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Hungary

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Hungary

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Flag
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Quick Facts
CapitalBudapest
Governmentparliamentary democracy
Currencyforint (HUF)
Areatotal: 93,030 sq km
water: 690 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
Population10,075,034 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageHungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
ReligionRoman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%

This article is an import from the CIA World Factbook 2002. It's a starting point for creating a real Wikitravel country article according to our country article template. Please plunge forward and edit it.

Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. In the more open GORBACHEV years, Hungary led the movement to dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily shifted toward multiparty democracy and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Hungary developed close political and economic ties to Western Europe. It joined NATO in 1999 and is a frontrunner in a future expansion of the EU.


Geography

Hu-map.png
Map of Hungary
Location 
Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates 
47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references 
Europe
Area 
total: 93,030 sq km
water: 690 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries 
total: 2,171 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
Coastline 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims 
none (landlocked)
Climate 
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain 
mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources 
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use 
arable land: 52.2%
other: 45.34% (1998 est.)
permanent crops: 2.46%
Irrigated land 
2,100 sq km (1998 est.)
Environment - current issues 
the approximation of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Geography - note 
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions

People

Population 
10,075,034 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 16.4% (male 847,081; female 802,340)
15-64 years: 68.8% (male 3,406,701; female 3,528,087)
65 years and over: 14.8% (male 544,956; female 945,869) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
-0.3% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
9.34 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
13.09 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
8.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 71.9 years
female: 76.55 years (2002 est.)
male: 67.55 years
Total fertility rate 
1.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
0.05% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
2,500 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
Ethnic groups 
Hungarian 89.9%, Roma 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%
Religions 
Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%
Languages 
Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1980 est.)

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local short form: Magyarorszag
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
Government type 
parliamentary democracy
Capital 
Budapest
Administrative divisions 
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20 urban counties* (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city** (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba*, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest**, Csongrad, Debrecen*, Dunaujvaros*, Eger*, Fejer, Gyor*, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely*, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar*, Kecskemet*, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza*, Pecs*, Pest, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekesfehervar*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabanya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Veszprem*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*
Independence 
1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
National holiday 
St. Stephen's Day, 20 August
Constitution 
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Legal system 
rule of law based on Western model
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: Ferenc MADL (since NA August 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Peter MEDGYESSY (since 27 May 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 6 June 2000 (next to be held by June 2005); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round
election results: Ferenc MADL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA% (but by a simple majority in the third round of voting); Peter MEDGYESSY elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA%
Legislative branch 
unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - FIDESZ/MDF 48.70%, MSZP 46.11%, SZDSZ 4.92%, other 0.27%; seats by party - FIDESZ/MDF 188, MSZP 178, SZDSZ 20
elections: last held 7 and 21 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2006)
Judicial branch 
Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Political parties and leaders 
Alliance of Free Democrats or SZDSZ [Gabor KUNCZE]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Gyorgy GICZY, president]; Hungarian Civic Party or FIDESZ [Zoltan POKORNI]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI, chairman]; Hungarian Justice and Life Party or MIEP [Istvan CSURKA, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Laszlo KOVACS, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]; Independent Smallholders or FKGP [Jozsef TORGYAN, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
NA
International organization participation 
ABEDA, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Andras SIMONYI
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy Goodman BRINKER
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764
Flag description 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

Economy

Economy - overview 
Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and to work toward accession to the European Union. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms is widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $23 billion since 1989. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 to the second-highest rating among all the Central European transition economies. Inflation and unemployment - both priority concerns in 2001 - have declined substantially. The key short-term issue is the reduction of the public sector deficit from its current 6% of GDP to 4.5% in 2003 and 3% in 2004.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $134.7 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
3.2% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $13,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 4%
industry: 34%
services: 62% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line 
9% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 21% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index 
24 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
5.3% (2002 est.)
Labor force 
4.2 million (1997) (1997)
Labor force - by occupation 
services 65%, industry 27%, agriculture 8% (1996) (1996)
Unemployment rate 
5.8% (2002 est.)
Budget 
revenues: $13 billion
expenditures: $14.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Industries 
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate 
3.1% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production 
33.436 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 59%
hydro: 1%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 40%
Electricity - consumption 
35.095 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
5.2 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
Exports 
$31.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities 
machinery and equipment 57.6%, other manufactures 31.0%, food products 7.5%, raw materials 1.9%, fuels and electricity 1.9% (2001)
Exports - partners 
Germany 34.9%, Austria 8.7%, Italy 5.9%, US 5.6% (2001)
Imports 
$33.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities 
machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.3%, fuels and electricity 8.2%, food products 2.9%, raw materials 2.0% (2001)
Imports - partners 
Germany 26.4%, Italy 8.3%, Austria 7.9%, Russia 6.8% (2001)
Debt - external 
$31.5 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient 
ODA $250 million (2000)
Currency 
forint (HUF)
Currency code 
HUF
Exchange rates 
forints per US dollar - 275.920 (January 2002), 286.490 (2001), 282.179 (2000), 237.146 (1999), 214.402 (1998), 186.789 (1997)
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
3.095 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
1.269 million (July 1999)
Telephone system 
general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones
international: Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)
Radios 
7.01 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)
Televisions 
4.42 million (1997)
Internet country code 
.hu
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
16 (2000)
Internet users 
1.2 million (2001)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 7,869 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,614 km 1.435-m gauge (2,423 km electrified; 1,236 km double-tracked)
note: Hungary and Austria jointly manage the cross-border, standard-gauge railway connecting Gyor, Sopron, and Ebenfurt (Gysev railroad) which has a route length of about 101 km in Hungary and 65 km in Austria (2001)
Highways 
total: 188,203 km
paved: 81,680 km (including 448 km of expressways)
unpaved: 106,523 km (1998 est.)
Waterways 
1,373 km (permanently navigable) (1997)
Pipelines 
crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)
Ports and harbors 
Budapest, Dunaujvaros
Airports 
43 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 8 (2002)
914 to 1,523 m: 12
Heliports 
5 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Ground Forces, Air Forces
Military manpower - military age 
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 2,559,260 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 2,039,710 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
males: 64,121 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$1.08 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
1.75% (2002 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
Slovakia requested additional ICJ judgment in 1998 and talks continue to set modalities to assure Hungarian compliance with 1997 ICJ decision to proceed with construction of Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Dam, abandoned by Hungary in 1989; Hungary opposes Croatian plan to build a hydropower dam on the boundary stream Drava
Illicit drugs 
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; improving, but remains vulnerable to money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking