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Haiti

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Haiti

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Quick Facts
CapitalPort-au-Prince
Governmentelected government
Currencygourde (HTG)
Areatotal: 27,750 sq km
land: 27,560 sq km
water: 190 sq km
Population7,063,722
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
LanguageFrench (official), Creole (official)
ReligionRoman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)
note: roughly half of the population also practices Voodoo

This article is an import from the CIA World Factbook 2002. It's a starting point for creating a real Wikitravel country article according to our country article template. Please plunge forward and edit it.

The native Arawak Amerindians - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Columbus in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola, and in 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island - Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean, but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE and after a prolonged struggle, became the first black republic to declare its independence in 1804. Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history since then, and it is now one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere. Over three decades of dictatorship followed by military rule ended in 1990 when Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE was elected president. Most of his term was usurped by a military takeover, but he was able to return to office in 1994 and oversee the installation of a close associate to the presidency in 1996. ARISTIDE won a second term as president in 2000, and took office early in 2001. However, a political crisis stemming from fraudulent legislative elections in 2000 has not yet been resolved.


Geography

Ha-map.png
Map of Haiti
Location 
Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic
Geographic coordinates 
19 00 N, 72 25 W
Map references 
Central America and the Caribbean
Area 
total: 27,750 sq km
land: 27,560 sq km
water: 190 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries 
total: 360 km
border countries: Dominican Republic 360 km
Coastline 
1,771 km
Maritime claims 
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Climate 
tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Terrain 
mostly rough and mountainous
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m
Natural resources 
bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower
Land use 
arable land: 20.32%
permanent crops: 12.7%
other: 66.98% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
750 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues 
extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban
Geography - note 
shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

People

Population 
7,063,722
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 39.5% (male 1,414,052; female 1,377,693)
15-64 years: 56.3% (male 1,924,867; female 2,049,952)
65 years and over: 4.2% (male 142,657; female 154,501) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
1.42% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
31.42 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
14.88 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
-2.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
93.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 49.55 years
female: 51.29 years (2002 est.)
male: 47.88 years
Total fertility rate 
4.3 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
5.17% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
210,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
23,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Haitian(s)
adjective: Haitian
Ethnic groups 
black 95%, mulatto and white 5%
Religions 
Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)
note: roughly half of the population also practices Voodoo
Languages 
French (official), Creole (official)
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 45%
male: 48%
female: 42.2% (1995 est.)

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
conventional short form: Haiti
local short form: Haiti
local long form: Republique d'Haiti
Government type 
elected government
Capital 
Port-au-Prince
Administrative divisions 
9 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand 'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
Independence 
1 January 1804 (from France)
National holiday 
Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
Constitution 
approved March 1987; suspended June 1988, with most articles reinstated March 1989; in October 1991, government claimed to be observing the constitution; return to constitutional rule, October 1994
Legal system 
based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE (since 7 February 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Yvon NEPTUNE (since 4 March 2002); note - former Prime Minister CHERESTAL resigned in January 2002
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly
election results: Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE elected president; percent of vote - Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 92%
Legislative branch 
bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale consists of the Senate (27 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies (83 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held for two-thirds of seats 21 May 2000, with runoffs on 9 July boycotted by the opposition; seven seats still disputed; election for remaining one-third held on 26 November 2000 (next to be held NA 2002); Chamber of Deputies - last held 21 May 2000, with runoffs on 30 July boycotted by the opposition; one vacant seat rerun 26 November 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FL 26, independent 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FL 73, MOCHRENA 3, PLB 2, OPL 1, vacant 1, other minor parties and independents 3
Judicial branch 
Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation
Political parties and leaders 
Alliance for the Liberation and Advancement of Haiti or ALAH [Reynold GEORGES]; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Leslie MANIGAT]; Convergence (opposition coalition composed of ESPACE, OPL, and MOCHRENA) [Gerard PIERRE-CHARLES, Evans PAUL, Luc MESADIEU, Victor BENOIT]; Democratic Consultation Group coalition or ESPACE [Evans PAUL, Victor Benoit] composed of the following parties: National Congress of Democratic Movements or KONAKOM, National Progressive Revolutionary Party or PANPRA, Generation 2004, and Haiti Can; Haitian Christian Democratic Party or PDCH [Marie-France CLAUDE]; Haitian Democratic Party or PADEM [Clark PARENT]; Lavalas Family or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]; Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert DE RONCERAY]; Movement for National Reconstruction or MRN [Rene THEODORE]; Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti or MIDH [Marc BAZIN]; Movement for the Organization of the Country or MOP [Gesner COMEAU and Jean MOLIERE]; National Cooperative Action Movement or MKN [Volrick Remy JOSEPH]; National Front for Change and Democracy or FNCD [Evans PAUL and Turneb DELPE]; New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]; Open the Gate or PLB [Renaud BERNARDIN]; Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Gerard PIERRE-CHARLES]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
Autonomous Haitian Workers or CATH; Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS; National Popular Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP; Roman Catholic Church
International organization participation 
ACCT, ACP, Caricom, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chief of Mission Harry Frantz LEO
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090
chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Roger NORIEGA
embassy: 5 Harry S Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince
mailing address: P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince
telephone: [509] 222-0354, 222-0269, 222-0200, 222-0327
FAX: [509] 223-1641, 222-0200, extension 460
Flag description 
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)

