Difference between revisions of "Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve"
Revision as of 11:50, 15 January 2013
Jiuzhaigou (九寨沟 Jiǔzhàigōu)  is a nature reserve in the north of Sichuan province in central China. It is officially known as Jiuzhai Valley in English. It is known as the habitat of giant pandas (although it is extremely rare to ever see a panda in the park) and mainly for its many multi-level waterfalls and colorful lakes. It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992. It belongs to the category V (Protected Landscape) in the IUCN system of protected area categorization.
Jiuzhai Valley (Jiuzhaigou) is a major feature of the Sichuan Scenic Area, located 350 km north of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province. Jiuzhaigou is at the northeastern end of this scenic area in the Min Shan mountains. It is part of the Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture. The main scenic area stretches 80 km (50 mi) long in the form of a letter Y comprising of three main valleys - Shuzheng, Rize and Zechawa covering 720 km² (278 mi²) and offering stunning views of lakes, waterfalls, and mountains. The name means "Valley of Nine Villages", derived from the 9 ancient Tibetan villages that call it home. Its highest point is 4,700 m (15,420 ft) above sea level, with the main sightseeing areas between 1,980 m and 3,100 m (6,500-10,170 ft).
The remote region was inhabited by various Tibetan and Qiang peoples for centuries, but was not officially discovered by the government until 1972. Extensive logging took place until 1979, when the Chinese government banned such activities. The area was made into a national park in 1982. An Administration Bureau was established and the site officially opened to tourism in 1984. Layout of facilities and regulations were completed in 1987. The site was inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1992 and a World Biosphere Reserve in 1997.
In 2007, over 2.5 million people visited Jiuzhaigou. The site averages 7,000 visits per day, with a publicly reported cap of 12,000 (however this is never enforced). The desire to balance environmental protection and mass tourism has become an increasingly acute challenge for park management. Exploitation of natural resources for financial gain in the form of mass tourism is the utmost priority.
Landscape, geology and hydrology
Jiuzhaigou's landscape is made up of high-altitude karsts shaped by glacial, hydrological and tectonic activity. It lies on major fault lines on the diverging belt between the Tibetan Plateau and the Yangtze Plate, and earthquakes have also shaped the landscape. The rock strata is mostly made up of carbonate rocks such dolomite and tufa, as well as some sandstone and shales.
The valley includes the catchment area of three gullies (which due to their large size are often called valleys themselves), and is one of the sources of the Jialing River, part of the Yangtze River system. The area covering 720 km² (278 mi²) of the Minshan mountains provides the catchment for the water system of Jiuzhaigou.
Jiuzhaigou's best-known feature is its dozens of blue, green and turquoise-colored lakes. Originating in glacial activity, they were dammed by rockfalls and other natural phenomena, then solidified by processes of carbonate deposition (travertine). Jiuzhaigou's water has a high concentration of calcium carbonate, making it so clear that the bottom is often visible even at high depths. The lakes vary in color and aspect according to their depths, residues, and surroundings.
Flora and fauna
The park is the natural habitat for two of China’s most treasured endangered species – the Giant Panda and the Sichuan Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey (金丝猴). However, due to the park's size and the number of tourists, the chances of seeing them are slim. About 20 pandas reportedly live within the boundaries of the park. There is probably higher chance of seeing them in Zaru Valley, the valley dedicated to eco-tourism as of July 2009. In the main valleys you are more likely to see other creatures including birds (140 species have been recorded here), insects and fish.
Despite all the lakes in the park, Jiuzhaigou is amazingly free of mosquitoes.
Nearly 300 km² (115 mi²) of the core scenic area is covered by virgin mixed forests. The flora changes greatly with altitude. In the lower regions of the valley, grasses and reeds abound. These are quickly replaced by bamboo forests which in turn give way to deciduous trees and conifers at the upper end of the valley. Beyond them the rocky slopes and snow-capped peaks of the Min Shan range dominate the view.
The scenic area of the park is situated at a height of between 2,000 and 3,000 m (6,562-9,843 ft). In summer the winds blow predominantly from the south and in the winter from the north. The following table shows the average monthly temperature and rainfall.
Umbrellas and wet weather clothing as well as sun protection and hats are highly recommended as the weather at these altitudes can be fickle.
The main departure points for a visit to Jiuzhaigou are Chengdu - the capital city of Sichuan, famous for its Panda Breeding Centre - Chongqing and Xi'an. Although Jiuzhaigou is only around 350km from Mianyang, and 460km from Chengdu (as the crow flies), the journey takes between 8 and 11 hours due to the winding mountain roads through some spectacular scenery along the valleys of the Fu or Min rivers. Many tour companies break the journey into two components with overnight stops either at Mianyang or Maoxian.
If the area has experienced heavy rain, the mountain road to Jiuzhaigou may be closed. This can mean that there may be a delay as traffic backs up to wait for the road to reopen. In extreme cases, the road may not reopen at all, meaning that the bus and its passengers will have to spend the night in the non-descript Dujiangyan City, trying again in the morning. This was the case on one occasion in June 2011. If you are travelling during these conditions, you may have to be very flexible with your itinerary.
Flights between Chengdu and Jiuzhaigou Huanglong airport (IATA: JZH) are available on Air China, Sichuan Airlines, Hainan Airlines, South China Airways and China Eastern. Direct flights are also available to Huanglong airport from major cities Beijing, Shanghai and Hangzhou during summer time. Huanglong airport is about a 1.5-hour drive from the park entrance. This can be done by taxi or mini-bus. Taxi costs 200 RMB. The airport shuttle bus costs 45 RMB per person. There is also an airport shuttle bus that goes from Huanglong airport, stopping over at Huanglong Scenic Area and going onwards to Jiuzhaigou Park entrance; the ticket costs 100RMB per person.
Most visitors access Juizhaigou by road. From Mianyang an early morning start gets you to Jiuzhaigou township in time for dinner and the Tibetan cultural show (¥120-320). The route initially follows the deep valley of the Fu river then over Longmen shan (Dragon gate mountain) to Qingchuan and Wenxian before reaching Jiuzhaigou County Town nestled in the valley of the Baishui river. The mountain and river views make even the journey a worth while tourist experience.
Public Bus services are available from the Xinnanmen and Chadianzi bus stations in Chengdu to Jiuzhaigou with 2 or 3 departures from each station daily depending on demand. Ticket price is approximately ¥110-145.
Taxi: If there are a few people, it may make sense to charter a taxi to/from where you're going. Fares of ¥600-700 to Langmusi (?) have been reported. It is also reportedly possible to take a taxi to/from Chengdu for around ¥1200, which is probably cheaper than flying for 3 people and much more comfortable than a bus.
The Jiuzhaigou Administration centre contains the Ticket Office. Tickets are sold from 6:30AM until 7PM daily. During off-peak season (16 Nov - 31 March), the park ticket office opens at 8:30am and closes at 4pm (the part itself closes at 6pn). The price during peak season is ¥220 which includes an insurance fee of ¥3. Disabled visitors, Seniors between 60 and 70 years of age, students and soldiers get a discount price of ¥170. Children no taller than 1.3 m in height, government servants, and seniors over 70 get in free.
A one day bus ticket costs ¥80. Bus tickets are not mandatory. Many people choose to buy one as it is over 30 km from the entrance to the top of the park, which is certainly too far to walk in a day. There is a sign inside the park saying that if you then decide you want to buy a bus ticket inside you have to pay ¥140.
It takes around three hours to briskly walk from the park entrance to Nurilong waterfalls if you are fit and healthy, 4-5 hours if you prefer to walk at a relaxed pace. Two days in the park, one day on the bus to see the upper parts and one to walk to the lower parts is a good compromise if you have the time.
Tickets are only valid for one day. Previously there were two day tickets that are no longer on sale during the peak season. These are on sale in the off peak season.
Off peak ticket prices:
Entry – ¥80. Warning about off-peak visits: In the off-peak season, large parts of the wooden trails in the park are closed, making it impossible to hike around the trails. Also, the farther parts of the park are closed off (even the buses wont go there, stopping at the Arrow Bamboo Lake or earlier, please check the map here). Walking on the roads meant for the buses is not allowed (there are occasionally staff who will request you to stay off the roads), and not recommended, especially considering the occasional spots of snow and rather wanton driving style of the bus drivers. You can easily cover all the accessible areas of the park in less than one day during the off-peak season, as most of the walking trails are closed, and you will need to take the bus to get around, get off at designated spots, take pictures and get back on the bus.
Student / OAP Entry – ¥70
One Day Bus ticket: ¥80
Winter 2nd day entry ticket: ¥20 (must be purchased at the same time as the first day's ticket). You need to buy another bus ticket (80RMB pp) if you plan to use the bus service on the second day.
There are plenty of taxis in Jiuzhaigou. There are also mini-buses (they really are minivans) to the most popular tourist destinations in the Jiuzhaigou region. Car Rentals are also available and range from ¥500-900per day.
Perhaps the easiest way to get around without a tour guide is using one of the "self service travel websites" that are really popular with young Chinese tourists who are not looking to travel with a tour group. Unfortunately for people who cannot search the web using Chinese characters (pin yin does not work very well) these sites are near impossible to find. On these sites you can buy tickets to local cultural events, arrange for pick up service, rent cars, arrange for tour guides, and finding Tibetan local host families for a cultural experience. However, they are extremely hard to find with names that are usually just strings of letters and numbers. Most local hotels are also good sources for advice on how to get around Jiuzhaigou but only a few speak languages other than Tibetan and Chinese
Inside the park
For environmental protection reasons, no personal transport, not even bicycles, are permitted within the park. However, with a bus pass you can take a bus to all of the sites within the park. Your pass gives you access to an efficient hop-on hop-off bus transport system. Every few minutes a bus will come to a site to pick up passengers. The buses are frequent and sometimes crowded during the peak season, running from early morning until the park closes. Don’t miss the last bus or you must walk out! When entering the park you will be herded effectively and politely into one of the many queues waiting for transport. Once in the system you are a free agent with respect to where you go and what you see. An effective way to use the system is to take the bus to the head of Rize valley and walk back towards the entrance and Administration building. Walking is a great option in the park, as wooden-plank trails wind through the lakes and forests. It is best to combine walking with taking the bus as the park is quite large and you won't be able to cover enough ground on foot. There is a cafeteria near the tourist center at the intersection of the Y, which serves a buffet lunch. (Buffet of warm dishes 60RMB per head)
Around the local area
Public buses run from the centre of the town to Chengdu, Huanglong, Chadianzi, Jiangyou and Songpan. For up-to-date bus schedules and travel options from Jiuzhaigou the best place to check is the Jiuzhaigou official website
From Chengdu the public bus costs between ¥110-145 and takes around 10-13 hours.
See and Do
Jiuzhaigou is all about seeing! The colors of its lakes, trees and mountains are breathtaking and defy adequate description. The altitude changes within the valley to create continual variations of flora, which give each lake and waterfall a unique quality.
Although Jiuzhaigou is a great place to visit at any time of the year Spring and autumn are best. In winter time, some of the lakes are frozen while others are not. The blue-green color of the water is distinctly visible even in winter, however it is not as striking as during warmer weather against the backdrop of the greenery around. Moreover, the day temperatures are very low and accessibility by road is neither easy nor guarantee-able. Summers can be quite crowded with beautiful sunshine in the early parts and it often rains in July and August. The fresh air and lack of humidity make it a great break from other cities in Sichuan province. Autumn is, in many opinions, the pick of the seasons. Be warned of extremely large crowds everywhere and terribly high prices during Autumn. In late September through October to early November, the colour contrasts of red and gold leaves set against the greys of the Bamboo forest and the dark greens of the conifers provide the perfect backdrop to the blue, cyan and vivid greens lakes.
Jiuzhaigou has some 114 Lakes and waterfalls. Here are a selection of scenic locations to visit:
The last three features are the Sleeping Dragon Lake, Reed Lake and Bonsai beach. Sleeping Dragon Lake contains a large travertine shelf that extends across the floor of the lake. Locals say it looks like a sleeping dragon and that the head and tail seem to move as the wind ripples the lake surface.
To make the most out of your one day in the valley, buy the ticket at 7AM and take the bus up the right fork to Primeval Forest. Walk the trail around the forest then walk the forest path down to Swan Lake. It is advisable then to bus down to Arrow Bamboo Lake and then walk all the way down to Nuorilang. Have your lunch at the cafeteria near the tourist center and bus up the left fork to Long Lake and walk down to Five Colour Pool. Subsequently, bus down to Nuorilang and walk till the Bonsai beach before taking the bus to the entrance.
There are lots of Tibetian trinkets that could entice the younger ladies. There is a shop next to the entrance which sells a good collection of postcards and reading materials about the park itself.
Being a UNESCO World Heritage Park in China does not mean it is fully decked out for non-Chinese visitors. There is a centrally located, sort of a HQ area with a restaurant serving buffet lunch. Typically Chinese stir-fry dishes. Buffet lunch for 60 RMB. At the entrance, there is a Dico's (Chinese fast food outlet) serving burgers, fried chicken, french fries and standard fast food fare at normal prices. There are also vendors selling overpriced noodles.
A one-day stock of muesli bars and a flask of tea or coffee would help, especially if you plan to take in all the heavenly sights on foot, through the wooden planked pathways. In autumn and spring, the temperature is suitable for resting along the wooden plank path while having a nice warm drink while you wait for the lighting to be just right for your next photo shoot.
There are many areas to drink. You will find one of the best local Tibetan tradition is to drink Tibetan butter tea. There is a surprising amount of bars available on bian bian jie (边边街) which is one of the most famous cobblestone roads in China.
Despite whatever they tell you, lodging in the park is illegal.
There are no hotels or commercial accommodation inside the park, although there are several hotels and hostels within walking distance of the main entrance to the park. If you have a short stay in Jiuzhaigou, it is recommended to stay at one of the hotels close to (within walking distance of) the park entrance, so you do not have to deal with the hassle of finding a taxi early in the morning to the park, or queue up in the afternoon when everyone is leaving.
However, please be warned that a majority of hotels in the area are not adequately insulated and the rooms can be extremely cold in winter. Warm water is usually restricted to specific hours in the evening. Moreover many hotels have power outages. Consider choosing one of the only two international chain hotels (Sheraton or Intercontinental) in winter if this is a problem.
Most hotels only accept cash. There are ATMs near the park entrance and at other places around the area.
Prices vary widely across seasons, and can be prohibitively expensive in peak season, but can be had at a bargain price in peak winter. Also, a lot of the hotels have different level "rooms" within the hotel which are priced accordingly. Thus you see a great deal of price ranges within the same hotel.
Prices vary according to the season and booking in advance is essential. Provided you speak and read Mandarin, bookings and purchase of tickets can be done online at [www.jiuzhaigouvalley.com].
There is one authentic homestay  (others are "Tibetan themed" often outside-owned) run by a local family a 15 mins drive from the park entrance. They do not have a website but they can be contacted at . There are also two hostels in the immediate area. Uncle Jiang's family house, Peng Feng Village, Jiuzhaigou Park Entrance is recommended. They have free pick-up (from where?) and offer packed lunches (sandwiches) for ¥20.
There are a number of cheap hostels to the West of the park entrance. You should be able to get dorm beds for around ¥35 and double bedrooms for ¥150. Please bear in mind that prices vary wildly during peak season.
Using the local travel websites will often be cheaper than booking directly from the hotel or from one of the larger travel agencies. However, they are pretty hard to find unless you are able to search online with Chinese characters.
As of July 2009 hiking and camping have been made available within the Zaru Valley  of the national park. Zaru Valley has an amazing 40% of all the plant species in the whole of China and if you are to see any of the wildlife of the national park, this represents the best chance. The main hike is a 3-day hike, following the pilgrimage of the local Bebbo Tibetan Buddhists around the 4,500 m+ (14,764 ft+) Zhayizha Ga Mountain.
The highest tourist destinations reach heights above 3,100 m (10,170 ft) and altitude sickness is a possibility.
In the winter months the park is extremely cold and it is necessary to dress warmly.
Chinese tourists dread standing in line and there is a lot of pushing and shoving getting on and off buses. Make sure you don't get pushed in front of an oncoming bus. Crowded trails can also be dangerous and if you walk on the edge of a path it is likely a shoulder or elbow with push you off. To really enjoy your time in the park you should walk on the trails on the opposite side of the lakes from the roads. These trails have considerable less tourists and you can really experience the serenity of the national park there.
English is not widely spoken in Juizhaigou.
Everyday there are buses going to Songpan at 7:20AM and take two hours, Chengdu (10 hours) and Huanglong National Park. Bus times vary from time to time. It is best to keep an eye on the Jiuzhaigou website  for up-to-date times.