it was the prison of the khanate, the niches serving as cells. The prisoners had to solicit alms of the passers-by in order not to die of starvation. Slaves who escaped and were captured again were nailed with their ears to the gate. The Palwan Darwase was also called the "gate of the hangman": public executions took place in front of the gate. On the right hand side of Palwan Darwase near the walls of Itshan Kala wasthe place of the slave market. Bukhara and Khiva were famous for their slave trade. The nomadic tribes moving through the desert and earning their living by robbery were reliable suppliers of slaves.
 
* '''East Gate (Palwan Darwase)''' is the entry and exit to the caravanserai (a large building to house caravans); It is the best preserved gate in Khiva, its passage passage is 60 m long with deep niches on both sides. In the 17th and 18th cent. it was the prison of the khanate, the niches serving as cells. The prisoners had to solicit alms of the passers-by in order not to die of starvation. Slaves who escaped and were captured again were nailed with their ears to the gate. The Palwan Darwase was also called the "gate of the hangman": public executions took place in front of the gate. On the right hand side of Palwan Darwase near the walls of Itshan Kala wasthe place of the slave market. Bukhara and Khiva were famous for their slave trade. The nomadic tribes moving through the desert and earning their living by robbery were reliable suppliers of slaves.
 
* '''South Gate (Dascht Darwase)''' is probably the least used, except by locals who live inside the Ichon-Qala, or for those staying at the Khiva Asia Hotel;  
 
* '''South Gate (Dascht Darwase)''' is probably the least used, except by locals who live inside the Ichon-Qala, or for those staying at the Khiva Asia Hotel;  
* '''West Gate (Ata Darwase)''', which is the main exit and entry point for almost all of the visitors."</see>
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* '''West Gate (Ata Darwase)''', which is the main exit and entry point for almost all of the visitors. "></see>
  
 
* <see name="Kuhna Ark" alt="" address="" directions="in the western part of the old city, directly across Orient Star Khiva Hotel" phone="" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="" email="" fax="">Khivan rulers commanded from this fortress-residence from as early as the 12th century up to the 17th century when the khans expanded the structure to include a mosque, a harem, and a jail. After you see the see the gorgeous open-air, blue-tiled mosque, check out the throne room where the khans dispensed swift and brutal punishments against any transgressors. The three doors across from the throne decided your fate: the left door meant freedom, the center door meant imprisonment, and the right door meant death. Above the throne room is a lookout tower where you can capture a great view of entire Ark structure. Be sure to pay a visit to the jail, located just outside the entrance to the Ark, where you'll see gruesome paintings that depict the various ways the khans meted out punishment. Most of the buildings date from the 17th cent. The fortress covers an area of  130 x 90 m and was enclosed by a fortification wall 9 m high. Have a close look at the well preserved ''Summer Mosque''. The glazed blue and white tiles are peculiar for the decoration used in Khiva. The ornaments in the form of stars and the floral and vegetable patterns clearly differ from those used in Buchara. The ''mihrab'' in the southern wall with quotations from the Quran is especially beautiful. Its tiles date from the 19th cent. In the corner on the left hand stood the ''minbar'' on top of which quotations from the Quran in Kuft script can still be seen. The tiles in the ''Reception Hall'' in green and white and with flower motives on a blue background were executed under Alla-Kuli Khan in the 19th cent.
 
* <see name="Kuhna Ark" alt="" address="" directions="in the western part of the old city, directly across Orient Star Khiva Hotel" phone="" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="" email="" fax="">Khivan rulers commanded from this fortress-residence from as early as the 12th century up to the 17th century when the khans expanded the structure to include a mosque, a harem, and a jail. After you see the see the gorgeous open-air, blue-tiled mosque, check out the throne room where the khans dispensed swift and brutal punishments against any transgressors. The three doors across from the throne decided your fate: the left door meant freedom, the center door meant imprisonment, and the right door meant death. Above the throne room is a lookout tower where you can capture a great view of entire Ark structure. Be sure to pay a visit to the jail, located just outside the entrance to the Ark, where you'll see gruesome paintings that depict the various ways the khans meted out punishment. Most of the buildings date from the 17th cent. The fortress covers an area of  130 x 90 m and was enclosed by a fortification wall 9 m high. Have a close look at the well preserved ''Summer Mosque''. The glazed blue and white tiles are peculiar for the decoration used in Khiva. The ornaments in the form of stars and the floral and vegetable patterns clearly differ from those used in Buchara. The ''mihrab'' in the southern wall with quotations from the Quran is especially beautiful. Its tiles date from the 19th cent. In the corner on the left hand stood the ''minbar'' on top of which quotations from the Quran in Kuft script can still be seen. The tiles in the ''Reception Hall'' in green and white and with flower motives on a blue background were executed under Alla-Kuli Khan in the 19th cent.

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