Economy

Economy - overview 
About 80% of the population lives in abject poverty. Nearly 70% of all Haitians depend on the agriculture sector, which consists mainly of small-scale subsistence farming and employs about two-thirds of the economically active work force. The country has experienced little job creation since the former President PREVAL took office in February 1996, although the informal economy is growing. Following legislative elections in May 2000, fraught with irregularities, international donors - including the US and EU - suspended almost all aid to Haiti. The economy shrank an estimated 1.2% in 2001, and the contraction will likely intensify in 2002 unless a political agreement with donors is reached and aid restored.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $12 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
-1.2% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 30%
industry: 20%
services: 50% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 
80% (1998 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
14% (2001 est.)
Labor force 
3.6 million (1995)
note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (2001) (1995)
Labor force - by occupation 
agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%
Unemployment rate 
widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs (2001) (2001)
Budget 
revenues: $273 million
expenditures: $361 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)
Industries 
sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, light assembly industries based on imported parts
Industrial production growth rate 
0.6% (1997 est.)
Electricity - production 
522 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 69%
hydro: 31%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
485.46 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood
Exports 
$326.6 million f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities 
manufactures, coffee, oils, cocoa
Exports - partners 
US 90%, EU 6% (2000)
Imports 
$977.5 million c.i.f. (2001)
Imports - commodities 
food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials
Imports - partners 
US 60%, EU 10.5%, Dominican Republic 3.7% (2000)
Debt - external 
$1.2 billion (1999) (1999)
Economic aid - recipient 
$730.6 million (1995) (1995)
Currency 
gourde (HTG)
Currency code 
HTG
Exchange rates 
gourdes per US dollar - 26.674 (January 2002), 26.339 (2001), 22.524 (2000), 17.965 (1999), 16.505 (1998), 17.311 (1997)
Fiscal year 
1 October - 30 September

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
60,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
0 (1995)
Telephone system 
general assessment: domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better
domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay trunk service
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 41, FM 26, shortwave 0 (1999)
Radios 
415,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
2 (plus a cable TV service) (1997)
Televisions 
38,000 (1997)
Internet country code 
.ht
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
3 (2000)
Internet users 
30,000 (2002)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 40 km
narrow gauge: 40 km 0.760-m gauge; single-track
note: privately owned industrial line; closed in early 1990s (2001 est.)
Highways 
total: 4,160 km
paved: 1,011 km
unpaved: 3,149 km (1996)
Waterways 
NEGL; less than 100 km navigable
Ports and harbors 
Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Jeremie, Les Cayes, Miragoane, Port-au-Prince, Port-de-Paix, Saint-Marc
Merchant marine 
none (2002 est.)
Airports 
12 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 6 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Haitian National Police (HNP)
note: the regular Haitian Army, Navy, and Air Force have been demobilized but still exist on paper until or unless they are constitutionally abolished
Military manpower - military age 
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 1,691,585 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 919,275 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
males: 87,049 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$50 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
1.3% (FY00)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
claims US-administered Navassa Island
Illicit drugs 
major Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial money-laundering activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption