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Johnston Atoll

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Johnston Atoll

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Flag
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Quick Facts
Capital
Government
Currency
Areatotal: 2.8 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 2.8 sq km
Populationno indigenous inhabitants
note: in previous years, there was an average of 1,100 US military and civilian contractor personnel present; as of September 2001, population had decreased significantly when US Army Chemical Activity Pacific (USACAP) departed; as of January 2003 the island population was just above 800 personnel, including US Air Force, DoD civilian, and civilian contractor personnel (January 2003 est.)
Language
Religion
[[File:noframe|250px|frameless|Johnston Atoll]]
Flag
[[File:File:Xx-flag.png|108px|frameless]]
Quick Facts
Capital Capital
Government Government type
Currency Local currency (ABC)
Area 123 sq km
Population 4,567,890 (July 2005 est.)
Language Language1, Language2
Religion Religion1, Religion2
Electricity xxxV/yyHz (Z plug)
Country code +CC
Internet TLD .xx
Time Zone UTC +N

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Both the US and the Kingdom of Hawaii annexed Johnston Atoll in 1858, but it was the US that mined the guano deposits until the late 1880s. The US Navy took over the atoll in 1934, and subsequently the US Air Force assumed control in 1948. The site was used for high altitude nuclear tests in the 1950s and 1960s, and until late in 2000 the atoll was maintained as a storage and disposal site for chemical weapons. Munitions destruction is now complete. Cleanup and closure of the facility is progressing, with completion anticipated in 2004.


Geography

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Map of Johnston Atoll
Location 
Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean 717 NM (1328 km) southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands
Geographic coordinates 
16 45 N, 169 31 W
Map references 
Oceania
Area 
total: 2.8 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 2.8 sq km
Area - comparative 
about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries 
0 km
Coastline 
34 km
Maritime claims 
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate 
tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain 
mostly flat
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Summit Peak 5 m
Natural resources 
guano deposits worked until depletion about 1890, terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Land use 
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
0 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
NA
Environment - current issues 
no natural fresh water resources
Geography - note 
strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; egg-shaped reef is 34 km in circumference; closed to the public; former US nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); some lowgrowing vegetation

People

Population 
no indigenous inhabitants
note: in previous years, there was an average of 1,100 US military and civilian contractor personnel present; as of September 2001, population had decreased significantly when US Army Chemical Activity Pacific (USACAP) departed; as of January 2003 the island population was just above 800 personnel, including US Air Force, DoD civilian, and civilian contractor personnel (January 2003 est.)

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Johnston Atoll
Dependency status 
unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Honolulu, HI, by Pacific Air Forces, Hickam AFB, and the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system
Legal system 
the laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Flag description 
the flag of the US is used

Economy

Economy - overview 
Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.
Electricity - production 
approximately 850,000 kWh weekly; note - there are six 25,000 kWh generators operated by the base operating support contractor (2002)
Electricity - consumption 
approximately 5,500 kWh weekly

Communications

Telephone system 
general assessment: 33 commercial lines, 15 incoming and 18 outgoing; adequate telecommunications
domestic: 60-channel submarine cable (broken in January 2002), 24 DSN circuits by satellite, Automated Digital Network (AUTODIN) with standard remote terminal, digital telephone switch, Military Affiliated Radio System (MARS) station (scheduled for decommissioning March 2003), UHF/VHF air-ground radio, a link to the Pacific Consolidated Telecommunications Network (PCTN) satellite
international: NA (2002)
Radio broadcast stations 
AM NA, FM 7 (1 island-run morale, welfare, and recreation station and 6 all-music digital radio stations broadcast over FM band), shortwave NA (2002)
Television broadcast stations 
commercial satellite television system, with 30 channels (2002)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
1 256 KB circuit to DoD-run Nonsecure Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET) (2002)

Transportation

Waterways 
none
Ports and harbors 
Johnston Island
Airports 
1 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Military

Military - note 
defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
none