Golden Horn (Turkish: Haliç) is both the name of the estuary of the Bosphorus towards west in Istanbul, and also of the district on banks of it.
This article concentrates on the areas around Golden Horn banks west of city walls. For southeastern banks, see Istanbul/Sultanahmet-Old City. For northeastern banks, see Istanbul/Galata.
Golden Horn, an estuary formed by flooding of valleys of two rivers confluenting just northwest of Eyüp by Bosphorus, had always been Istanbul's primary harbour. In fact, it can be argued that Istanbul would never existed in such a grand way if it weren't for this superb harbour (and also the superb trading route through and across Bosphorus, by the way).
In 1700s, mansions and large gardens full of tulips along the Horn, then called Sadabad, was a favourite retreat of Ottoman state elite, who conducted costly parties, which were later accused of economic destruction and the eventual dissolution of Ottoman Empire. Those years were called either Lale Devri ("Tulip Era") or Sefahat Devri ("Debauch Era") by different classes of society. Then, about a century later, in 1800s, the banks of Golden Horn was where the industrial revolution first started in Ottoman Empire and up to 1980s, Golden Horn continued to be one of the industrial powerhouses of the Turkish economy, however this situation had its heavy toll on what was once "golden" Horn: the industrial effluents in addition to the untreated wastewater from rapidly expanding city's sewers caused the Horn stinking to high heaven, as much as that people were actually trying to avoid the avenues along its banks even if those routes meant a shortcut to where they are heading. Then in late 1980s, the first attempts to bring the Horn to its former glory began. Today its water is almost as clean as to safely swim in (although there is some more way to go), and pleasant parks surround its banks. Neighbourhoods on its banks, Eyüp in special, put a special emphasis on celebrating the Ottoman roots of the area.
- Buses depart from Eminönü for Eyüp on the southern shore of the Horn, and also for neighborhoods on the northern shore.
- Ferries from Üsküdar (Asian coast), which also call at Eminönü and Karaköy, zigzag between neighborhood quays located on both shores of the Horn.
Pedestrianized Old Galata Bridge (Eski Galata Köprüsü), built in 1912, and once connecting Eminönü with Karaköy, is replaced with the current bridge in its former place after it suffered from a big fire in 1992 in the stores on its lower level, and towed to its present upper location on Golden Horn, between Feshane Cultural Centre (Feshane Kültür Merkezi) at the eastern entrance of Eyüp on the southern bank of the Horn and Sütlüce on the northern bank of the Horn, providing an easy link for pedestrians between sides of the Horn.
Small ferries zigzaging between neighbourhood quays are also another way of crossing to the other side of the Horn.
- Eyüp Mosque Complex (Eyüp Camii), Eyüp. This is the main attraction around this part of the city. The holiest Islamic shrine in the city, the complex includes the tomb of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, the standard bearer of Prophet Mohammad, died and buried here during the first Muslim besiege of Constantinople. It was him the neighbourhood was named after. Muslims flock—in so huge numbers that sometimes you have to queue for a few minutes before entering the mosque adjoining the tomb—here also to see a rather uninteresting plaque made of plastic, which is purported to be Mohammad's footprint. The interior of the mosque, covered with fine tiles/faience, is nonetheless well worth a look, however. It is also interesting to see the devout Muslims leaving the place by walking backwards through its exit hallway, as not to turn their backs to al-Ansari's catafalque, though obviously no one expects everyone to quit the place in the same manner. Free.
- Around the mosque itself is cemeteries and tombs all of which date back to Ottoman period, with their distinctively decorated marble headstones. Besides, there are a number of other mosques, streets, and stores surrounding the Eyüp Complex, all pleasantly preserved, and give the visitors an idea of how Ottoman Istanbul should be looking like. Here is where all of those "boys-to-be-circumsized photos" are taken, as it’s a tradition to take the boys in their special Ottoman prince clothes to this particular mosque before the event. In the adjoining streets, you can find shops offering interesting Ottoman-style stuff like wooden toys or traditional salty cookies shaped like a ring (halka) which you cannot easily find elsewhere.
- Feshane, Eski Feshane Caddesi, Eyüp (on the waterfront, just east of downtown Eyüp; get off the bus at 'Defterdar' stop), ☎ +90 212 501-73-26 (fax: +90 212 501-73-28), . Originally a factory producing fezzes (fes), Ottoman red hats made of felt, adopted in Ottoman Empire in early 1800s as a part of westernizing efforts in lieu of much more traditional turbans. However, as an irony of fate, fez itself was scrapped away in favour of outright western garments during Atatürk's reforms of 1920s and '30s as it was thought to symbolize the old, decidedly oriental regime. Today, Feshane serves as a cultural and exhibition centre, which hosts celebrations on local days, and some temporary art exhibitions. During Ramadan, it becomes some sort of playground showcasing how Ramadan was celebrated during Ottoman era, with traditional sweets and all.
- Miniaturk , at Sütlüce (on northern shore of the Horn). M-F 9AM-7PM and S-Su 9M-9PM. It was built in 2001 and is the first miniature park in Istanbul (the world's largest miniature park in respect to its model area). The park hosts icons of many cultures and civilizations. Models vary from the Hagia Sophia to Galata Tower, from Safranbolu Houses to the Sumela Monastry in Trabzon, from Qubbat As-Sakhrah to the ruins of Mount Nemrut. In addition, some works that have not survived into the present, such as the Temple of Artemis, the Halicarnassus Mausoleum and Ajyad Castle, were recreated. All former Ottoman Empire in one place.
- St Stephen Church (Sveti Stefan Kilisesi), Fener (on the southern shore of the Horn; close to waterfront, on the main avenue). A Bulgarian Orthodox church better known as Demir Kilise, i.e. "Iron Church", St Stephen is totally made of cast iron, a product of 19th century experimentation with prefabricated iron churches. This building combining neo-Gothic and neo-Baroque influences, has a richly ornamented exterior.
- Rahmi M. Koç Industrial Museum (Sanayi Müzesi), Hasköy Caddesi 27, Hasköy (on the northern shore of the Horn), ☎ +90 212 256 71 53-54, . This is a typical industry museum which showcases evolution of machines. Also houses a typical Istanbul streetscape with its shops and all as how it would look like in the past.
- Santral İstanbul, Kazım Karabekir Cad. 1, Eyüp, ☎ +90 212 311 78 09, . Tu-Su 10AM-8PM. A contemprory art museum located in a building converted from an old power plant (first such plant in Istanbul).
- Walk the town of Balat. Balat housed the first Jews who settled in Istanbul after the Spanish expulsion. Today, it’s a middle class neighborhood and as you walk you can see the oldest Jewish houses with the Star of David.
- Akmanoğlu Fırını, (near Eyüp Mosque), ☎ +90 212 581 06 39, . This is the bakery where halkas mentioned in see section, as well as a number of other traditional cookies, both sweet and salty alike, are produced and sold.
- Lale Lokantasi, Feshane Caddesi, Eyüp (inside Feshane Kültür Merkezi - cultural centre), ☎ +90 212 501 73 72. Traditional Turkish/Ottoman cuisine.
- Pierre Loti is an open air café on a hill overlooking Golden Horn in Eyüp. It’s rumored that a famous French writer used to love to visit this café during his residence in Istanbul. There is a cable (enclosed chairlift) line, which offers some nice views, between the shore of Golden Horn and the hill on which café is situated. It’s also possible to walk uphill or to take a taxi.
- Turquhouse Boutique Hotel, Merkez Mah. İdris Köşkü Caddesi, Eyüp (1 km to downtown Eyüp), ☎ +90 212 497 13 13 (fax: +90 212 497 16 16), . Boutique hotel housed in 7 separate buildings in the same yard. Rooms with en-suite bathrooms, air-con, satellite TV, and wireless internet access. € 90/110/140 for single/double/triple rooms. About 20% cheaper Nov-Mar.
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