Ireland is made up of the following provinces:
Each province is made up of counties. Six of the nine counties of Ulster are Northern_Ireland.
These are some major cities in Ireland.
Celtic tribes settled on the island in the 4th century B.C. Invasions by Norsemen that began in the late 8th century were finally ended when King Brian BORU defeated the Danes in 1014. English invasions began in the 12th century and set off more than seven centuries of Anglo-Irish struggle marked by fierce rebellions and harsh repressions. A failed 1916 Easter Monday Rebellion touched off several years of guerrilla warfare that in 1921 resulted in independence from the UK for 26 southern counties; six northern (Ulster) counties remained part of the United Kingdom. In 1948 Ireland withdrew from the British Commonwealth; it joined the European Community in 1973. Irish governments have sought the peaceful unification of Ireland and have cooperated with Britain against terrorist groups. A peace settlement for Northern Ireland, known as the Good Friday Agreement and approved in 1998, is currently being implemented.
The Republic of Ireland is served by two large international airports, Dublin and Shannon. Dublin is connected to several cities in the US, Canada, the UK and continental Europe. Shannon, close to the cities of Limerick and Ennis, also has flights to the US, UK and Europe. There are connections from Cork airport in the south to Irish, UK and European cities. Smaller regional airports that operate domestic and UK services are Kerry, Knock, Waterford and Galway. There are airports in Northern Ireland in Derry and Belfast.
The only cross-border train is the Enterprise service from Belfast Central to Dublin Connolly.
Ireland is served by numerous services to Great Britain and France. [http:www.swanseacorkferries.com/ Swansea Cork Ferries] provide a seasonal service between Swansea, South Wales and Cork. Irish Ferries travel from Holyhead, North Wales to Dublin and from Pembroke, South Wales to Rosslare. Stena Line connects Holyhead to Dun Laoghaire (about 8 km south of Dublin) and Fishguard, South Wales to Rosslare. Irish Ferries and Brittany Ferries provide services from France to Rosslare and Cork.
Most trains in Ireland operate to and from Dublin. Main destinations include Cork, Limerick, Galway, Westport, Tralee, Waterford, Rosslare, Belfast, Sligo. If your journey doesn't involve travelling to or from the capital, you might be better off taking the bus. In the Dublin city area the DART coastal railway travels from Howth peninsula in the North to Bray and Greystones in Co. Wicklow via Dun Laoghaire.
Bus Eireann operate an extensive intercity network.
There are many canals in Ireland, and it is possible to travel by barge on some of them.
The planned Eurovelo cycle route in Ireland will connect Belfast to Dublin via Galway, and Dublin to Rosslare via Galway and Cork. Visit their website for updates on the status of the path.
English is spoken everywhere but Irish is also an official language. Most people have some understanding of this but it is used as a first language by only about 60,000 people, most of whom live in rural areas known as the Gaeltacht. As these are generally scenic areas it is likely that visitors will go there. Tourists will not be expected to speak Irish but it will be noticeable on road signs etc. There is extensive Irish language broadcasting. Irish is related and similar to Scottish Gaelic.
See also: Irish phrasebook
Ireland is part of the Eurozone, so like in many other European Union countries the currency here is the euro (symbol: €).
Food is expensive in Ireland, although quality has generally improved enormously in the last ten years. Most small towns will have a supermarket and many have a weekly farmers' market. The cheapest option for eating out is either fast food or pubs. Many pubs offer a carvery lunch consisting of roasted meat, vegetables and the ubiquitous potatoes, which is usually good value. Selection for vegetarians is limited outside the main cities. Modern Irish cuisine emphasises fresh local ingredients, simply prepared and presented (sometimes with some Mediterranean-style twists). Meat (especially lamb), seafood and dairy produce can be of a very high quality. Try some soda bread, made with buttermilk and leavened with bicarbonate of soda rather than yeast. It is heavy, tasty and almost a meal in itself!
One of Ireland's most famous exports is stout, a dark, dry beer. The strong taste can be initially off-putting but perseverance is well-rewarded! The most famous variety is Guinness, brewed in Dublin and available throughout the country. Murphy's and Beamish's stout are brewed in Cork and available mainly in the south of the country. Murphy's is slightly sweeter and creamier-tasting than Guinness, while Beamish has a strong, almost burnt taste. Several micro-breweries are now producing their own interesting varieties of stout, including O'Hara's, the Porter House in Dublin and the Franciscan Well Brewery in Cork. Ales such as Smithwick's are also popular, particularly in rural areas. The other competitor for national drink of Ireland is tea. The Irish drink more tea per capita than any other people in the world. Cork, Dublin and Galway abound with slick, stylish coffee bars, but if you visit any Irish home you will probably be offered a cup of tea (usually served with milk, unless you explicitly state otherwise!).
There are hotels of all standards including some very luxurious. Bed and Breakfast is widely available. These are usually very friendly and good value. There is an official youth hostel association - An Oige. These hostels are often in remote and beautiful places, designed mainly for the outdoors. There are also independent hostels which are marketed as independent hostels of Ireland. These are nearly always found in towns. There are official campsites although fewer than many countries (given the climate). Wild camping is tolerated, although you should seek permission.
The police force are known officially as the Garda Siochana, and individually referred to as Guards in English, although people will understand if you say Police. The Irish words Garda (singular) and Gardai (pronounced Gohr-THEE) are often used as well. Regardless of what you call them, they are generally unarmed, courteous and approachable.
Crime is relatively low by most European standards but not very different. Late night streets in cities can be dangerous, as anywhere.