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{{pagebanner|Chinese Phrasebook Banner.jpg}}
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[[Image:Sign Fragrance.JPG|thumb|Chinese script in [[Singapore/Chinatown|Chinatown]], [[Singapore]]]]
 
[[Image:Sign Fragrance.JPG|thumb|Chinese script in [[Singapore/Chinatown|Chinatown]], [[Singapore]]]]
  
'''Mandarin Chinese''' is the official language of [[China]] and [[Taiwan]], and is one of the official languages of [[Singapore]]. In English, it is often just called "Mandarin" or "Chinese". In China, it is called ''Putonghua'' (普通话), meaning "common speech", while in Taiwan it is referred to as ''Guoyu'' (國語) - "the national language." It has been the '''main language of education in China''' (excluding Hong Kong) since the 1950's.  Standard Mandarin is close to, but not quite identical with, the Mandarin dialect of the [[Beijing]] area. Note that while the spoken Mandarin in the above places is more or less the same, the written characters are different. Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau all still use [[Chinese phrasebook - Traditional|traditional characters]], whereas China and Singapore use a simplified derivative.  
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'''Mandarin Chinese''' is the official language of Mainland [[China]] and [[Taiwan]], and is one of the official languages of [[Singapore]]. In English, it is often just called "Mandarin" or "Chinese". In China, it is called ''Putonghua'' (普通话), meaning "common speech", while in Taiwan it is referred to as ''Guoyu'' (國語), "the national language." It has been the '''main language of education in China''' (excluding [[Hong Kong]] and [[Macau]]) since the 1950s.  Standard Mandarin is close to, but not quite identical with, the Mandarin dialect of the [[Beijing]] area. In Singapore, it is officially referred to as ''HuaYu'' (华语).
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Note that while the spoken Mandarin in the above places is more or less the same, the written characters are different. Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau all still use [[Chinese phrasebook - Traditional|traditional characters]], whereas Mainland China and Singapore use a simplified derivative. Educated people living in Mainland China or Singapore can still understand traditional character with no problem but not vice versa, for example Taiwanese people may have difficulty recognising some simplified characters.
  
 
==Understand==
 
==Understand==
[[Image:Sinitic Languages0.gif|thumb|285px|Map of Chinese dialects]]
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[[File:China dialect..png|thumb|A map of china dialects]]
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Chinese dialects are sometimes mutually intelligible, for example Sichuanese and mandarin or henan dialect(henanese) and mandarin. The same way Japanese dialects are intelligible among each other, but some like Cantonese and mandarin or hokkien(minnan) and mandarin are not intelligible the same way some German dialects are not intelligible with standard German. 
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All Chinese dialects, in general, use the same set of characters in reading and writing. A [[Cantonese]] speaker and a Mandarin speaker will not be able to understand each other, but either can generally read what the other writes. Even a speaker of [[Japanese]] or [[Korean]] will recognise many characters.
  
The word "dialect" means something different when applied to Chinese from the meaning when used for other languages. This is due mainly to historical, political and nationalistic reasons. Chinese "dialects" are classified by many as actually different languages and thus often mutually unintelligible to the ear and can be as different as Spanish is from French and even from English, which westerners would call "related languages" rather than "dialects".
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While formal written Chinese is the same everywhere, there can be significant differences when the "dialects" are written in colloquial form. For example Cantonese as used in Hong Kong, more informal phrasings are used in everyday speech than what would be written. Thus, there are some extra characters that are sometimes used in addition to the common characters to represent the spoken dialect and other colloquial words.
  
However, while there are different spoken "dialects" of Chinese, there is only one form of written Chinese, with one common set of characters,  mostly. An exception arises where in some spoken dialects, for example Cantonese as used in Hong Kong, more informal phrasings are used in everyday speech than what would be written. Thus, there are some extra characters that are sometimes used in addition to the common characters to represent the spoken dialect and other colloquial words. One additional complication is that mainland [[China]] and [[Singapore]] use '''simplified characters''', a long-debated change completed by the mainland Chinese government in 1956 to facilitate the standardization of language across China's broad minority groups and sub-dialects of Mandardin and other Chinese languages. Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macau and many overseas Chinese still use the '''traditional characters'''. In addition, the Dungan language, which is spoken in some parts of Russia, is considered to be a variant of Mandarin but uses the Cyrillic alphabet instead of Chinese characters.
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One additional complication is that mainland [[China]] and [[Singapore]] use '''simplified characters''', a long-debated change completed by the mainland Chinese government in 1956 to facilitate the standardization of language across China's broad minority groups and sub-dialects of Mandarin and other Chinese languages. Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macau and some overseas Chinese still use the '''traditional characters'''. In addition, the Dungan language, which is spoken in some parts of neighbouring countries, is considered to be a variant of Mandarin but uses the Cyrillic alphabet instead of Chinese characters.
  
About one fifth of the people in the world speak some form of Chinese as their native language, making it the most spoken language in the world. It is a tonal language that is related to ''Burmese'' and ''Tibetan''. Although [[Japanese phrasebook|Japanese]] and [[Korean phrasebook|Korean]] use Chinese written characters and a large number of Chinese loanwords, they are not even in the same language family. Rather they are related in a manner that resembles English having a lot of Romance language-derived loanwords while still being a Germanic language. Also, the unrelated [[Vietnamese phrasebook|Vietnamese]] language (which uses a distinctive version of the Latin alphabet) language has borrowed many words from Chinese and at one time used Chinese characters as well.
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About one fifth of the people in the world speak some form of Chinese as their native language. It is a tonal language that is related to ''Burmese'' and ''Tibetan''. Although [[Japanese phrasebook|Japanese]] and [[Korean phrasebook|Korean]] use Chinese written characters the spoken languages are not related to Chinese. Also, the unrelated Vietnamese language (which uses a distinctive version of the Latin alphabet) language has borrowed many words from Chinese and at one time used Chinese characters as well.
  
Note that travellers headed for [[Hong Kong]], [[Macau]] or [[Guangdong]] will almost certainly find [[Cantonese phrasebook| Cantonese]] more useful than Mandarin.
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Travellers headed for [[Guangdong]], [[Guangxi]], [[Hong Kong]] or [[Macau]] may find [[Cantonese]] more useful than Mandarin. Those heading for [[Taiwan]] or Southern [[Fujian]] may find the [[Minnan]] useful as well.
  
Chinese, like most other Asian languages such as Arabic, is famous for being difficult to learn. While English speakers would initially have problems with the tones and recognizing the many different characters (Chinese has no alphabet), the grammar is very simple and can be picked up very easily. Most notably, Chinese grammar does not have conjugation, tenses, gender, plurals or other grammatical rules found in other major languages such as English, French, or Japanese.
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Chinese, like most other Asian languages such as [[Arabic]], is famous for being difficult to learn. While English speakers would initially have problems with the tones and recognizing the many different characters (Chinese has no alphabet), the grammar is very simple and can be picked up very easily. Most notably, Chinese grammar does not have conjugation, tenses, gender, plurals or other grammatical rules found in other major languages such as English or [[French]].
  
 
==Pronunciation guide==
 
==Pronunciation guide==
The pronunciation guide below uses [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinyin Hanyu pinyin], the official romanization of the [[People's Republic of China]]. Until recently, [[Taiwan]] used the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wade-Giles Wade-Giles] system, which is quite different, then officially switched to [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tongyong_Pinyin Tongyong pinyin], which is only slightly different, and now uses Hanyu pinyin like the other.
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The pronunciation guide below uses Hanyu pinyin, the official romanization of the [[People's Republic of China]]. Until recently, [[Taiwan]] used the Wade-Giles system, which is quite different, then switched to Tongyong pinyin, only slightly different from Hanyu pinyin, and now officially uses Hanyu pinyin just like the People's Republic.
  
Pinyin allows very accurate pronunciation of Chinese ''if'' you understand how it works, but the way it uses letters like ''q'', ''x'', ''c'', ''z'' and even ''i'' is not at all intuitive to the English speaker. Studying the pronunciation guide below carefully is thus essential. After you master the pronunciation you still may not be understood, its time to move on to the next challenge, speaking the accurate tones.
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Pinyin allows very accurate pronunciation of Chinese ''if you understand how it works'', but the way that it uses letters like ''q'', ''x'', ''c'', ''z'' and even ''i'' is not at all intuitive to the English speaker. Studying the pronunciation guide below carefully is thus essential. After you master the pronunciation you still may not be understood, its time to move on to the next challenge, speaking the accurate tones.
  
===Vowels===
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Some pinyin vowels (especially "e", "i", "ü") can be tricky, so it is best to get a native speaker to demonstrate. Also, beware of the spelling rules listed in the [[#exceptions|exceptions]] below.
Some pinyin vowels (esp. "e", "i", "ü") can be tricky, so it's best to get a native speaker to demonstrate. Also beware of the spelling rules listed in [[#Exceptions|Exceptions]] below.
 
  
;a :as in f'''a'''ther
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;a :as in f'''a'''ther; otherwise, pronounced as in "'''aw'''esome"
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;a in an: as "a" in "c'''a'''t" or "b'''a'''ck" (just the English short "a" sound)
 
;e :unrounded back vowel (IPA [ɤ]), similar to d'''uh'''; in unstressed syllables becames a schwa (IPA [ə]), like ide'''a'''
 
;e :unrounded back vowel (IPA [ɤ]), similar to d'''uh'''; in unstressed syllables becames a schwa (IPA [ə]), like ide'''a'''
 
;i :as in s'''ee''' or k'''ey''';<br>after ''sh'', ''zh'', ''s'', ''z'' or ''r'', not really a vowel at all but just a stretched-out consonant sound
 
;i :as in s'''ee''' or k'''ey''';<br>after ''sh'', ''zh'', ''s'', ''z'' or ''r'', not really a vowel at all but just a stretched-out consonant sound
;o :as in s'''aw'''
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;o :as in m'''o'''re
 
;u :as in s'''oo'''n; but read '''ü''' in ''ju'', ''qu'', ''yu'' and ''xu''
 
;u :as in s'''oo'''n; but read '''ü''' in ''ju'', ''qu'', ''yu'' and ''xu''
 
;ü :as in French l'''u'''ne or German gr'''ü'''n
 
;ü :as in French l'''u'''ne or German gr'''ü'''n
  
 
===Diphthongs===
 
===Diphthongs===
As in any language, there are diphthongs in Chinese, and they are listed below:
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These are the diphthongs in Chinese:
  
 
;ai : as in p'''ie'''
 
;ai : as in p'''ie'''
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;ei : as in p'''ay'''
 
;ei : as in p'''ay'''
 
;ia: as in '''ya'''
 
;ia: as in '''ya'''
;ia in ' '''ia'''n': as in ''''ye'''s
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;ia in ' '''ia'''n': as in '''ye'''s
 
;iao: as in m'''eow'''
 
;iao: as in m'''eow'''
 
;ie: as in '''ye'''s
 
;ie: as in '''ye'''s
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;uo: as in '''wa'''r
 
;uo: as in '''wa'''r
  
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===Consonants===
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Chinese stops distinguish between ''aspirated'' and ''unaspirated'', not ''voiceless'' and ''voiced'' as in English. Aspirated sounds are pronounced with a distinctive puff of air as they are pronounced in English when at the beginning of a word, while unaspirated sounds are pronounced without the puff, as in English when found in clusters.
  
===Consonants===
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Place a hand in front of your mouth and compare '''p'''it (aspirated) with s'''p'''it (unaspirated) to see the difference.
Chinese stops distinguish between ''aspirated'' and ''unaspirated'', not ''voiceless'' and ''voiced'' as in English.  Aspirated sounds are pronounced with a distinctive puff of air, the way they are in English when at the beginning of a word, while unaspirated sounds are pronounced without the puff, as in English when found in clusters.  Place a hand in front of your mouth and compare '''p'''it (aspirated) with s'''p'''it (unaspirated) to see the difference.
 
  
 
{|
 
{|
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| '''zh''' || <br>as in '''j'''ungle || '''ch''' || <br>as in '''ch'''ore
 
| '''zh''' || <br>as in '''j'''ungle || '''ch''' || <br>as in '''ch'''ore
 
|-  
 
|-  
| '''z''' || <br>as in '''z'''ebra || '''c''' || <br>as in ra'''ts'''
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| '''z''' || <br>as in a'''ds''' || '''c''' || <br>as in ra'''ts'''
 
|}
 
|}
  
The other consonants in Chinese are:
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Here are the other consonants in Chinese:
  
 
;m :as in '''m'''ow
 
;m :as in '''m'''ow
 
;f :as in '''f'''un
 
;f :as in '''f'''un
 
;n :as in '''n'''one or no'''n'''e
 
;n :as in '''n'''one or no'''n'''e
;l :as in '''l'''ease
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;l :as in '''l'''ease but pronounced like a Spanish "r" in "'''r'''ojo"
 
;h :as in '''h'''er
 
;h :as in '''h'''er
 
;x :as in '''sh'''eep
 
;x :as in '''sh'''eep
 
;sh :as in '''sh'''oot
 
;sh :as in '''sh'''oot
;r :as in fai'''r'''
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;r :as in fai'''r''', but can be "zh" as in "plea'''s'''ure"
 
;s :as in '''s'''ag
 
;s :as in '''s'''ag
 
;ng :as in si'''ng'''
 
;ng :as in si'''ng'''
;w :as in '''w'''ing, but '''silent''' in ''wu''
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;w :as in '''w'''ing but '''silent''' in ''wu''. Before a, ai, ang, eng, and/or o, this may sound like the English v/ German w.
;y :as in '''y'''et, but '''silent''' in ''yi'', ''yu''
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;y :as in '''y'''et but '''silent''' in ''yi'', ''yu''
  
If you think that's a fairly intimidating repertoire, rest assured that you're not alone, and many Chinese, particularly those who are not native Mandarin speakers, will merge many of the sounds above (eg. ''q'' with ''ch'', ''j'' with ''zh'').
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If you think that is a fairly intimidating repertoire, rest assured that many Chinese people, particularly those who are not native Mandarin speakers, will merge many of the sounds above (especially ''q'' with ''ch'' and ''j'' with ''zh'').
  
 
===Exceptions===
 
===Exceptions===
There are a fairly large number of niggling exceptions to the basic rules above, based on the position of the sound.  Some of the more notable ones include:
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There is a fairly large number of niggling exceptions to the basic rules above, based on the position of the sound:
  
 
; wu- :as '''u-''', so 五百 ''wubai'' is pronounced "'''u'''bai"
 
; wu- :as '''u-''', so 五百 ''wubai'' is pronounced "'''u'''bai"
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===Tones===
 
===Tones===
{{infobox|How do I put my tone marks?|If you're confused by how to put tone marks above the Hanyu Pinyin, follow the steps below:
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{{infobox|Where do I put my tone marks?|If you are confused by how to put tone marks above the Hanyu Pinyin, follow the steps below:
  
Always insert tone marks above the vowels. If there is more than 1 vowel letter, follow the steps below:
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Always insert tone marks above the vowels. If there is more than one vowel letter, follow the steps below:
  
(1) Insert it above the 'a' if that letter is present. For example, it is ''r'''ǎ'''o'' and not ''ra'''ǒ'''''
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(1) Insert it above the 'a' if that letter is present. For example, it is ''r'''ǎ'''o'' and not ''ra'''ǒ'''''
  
(2) If not, insert it above 'o'. For example, ''gu'''ó''''' and not ''g'''ú'''o''
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(2) If not, insert it above 'o'. For example, ''gu'''ó''''' and not ''g'''ú'''o''
  
 
(3) Insert it above the letter 'e' if the letters 'a' and 'o' are not present. For example, ''ju'''é''''' and not ''j'''ú'''e''
 
(3) Insert it above the letter 'e' if the letters 'a' and 'o' are not present. For example, ''ju'''é''''' and not ''j'''ú'''e''
  
(4) If only 'i', 'u' and 'ü' are the only present letters, insert it in the letter that occurs '''last'''. For example, ''ji'''ù''''' and not ''j'''ì'''u'', ''chu'''í''''' and not ''ch'''ú'''i''. Note, if the vowel present is ü, the tone mark is put '''in addition''' to the umlaut. eg. l'''ǜ'''
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(4) If only 'i', 'u' and 'ü' are the only present letters, insert it in the letter that occurs '''last'''. For example, ''ji'''ù''''' and not ''j'''ì'''u'', ''chu'''í''''' and not ''ch'''ú'''i''. Note, if the vowel present is ü, the tone mark is put '''in addition''' to the umlaut. For example, l'''ǜ'''
 
 
 
}}
 
}}
There are four tones in Mandarin that must be followed for proper pronunciation. If you are not used to tonal languages then never underestimate the importance of these tones. Consider a vowel with a different tone as simply a different vowel altogether, and you will realize why Chinese will ''not'' understand you use the wrong tone &mdash; ''mǎ'' is to ''mā'' as "I want a cake" is to "I want a coke".  Be especially wary of questions that have a falling tone, or conversely exclamations that have an "asking" tone (eg ''jǐngchá'', police!). In other words, ''pronounced like'' does not imply ''meaning''. While Mandarin speakers also vary their tone just like English speakers do to differentiate a statement from a question and convey emotion, this is much more subtle than in English so it is best not to try it until you have mastered the basic tones.  
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There are four tones in Mandarin that must be followed for proper pronunciation. If you are not used to tonal languages, never underestimate the importance of these tones. Consider a vowel with a different tone as simply a different vowel altogether, and you will realize why Chinese will ''not'' understand you if you use the wrong tone &mdash; ''mǎ'' is to ''mā'' as "I want a cake" is to "I want a coke".  Be especially wary of questions that have a falling tone, or conversely exclamations that have an "asking" tone (eg ''jǐngchá'', police). In other words, ''pronounced like'' does not imply ''meaning''. While Mandarin speakers also vary their tone just like English speakers do to differentiate a statement from a question and convey emotion, this is much more subtle than in English. Do not try it until you have mastered the basic tones.  
  
;1. first tone ( ā ) : flat, high pitch &mdash; more sung instead of spoken
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;1. first tone ( ā ) : flat, high pitch that is more sung instead of spoken.
;2. second tone ( á ) : low to middle, rising &mdash; pronounced like the end of a question phrase (''Whát?'')
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;2. second tone ( á ) : low to middle, rising pitch that is pronounced like the end of a question phrase (''Whát?'').
;3. third tone ( ǎ ) : middle to low to high, dipping &mdash; '''Note''': For two consecutive words in the 3rd tone, the first word is pronounced as if it is in the 2nd tone. For example, 打扰 ''dǎrǎo'' is pronounced as ''dárǎo''.  
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;3. third tone ( ǎ ) : middle to low to high, dipping pitch: for two consecutive words in the third tone, the first word is pronounced as if it is in the second tone. For example, 打扰 ''dǎrǎo'' is pronounced as ''dárǎo''.  
;4. fourth tone ( à ) : high to low, rapidly falling &mdash; pronounced like a command (''Stop!'')  
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;4. fourth tone ( à ) : high to low, rapidly falling pitch that is pronounced like a command (''Stop!'').
;5. a fifth tone : this is a neutral tone, which is rarely used by itself (mostly for phrase particles), but frequently occurs as the second part of a phrase.
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;5. fifth tone : neutral pitch that is rarely used by itself (except for phrase particles) but frequently occurring as the second part of a phrase.
  
 
==Phrase list==
 
==Phrase list==
All phrases shown in here use the simplified characters used in mainland [[China]] and [[Singapore]].  See [[Chinese phrasebook - Traditional]] for a version using the traditional characters still used on [[Taiwan]].
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All phrases shown in here use the simplified characters used in mainland [[China]] and [[Singapore]].  See [[Chinese phrasebook - Traditional]] for a version using the traditional characters still used on [[Taiwan]] and [[Hong Kong]].
  
 
===Basics===
 
===Basics===
{{infobox|To be or not to be?|Chinese does not have words for "yes" and "no" as such; instead, questions are typically answered by repeating the verb. Common ones include:
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{{infobox|To be or not to be?|Chinese does not have words for "yes" and "no" as such; instead, questions are typically answered by repeating the verb. Here are common examples:
 
; To be or not to be: 是 shì, 不是 bú shì
 
; To be or not to be: 是 shì, 不是 bú shì
 
; To have or not have / there is or is not: 有 yǒu, 没有 méi yǒu
 
; To have or not have / there is or is not: 有 yǒu, 没有 méi yǒu
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; Hello. : 你好。 Nǐ hǎo.
 
; Hello. : 你好。 Nǐ hǎo.
; How are you? : 你好吗? Nǐ hǎo ma? 身体好吗? Shēntǐ hǎo ma?
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; How are you? : 你好吗? Nǐ hǎo ma?
 
; Fine, thank you. : 很好, 谢谢。 Hěn hǎo, xièxie.
 
; Fine, thank you. : 很好, 谢谢。 Hěn hǎo, xièxie.
 
; May I please ask, what is your name? : 请问你叫什么名? Qǐngwèn nǐjiào shěnme míng?
 
; May I please ask, what is your name? : 请问你叫什么名? Qǐngwèn nǐjiào shěnme míng?
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; Excuse me. (''getting attention'') : 请问 qǐng wèn
 
; Excuse me. (''getting attention'') : 请问 qǐng wèn
 
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') : 打扰一下。 Dǎrǎo yixià ; 麻烦您了, Máfán nín le.
 
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') : 打扰一下。 Dǎrǎo yixià ; 麻烦您了, Máfán nín le.
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; Excuse me. (''coming through'') : 对不起 Duìbùqǐ * or * 请让一下 Qǐng ràng yixià
 
; I'm sorry. : 对不起。 Duìbùqǐ.
 
; I'm sorry. : 对不起。 Duìbùqǐ.
 
; It's okay. (polite response to "I'm sorry"): 没关系 (méiguānxi).
 
; It's okay. (polite response to "I'm sorry"): 没关系 (méiguānxi).
 
; Goodbye :  再见。 Zàijiàn
 
; Goodbye :  再见。 Zàijiàn
; Goodbye (''informal'') : 拜拜。 Bai-bai (Byebye)
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; Goodbye (''informal'') : 拜拜。 Bāi-bāi (Bye bye)
; I can't speak Chinese. :  我不会说中文。 Wǒ bú huì shuō zhōngwén.
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; I can't speak Chinese. :  我不会讲中文。 Wǒ bú huì jiáng zhōngwén.
 
; Do you speak English? : 你会说英语吗? Nǐ huì shuō Yīngyǔ ma?
 
; Do you speak English? : 你会说英语吗? Nǐ huì shuō Yīngyǔ ma?
 
; Is there someone here who speaks English? : 这里有人会说英语吗? Zhèlĭ yǒu rén hùi shuō Yīngyǔ ma?
 
; Is there someone here who speaks English? : 这里有人会说英语吗? Zhèlĭ yǒu rén hùi shuō Yīngyǔ ma?
 
; Help! (in emergencies): 救命! Jiùmìng!
 
; Help! (in emergencies): 救命! Jiùmìng!
; Good morning. :  早安。 Zǎo'ān.
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; Good morning. :  早安。 zǎo ān.
 
; Good evening. :  晚上好。 Wǎnshàng hǎo.
 
; Good evening. :  晚上好。 Wǎnshàng hǎo.
 
; Good night. :  晚安。 Wǎn'ān.
 
; Good night. :  晚安。 Wǎn'ān.
; I don't understand. : 我听不懂。 Wǒ tīng bù dǒng.
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; I don't understand (something heard). : 我听不懂。 Wǒ tīng bù dǒng.
 +
; I don't understand (something read). : 我看不懂。 Wǒ kàn bù dǒng.
 
; Where is the toilet? : 厕所在哪里? Cèsuǒ zài nǎli?
 
; Where is the toilet? : 厕所在哪里? Cèsuǒ zài nǎli?
 +
; Where is the bathroom(polite)? : 洗手间在哪里? Xǐshǒujiān zài nǎli?
  
 
===Problems===
 
===Problems===
 
{{infobox|Asking a question in Chinese|There are many ways to ask a question in Chinese. Here are two easy ones for travelers...
 
{{infobox|Asking a question in Chinese|There are many ways to ask a question in Chinese. Here are two easy ones for travelers...
; Verb/Adj. + bù + Verb/Adj. : Example - hăo bù hăo? - Are you ok? (literally - good not good?)
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; Verb/Adj. + bù + Verb/Adj. : Example - 好不好?hăo bù hăo? - Are you all right? (literally - good not good?)
Exception - yŏu méi yŏu? - Do you have? (literally - have not have?)
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Exception - 有没有? yŏu méi yŏu? - Do you have? (literally - have not have?)
 
; Sentence + ma : Example - nĭ shì zhōngguóren ma? - Are you Chinese? (literally - you are chinese + ma)}}
 
; Sentence + ma : Example - nĭ shì zhōngguóren ma? - Are you Chinese? (literally - you are chinese + ma)}}
 
; Leave me alone. : 不要打扰我。 (''búyào dǎrǎo wǒ'')
 
; Leave me alone. : 不要打扰我。 (''búyào dǎrǎo wǒ'')
 
; I don't want it! (useful for people who come up trying to sell you something) : 我不要 (''wǒ búyào!'')
 
; I don't want it! (useful for people who come up trying to sell you something) : 我不要 (''wǒ búyào!'')
 
; Don't touch me! : 不要碰我! (''búyào pèng wǒ!'')
 
; Don't touch me! : 不要碰我! (''búyào pèng wǒ!'')
; I'll call the police. : 我要叫警察了。 (''wǒ yào jiào jǐngchá le'')  
+
; I'll call the police. : 我会叫警察。 (''wǒ yào jiào jǐngchá le'')  
; Police! : 警察! (''jǐngchá!'')
+
; Police! : 警察! (''jǐngchá!'') or in Mainland China: 公安!(gōng'ān) (either will be understood in Mainland China)
 
; Stop! Thief! : 住手!小偷! (''zhùshǒu! xiǎotōu!'')
 
; Stop! Thief! : 住手!小偷! (''zhùshǒu! xiǎotōu!'')
 
; I need your help. : 我需要你的帮助。 (''wǒ xūyào nǐde bāngzhù'')  
 
; I need your help. : 我需要你的帮助。 (''wǒ xūyào nǐde bāngzhù'')  
Line 167: Line 177:
 
; I've been injured. : 我受伤了。 (''wǒ shòushāng le'')
 
; I've been injured. : 我受伤了。 (''wǒ shòushāng le'')
 
; I need a doctor. : 我需要医生。 (''wǒ xūyào yīshēng'')
 
; I need a doctor. : 我需要医生。 (''wǒ xūyào yīshēng'')
; Can I use your phone? : 我可以打个电话吗? (''wǒ kěyǐ dǎ ge diànhuà ma?'')
+
; Can I make a telephone call? : 我可以打个电话吗? (''wǒ kěyǐ dǎ ge diànhuà ma?'')
 +
; Can I use your phone? :我可以用您的电话吗?(wǒ kěyǐ yòng nín de diànhuà ne?)
 +
; Can I use your cell phone? :我可以用您的手机吗?(wǒ kěyǐ yòng nín de shǒujī ma?)
  
 
===Going to the doctor===
 
===Going to the doctor===
Line 205: Line 217:
  
 
===Numbers===
 
===Numbers===
Chinese numbers are very regular. While Indo-Arabic (Western) numerals have become more common, the Chinese numerals shown below are still used, particularly in informal contexts like markets. The characters in parentheses are generally used in financial contexts, such as writing cheques and printing banknotes.
+
Chinese numbers are very regular. While Arabic numerals have become more common, the Chinese numerals shown below are still used, particularly in informal contexts like markets. The characters in parentheses can be seen as upper case of Chinese numerals. They are generally used in financial contexts, such as writing cheques and printing banknotes.
 +
 
 +
; 0 : 〇 (零) líng
 +
; 1 : 一 (壹) yī
 +
; 2 : 二 (贰) èr (两 liǎng is used when specifying quantities)
 +
; 3 : 三 (叁) sān
 +
; 4 : 四 (肆) sì
 +
; 5 : 五 (伍) wǔ
 +
; 6 : 六 (陆) liù
 +
; 7 : 七 (柒) qī
 +
; 8 : 八 (捌) bā
 +
; 9 : 九 (玖) jiǔ
 +
; 10 : 十 (拾) shí
 +
; 11 : 十一 shí-yī
 +
; 12 : 十二 shí-èr
 +
; 13 : 十三 shí-sān
 +
; 14 : 十四 shí-sì
 +
; 15 : 十五 shí-wǔ
 +
; 16 : 十六 shí-liù
 +
; 17 : 十七 shí-qī
 +
; 18 : 十八 shí-bā
 +
; 19 : 十九 shí-jiǔ
 +
; 20 : 二十 èr-shí
 +
; 21 : 二十一 èr-shí-yī
 +
; 22 : 二十二 èr-shí-èr
 +
; 23 : 二十三 èr-shí-sān
 +
; 30 : 三十 sān-shí
 +
; 40 : 四十 sì-shí
 +
; 50 : 五十 wǔ-shí
 +
; 60 : 六十 liù-shí
 +
; 70 : 七十 qī-shí
 +
; 80 : 八十 bā-shí
 +
; 90 : 九十 jiǔ-shí
 +
 
 +
For numbers above 100, any "gaps" must be filled in with 〇 ''líng'', as eg. 一百一 ''yībǎiyī'' would otherwise be taken as shorthand for "110". A single unit of tens may be written and pronounced either 一十 ''yīshí'' or just 十 ''shí''.
  
; 0 〇 (零) : líng
+
; 100 : 一百 (壹佰) yī-bǎi
; 1 一 () :
+
; 101 : 一百〇一 (壹佰零壹) yī-bǎi-líng-
; 2 二 (贰) : èr (两 liǎng is used when specifying quantities)
+
; 110 : 一百一十 (壹佰壹拾) yī-bǎi--shí
; 3 三 (叁) : sān
+
; 111 : 一百一十一 yī-bǎi-yī-shí-
; 4 四 (肆) : sì
+
; 200 : 二百 èr-bǎi or 两百:liǎng-bǎi
; 5 五 (伍) : wǔ
+
; 300 : 三百 sān-bǎi
; 6 六 (陆) : liù
+
; 500 : 五百 wǔ-bǎi
; 7 七 (柒) :
+
; 1000 : 一千 (壹仟) yī-qiān
; 8 八 (捌) : bā
+
; 2000 : 二千 èr-qiān
; 9 九 (玖) : jiǔ
+
: ''or'' 两千 liǎng-qiān
; 10 十 () : shí
 
; 11 十一 : shí-
 
; 12 十二 : shí-èr
 
; 13 十三 : shí-sān
 
; 14 十四 : shí-
 
; 15 十五 : shí-
 
; 16 十六 : shí-liù
 
; 17 十七 : shí-
 
; 18 十八 : shí-
 
; 19 十九 : shí-jiǔ
 
; 20 二十 : èr-shí
 
; 21 二十一 : èr-shí-yī
 
; 22 二十二 : èr-shí-èr
 
; 23 二十三 : èr-shí-sān
 
; 30 三十 : sān-shí
 
; 40 四十 : sì-shí
 
; 50 五十 : wǔ-shí
 
; 60 六十 : liù-shí
 
; 70 七十 : -shí
 
; 80 八十 : bā-shí
 
; 90 九十 : jiǔ-shí
 
  
For numbers above 100, any "gaps" must be filled in with ''líng'', as eg. 一百一 ''yībǎiyī'' would otherwise be taken as shorthand for "110".  A single unit of tens may be written and pronounced either 一十 ''yīshí'' or just 十 ''shí''.
+
Numbers starting from 10,000 are grouped by in units of four digits starting with ''wàn'' (ten thousand). "One million" in Chinese is thus "hundred ten-thousands" (一百万).
  
; 100 一百 (壹佰): yī-bǎi
+
; 10,000 : 一万 (壹萬) yī-wàn
; 101 一百〇一 : yī-bǎi-líng-yī
+
; 10,001 : 一万〇一 yī-wàn-líng-yī
; 110 一百一十 : yī-bǎi--shí
+
; 10,002 : 一万〇二 yī-wàn-líng-èr
; 111 一百一十一 : -bǎi-yī-shí-
+
; 20,000 : 二万 èr-wàn
; 200 二百 : èr-bǎi or 两百:liǎng-bǎi
+
; 50,000 : 五万 wǔ-wàn
; 300 三百 : sān-bǎi
+
; 100,000 : 十万 shí-wàn
; 500 五百 : -bǎi
+
; 200,000 : 二十万 èr-shí-wàn
; 1000 一千 (壹仟): yī-qiān
+
; 1,000,000 : 一百万 yī-bǎi-wàn
; 2000 二千 : èr-qiān or 两千:liǎng-qiān
+
; 10,000,000 : 一千万 yī-qiān-wàn
 +
; 100,000,000 : 一亿 (壹億) yī-
 +
; 1,000,000,000,000 : 一兆 yī-zhào
  
Numbers above 10,000 are grouped by in units of four digits, starting with 万 ''wàn'' (ten thousand).  "One million" in Chinese is thus "hundred tenthousands" (一百万).
 
  
; 10,000 一万 (壹萬): yī-wàn
+
Number _____ (''train, bus, etc.'') : number '''''measure word''''' (路 lù, 号 hào, 次 cì...) _____ (huǒchē, gōnggòng-qìchē, etc.)
; 10,001 一万〇一 : yī-wàn-líng-yī
+
; 10,002 一万〇二 : yī-wàn-líng-èr
+
; 20,000 二万 : èr-wàn
+
:For example,
; 50,000 五万 : wǔ-wàn
+
; 100,000 十万 : shí-wàn
+
; 200,000 二十万 : èr-shí-wàn
+
*Number Z'''263''' train: zhí '''èrbǎi-liùshí-sān''' cì huǒchē.(直 二百六十三 次 火车) ''see also [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_transport_in_China#Classes_of_service Train class number in China]''
; 1,000,000 一百万 : yī-bǎi-wàn
+
; 10,000,000 一千万 : yī-qiān-wàn
+
; 100,000,000 一亿 (壹億) : yī-yì
+
*Bus Line '''457''': '''sìbǎi-wǔshí-qī''' lù gōnggòng-qìchē (四百五十七 路 公共汽车)
; 1,000,000,000,000 一兆 : yī-zhào
+
; number _____ (''train, bus, etc.'') : number '''''measure word''''' (路 lù, 号 hào, ...) _____ (huǒ chē, gōng gòng qì chē, etc.)
+
Measure words are used in combination with a number to indicate an amount of mass nouns, similar to how English requires "two ''pieces of'' paper" rather than just "two paper". Read [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/measure_word this] for full details. When in doubt, use 个 (ge); even though it may not be correct you will probably be understood because it is the most common measure word. (One person: 一个人 yīgè rén; two apples: 两个苹果 liǎnggè píngguǒ; note that two of something always uses 两 liǎng rather than 二 èr).
+
*Subway Line '''8''': dìtiĕ '''bā''' hào xiàn (地铁 八 号 线)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Measure words are used in combination with a number to indicate an amount of mass nouns, similar to how English requires "two ''pieces of'' paper" rather than just "two paper". [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/measure_word] When unsure, use 个 (ge); even though it may not be correct, you will probably be understood because it is the most common measure word. (One person: 一个人 yīgè rén; two apples: 两个苹果 liǎnggè píngguǒ; note that two of something always uses 两 liǎng rather than 二 èr).
 
; half : 半 bàn
 
; half : 半 bàn
 
; less than : 少於 shǎoyú
 
; less than : 少於 shǎoyú
Line 274: Line 303:
  
 
; now : 现在 xiànzài
 
; now : 现在 xiànzài
; later : 以后, yǐhòu ''or'' shāohòu
+
; later : 以后 ''or'' 稍后, yǐhòu ''or'' shāohòu
 
; before : 以前, yǐqián
 
; before : 以前, yǐqián
 
; morning : 早上, zǎoshàng
 
; morning : 早上, zǎoshàng
Line 287: Line 316:
 
; It is nine in the morning. : 早上9点钟。 Zǎoshàng jǐu diǎn zhōng.
 
; It is nine in the morning. : 早上9点钟。 Zǎoshàng jǐu diǎn zhōng.
 
; Three-thirty PM. : 下午3点半. Xiàwǔ sān diǎn bàn.
 
; Three-thirty PM. : 下午3点半. Xiàwǔ sān diǎn bàn.
; 3:38 PM. : 下午3点38分 Xiàwǔ sāndiǎn sānshíbā fēn.
+
; 3<nowiki>:</nowiki>38 PM : 下午3点38分 Xiàwǔ sāndiǎn sānshíbā fēn.
  
 
====Duration====
 
====Duration====
Line 306: Line 335:
 
; the day after tomorrow: 后天 hòutiān
 
; the day after tomorrow: 后天 hòutiān
  
; this week : 这个星期 zhège xīngqī
+
; this week : 这个星期 zhè ge xīngqī
; last week : 上个星期 shàngge xīngqī
+
; last week : 上个星期 shàng ge xīngqī
; next week : 下个星期 xiàge xīngqī
+
; next week : 下个星期 xià ge xīngqī
  
 
Weekdays in Chinese are easy: starting with 1 for Monday, just add the number after 星期 xīngqī. In [[Taiwan]], 星期 is pronounced xīngqí (second tone on the second syllable).
 
Weekdays in Chinese are easy: starting with 1 for Monday, just add the number after 星期 xīngqī. In [[Taiwan]], 星期 is pronounced xīngqí (second tone on the second syllable).
  
; Sunday : 星期天 xīngqītiān ''or'' xīngqīrì (星期日)
+
; Sunday : 星期天 xīngqī tiān ''or'' xīngqī rì (星期日)
; Monday : 星期一 xīngqīyī
+
; Monday : 星期一 xīngqī yī
; Tuesday : 星期二 xīngqīèr
+
; Tuesday : 星期二 xīngqī èr
; Wednesday : 星期三 xīngqīsān
+
; Wednesday : 星期三 xīngqī sān
; Thursday : 星期四 xīngqīsì
+
; Thursday : 星期四 xīngqī sì
; Friday : 星期五 xīngqīwǔ
+
; Friday : 星期五 xīngqī wǔ
; Saturday : 星期六 xīngqīliù
+
; Saturday : 星期六 xīngqī liù
  
星期 can also be replaced with 礼拜 lǐbài and occasionally 周 zhōu.
+
星期 can also be replaced with 礼拜 lǐbài and occasionally 周 zhōu. eg. 星期三=礼拜三=周三/ xīngqī sān = lǐbài sān = zhōu sān
  
 
====Months====
 
====Months====
Line 337: Line 366:
 
; November : 十一月, shí yī yuè
 
; November : 十一月, shí yī yuè
 
; December : 十二月, shí èr yuè
 
; December : 十二月, shí èr yuè
; 13th month:十三月, shí-sān yuè (occasionally added as a leap month in the Lunar Calendar)
 
  
''Tips: From January to December, you just need to use this pattern: number (1-12) + yuè''
+
From January to December, you just need to use this pattern: number (1-12) + yuè.
  
 
====Writing Dates====
 
====Writing Dates====
  
{{infobox|Writing dates in the Lunar Calendar|
+
{{infobox|Writing dates in the lunar calendar|
  
  
If you are attempting to name a date in the Chinese Lunar Calendar, add the words ‘农历’ before the name of the month to distinguish it from the months of the solar calendar, although it is not strictly necessary. There are some differences: The words 日(rì)/ 号(hào) are generally not required when stating dates in the lunar calendar; it is assumed. Besides that, the 1st Month is called 正月 (zhèngyuè). If the number of the day is less than 11, the word 初 is used before the value of the day. Besides that, if the value of the day is more than 20, the word 廿 (niàn) is used, so the 23rd day is 廿三 for example.
+
If you are attempting to name a date in the Chinese lunar calendar, add the words ‘农历’ before the name of the month to distinguish it from the months of the solar calendar, although it is not strictly necessary. There are some differences: The words 日(rì)/ 号(hào) are generally not required when stating dates in the lunar calendar; it is assumed. Besides that, the 1st Month is called 正月 (zhèngyuè). If the number of the day is less than 11, the word 初 is used before the value of the day. Besides that, if the value of the day is more than 20, the word 廿 (niàn) is used, so the 23rd day is 廿三 for example.
  
 
;15th day of the 8th lunar month (the mid-autumn festival): (农历)八月十五 ( (nónglì) bāyuè shí-wǔ).  
 
;15th day of the 8th lunar month (the mid-autumn festival): (农历)八月十五 ( (nónglì) bāyuè shí-wǔ).  
Line 368: Line 396:
 
; purple : 紫色 zǐ sè
 
; purple : 紫色 zǐ sè
 
; brown : 褐色 he sè,  棕色 zōng sè,   
 
; brown : 褐色 he sè,  棕色 zōng sè,   
 +
; gold : 金色 jīn se
 +
 
; Do you have it in another colour?  : 你们有没有另外颜色?  nǐmen yǒu méiyǒu lìngwài yánsè ?
 
; Do you have it in another colour?  : 你们有没有另外颜色?  nǐmen yǒu méiyǒu lìngwài yánsè ?
  
''Tips: sè means 'colour', therefore, 'hóng sè' is 'red colour'(literally).''
+
means 'colour' so 'hóng sè' is literally 'red colour'.
More common for brown and easier to remmember is 'coffee colour': 咖啡色 kā fēi sè
+
More common for brown and easier to remember is 'coffee colour': 咖啡色 kā fēi sè
  
 
===Transportation===
 
===Transportation===
  
 
====Bus and Train====
 
====Bus and Train====
; How much is a ticket to _____? : 去______的票多少钱 qù _____ de piào duō shǎo qián?
+
Generally Number _____ (''train, bus, etc.'') : number '''''measure word''''' (路 lù, 号 hào, 次 cì...) _____ (huǒchē, gōnggòng-qìchē, etc.)
; Do you go to... (the central station)? : 去不去... (火车站) qù bù qù... (huǒ chē zhàn)
+
:For example,
 +
*Number Z'''263''' train: zhí '''èrbǎi-liùshí-sān''' cì huǒchē.(直 二百六十三 次 火车) ''see also [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_transport_in_China#Classes_of_service Train class number in China]''
 +
*Bus Line '''457''': '''sìbǎi-wǔshí-qī''' lù gōnggòng-qìchē (四百五十七 路 公共汽车)
 +
*Subway Line '''8''': dìtiĕ '''bā''' hào xiàn (地铁 八 号 线)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
; How much is a ticket to _____? : 去______的票多少钱? qù _____ de piào duō shǎo qián?
 +
; Do you go to ___(the central station)? : 去不去___(火车站)? qù bù qù ___ (huǒ chē zhàn)?
  
 
====Directions====
 
====Directions====
Line 386: Line 423:
 
; ...the airport? : ...机场? ...jī chǎng?
 
; ...the airport? : ...机场? ...jī chǎng?
  
; street : 街 jiē; 路 lù
+
; street : 街 jiē;
 +
; road : 路 lù
 +
; avenue : 大道 dàjiē
  
 
; Turn left. : 左边转弯 zuǒbiān zhuǎnwān/左拐zuǒguǎi
 
; Turn left. : 左边转弯 zuǒbiān zhuǎnwān/左拐zuǒguǎi
Line 392: Line 431:
 
; Go straight: 一直走 yìzhízŏu   
 
; Go straight: 一直走 yìzhízŏu   
 
; I've reached my destination: 到了dàole                                     
 
; I've reached my destination: 到了dàole                                     
; U-turn: 掉 头 diàotóu  
+
; U-turn: 掉头 diàotóu  
; Taxi driver: 师傅 shīfu
+
; Taxi driver: 司机 sījī
 
; Please use the meter machine:  请打表 qǐng dǎbiǎo                                         
 
; Please use the meter machine:  请打表 qǐng dǎbiǎo                                         
; Please turn up the aircon/heater: 请空调开大点儿。 qǐng kōngtiáo kāi dàdiǎn(r) 
+
; Please turn up the aircon/heater: 请把空调开大一点。 qǐng kōngtiáo kāi dàdiǎn
 
      
 
      
 
; left : 左边 zuǒbiān
 
; left : 左边 zuǒbiān
Line 407: Line 446:
 
====Taxi====
 
====Taxi====
 
; Taxi  出租车 chū zū chē
 
; Taxi  出租车 chū zū chē
; Take me to _____, please. : 请开到_____。 qǐng kāidào _____。
+
; Take me to _____, please. : 请您开到_____。 qǐng nín kāidào _____。
  
 
===Lodging===
 
===Lodging===
Line 430: Line 469:
 
; Do you have a safe? : 你们有没有保险箱? Nǐmen yǒu méiyǒu bǎoxiǎn xiāng?
 
; Do you have a safe? : 你们有没有保险箱? Nǐmen yǒu méiyǒu bǎoxiǎn xiāng?
 
; Can you wake me at _____? : 请明天早上_____叫醒我。 Qǐng míngtiān zǎoshàng  _____ jiàoxǐng wǒ.
 
; Can you wake me at _____? : 请明天早上_____叫醒我。 Qǐng míngtiān zǎoshàng  _____ jiàoxǐng wǒ.
; I want to check out. : 我现在要走。 Wǒ xiànzài yào zǒu.
+
; I want to check out. : 我现在要走了。 Wǒ xiànzài yào zǒu le.
  
 
===Money===
 
===Money===
Line 436: Line 475:
 
; cash: 现钱 xiàn qián
 
; cash: 现钱 xiàn qián
 
; credit card: 信用卡 xìn yòng kǎ
 
; credit card: 信用卡 xìn yòng kǎ
; cheque: 支票 zhīpiào
+
; check: 支票 zhīpiào
 
 
  
 
===Eating===
 
===Eating===
Line 450: Line 488:
 
;kăo: 烤 (dry-roasted)
 
;kăo: 烤 (dry-roasted)
 
;shāo: 烧 (roasted w/ sauce)}}
 
;shāo: 烧 (roasted w/ sauce)}}
; Can I look at the menu, please? : 请给我看看菜谱. qǐng gěi wǒ kànkan càipǔ.
+
; Can I look at the menu, please? : 请给我看看菜单. qǐng gěi wǒ kànkan Càidān.
; Do you have an English menu? : 你有没有英文菜谱? nǐ yŏu méi yǒu yīngwén càipǔ?
+
; Do you have an English menu? : 你有没有英文菜单? nǐ yŏu méi yǒu yīngwén Càidān?
 
(Listen for...
 
(Listen for...
 
Yes, we have one. : 有 yǒu - No, we don't. : 没有 méi yǒu)
 
Yes, we have one. : 有 yǒu - No, we don't. : 没有 méi yǒu)
 
; I'm a vegetarian : 我吃素的  wǒ chī sù de  
 
; I'm a vegetarian : 我吃素的  wǒ chī sù de  
 
; breakfast : 早饭 zǎofàn or 早餐 zǎocān
 
; breakfast : 早饭 zǎofàn or 早餐 zǎocān
; lunch : 午饭 wǔfàn  ''or'' zhōngfàn or 午餐 wǔcān
+
; lunch : 午饭 wǔfàn  ''or'' 中饭 zhōngfàn or 午餐 wǔcān
 
; supper : 晚饭 wǎnfàn or 晚餐 wǎncān
 
; supper : 晚饭 wǎnfàn or 晚餐 wǎncān
 
; beef : 牛肉  niúròu  
 
; beef : 牛肉  niúròu  
Line 463: Line 501:
 
; chicken: 鸡  jī
 
; chicken: 鸡  jī
 
; fish: 鱼  yú
 
; fish: 鱼  yú
 +
; vegetable: 蔬菜 shūcài
 
; cheese : 奶酪  nǎilào
 
; cheese : 奶酪  nǎilào
 
; eggs : 鸡蛋 jīdàn
 
; eggs : 鸡蛋 jīdàn
Line 470: Line 509:
 
; dumpling: 饺子  jiǎozi
 
; dumpling: 饺子  jiǎozi
 
; rice : 米饭 mĭfàn   
 
; rice : 米饭 mĭfàn   
 +
; soup : 汤 tāng
 
; coffee : 咖啡 kāfēi
 
; coffee : 咖啡 kāfēi
 
: black coffee: 黑咖啡 hēi kāfēi
 
: black coffee: 黑咖啡 hēi kāfēi
Line 483: Line 523:
 
; beer : 啤酒 píjiŭ
 
; beer : 啤酒 píjiŭ
 
; red/white wine : 红/白 葡萄 酒 hóng/bái pútáo jiŭ
 
; red/white wine : 红/白 葡萄 酒 hóng/bái pútáo jiŭ
; It was delicious. : 好吃极了。 hǎochī jí le
+
; It was delicious. : 很好吃。 hěn hǎochī.
; The check, please. : 请结帐。 qǐng jiézhàng
+
; The check, please. : 请结帐。 qǐng jiézhàng.
  
 
===Bars===
 
===Bars===
  
; Do you serve alcohol? : 卖不卖酒? ('' màibú màijiǔ?'')
+
; Do you serve alcohol? : 卖不卖酒? ('' mài búmài jiǔ?'')
 
; Is there table service? : 有没有餐桌服务? (''yǒu méiyǒu cānzhuō fúwù?'')
 
; Is there table service? : 有没有餐桌服务? (''yǒu méiyǒu cānzhuō fúwù?'')
 
; A beer/two beers, please. : 请给我一杯/两杯啤酒。 (''qǐng gěiwǒ yìbēi/liǎngbēi píjiǔ'')
 
; A beer/two beers, please. : 请给我一杯/两杯啤酒。 (''qǐng gěiwǒ yìbēi/liǎngbēi píjiǔ'')
; A glass of red/white wine, please. : 请给我一杯红/白葡萄酒。 (''qǐng gěi wǒ yìbēi hóng/bái pútáojiǔ'')
+
; A glass of red/white wine, please. : 请给我一杯红/白酒。 (''qǐng gěi wǒ yìbēi hóng/bái jiǔ'')
 
; A pint, please. : 请给我一品脱。 (''qǐng gěi wǒ yìpǐntuō'')
 
; A pint, please. : 请给我一品脱。 (''qǐng gěi wǒ yìpǐntuō'')
 
; A bottle, please. : 请给我一瓶。 (''qǐng gěi wǒ yìpíng'')
 
; A bottle, please. : 请给我一瓶。 (''qǐng gěi wǒ yìpíng'')
Line 497: Line 537:
 
; whiskey : 威士忌 (''wēishìjì'')
 
; whiskey : 威士忌 (''wēishìjì'')
 
; vodka : 伏特加 (''fútèjiā'')
 
; vodka : 伏特加 (''fútèjiā'')
; rum : 兰姆酒 (''lánmǔjiǔ'')
+
; rum : 朗姆酒 (''lángmǔ jiǔ'')
 
; water : 水 (''shuǐ'')
 
; water : 水 (''shuǐ'')
 
; mineral spring (i.e. bottled) water : 矿泉水 (kuàngquánshuǐ)
 
; mineral spring (i.e. bottled) water : 矿泉水 (kuàngquánshuǐ)
 
; boiled water: 开水 (kāishuǐ)
 
; boiled water: 开水 (kāishuǐ)
 
; club soda : 苏打水 (sūdǎshuǐ)
 
; club soda : 苏打水 (sūdǎshuǐ)
; tonic water : 通宁水 (tōngníngshuǐ)
+
; tonic water : 通宁水 (tōngníng shuǐ)/汤力水 (tānglì shuǐ)
; orange juice : 柳橙汁 (liǔchéngzhī)
+
; orange juice : 柳橙汁 (liǔchéng zhī)
 
; Coke (''soda'') : 可乐 (''kělè'')
 
; Coke (''soda'') : 可乐 (''kělè'')
; Do you have any bar snacks? : 有没有吧臺点心? (''yǒu méiyǒu bātái diǎnxīn?'')
+
; Do you have any bar snacks? : 有没有吧台小吃? (''yǒu méiyǒu bātái xiaochi?'')
 
; One more, please. : 请再给我一个。 (qǐng zài gěi wǒ yígè')
 
; One more, please. : 请再给我一个。 (qǐng zài gěi wǒ yígè')
 
; Another round, please. : 请再来一轮。 (qǐng zàilái yìlún)
 
; Another round, please. : 请再来一轮。 (qǐng zàilái yìlún)
; When is closing time? : 几点打烊、关门? (jǐdiǎn dǎyáng/guānmén?)
+
; When is closing time? : 几点打烊/关门? (jǐdiǎn dǎyáng/guānmén?)
; Where is the toilet? : 厕所在哪里 (''cèsuǒ zài nǎli?'')
+
; Where is the toilet? : 厕所在哪里? (''cèsuǒ zài nǎli?'')
; Where is the washingroom? : 洗手间在哪儿?(''xǐshǒujiānzàinǎr?'')
+
; Where is the washingroom? : 洗手间在哪儿?(''xǐshǒujiān zài nǎr?'')
  
 
===Shopping===
 
===Shopping===
 
; Do you have this in my size? : 有没有我的尺寸? (''yǒu méiyǒu wǒde chǐcùn?'')
 
; Do you have this in my size? : 有没有我的尺寸? (''yǒu méiyǒu wǒde chǐcùn?'')
; How much is this? : 这个多少钱? (''zhège duōshǎo qián?'')
+
; How much is this? : 多少钱? (''duōshǎo qián?'')
 
; That's too expensive. : 太贵了。 (''tài guì le'')
 
; That's too expensive. : 太贵了。 (''tài guì le'')
 
; Would you take _____? : _____元可以吗? (''_____ yuán kěyǐ ma?'')
 
; Would you take _____? : _____元可以吗? (''_____ yuán kěyǐ ma?'')
 
; expensive : 贵 (''guì'')
 
; expensive : 贵 (''guì'')
 
; cheap : 便宜 (''piányi'')
 
; cheap : 便宜 (''piányi'')
; I can't afford it. : 我带的钱不够。 (''wǒ dài de qián búgòu'')
+
; I can't afford it. : 我付不起。 (''wǒ fù bù qǐ'')
; I don't want it. : 我不要。 (''wǒ yào'')
+
; I don't want it. : 我不要。 (''wǒ yào'')
; You're cheating me. : 你欺骗我。 (''nǐ qīpiàn wǒ'') '''Use with caution!'''
+
; You're cheating me. : 你在骗我。 (''nǐ zài piàn wǒ'') '''Use with caution!'''
 
; I'm not interested. : 我没有兴趣。 (''wǒ méiyǒu xìngqù'')
 
; I'm not interested. : 我没有兴趣。 (''wǒ méiyǒu xìngqù'')
 
; OK, I'll take it. : 我要买这个。 (''wǒ yào mǎi zhège'')
 
; OK, I'll take it. : 我要买这个。 (''wǒ yào mǎi zhège'')
Line 573: Line 613:
 
; Can I just pay a fine now? : 我可以支付罚款吗? (''wǒ kěyǐ zhī fù fákuǎn ma?'')
 
; Can I just pay a fine now? : 我可以支付罚款吗? (''wǒ kěyǐ zhī fù fákuǎn ma?'')
  
===Telephone & Internet===
+
===Telephone and the Internet===
  
 
{{infobox|Telephone & Internet|
 
{{infobox|Telephone & Internet|
In most Chinese cities telephone booths don't exist. Instead, small street shops have telephones which can usually be used for national calls and cost around 0.6RMB for a city-call. Look for signs like
+
In most Chinese cities, there are no telephone booths. Instead, small street shops have telephones which can usually be used for national calls. Look for signs like this:
: 公用电话 Public Telephone
+
公用电话 Public Telephone
Don't pay to go online in hotels since most common cafes are cheaper. Many mid-range hotels and chains now offer free wireless or plug-in internet. In cafes, usually you pay 10RMB in advance for a card. Prices per hour from 1RMB to 4RMB. Those cafes are quite hidden sometimes and you should look for the following Chinese characters:
+
Most cafes are cheaper than in hotels. Many mid-range hotels and chains now offer free wireless or plug-in internet. Those cafes are quite hidden sometimes and you should look for the following Chinese characters:
 
: 网吧 Internet Cafe}}
 
: 网吧 Internet Cafe}}
  
Line 588: Line 628:
 
==Learning more==
 
==Learning more==
  
Chinese is the most spoken language of the world, in the sense that it has the most ''native'' speakers of any language, more than the next two, Hindi and Spanish, combined. Due to China's economic growth and globalisation, more and more students in the western world are quickly taking up language to open opportunities to working in China. Be part of the new 'cultural wave' sweeping across the world!
+
Chinese is the most spoken language of the world, with more speakers than the next two, [[Hindi]] and [[Spanish]], combined. However, there are still few learners of Chinese in the Western world and you might get weird looks if you say you want to start learning it: "Instead of anger of frustration, the student should instead feel a smug superiority of being ahead of everyone else!"
 +
 
 +
The first step is to learn to read the romanization with tones. Avoid any phrasebook that does not mark the tones.
 +
 
 +
For simple sentences, one ''may'' be able to get away without tones, but this can cause confusion in more complex situations, so tones are '''very''' important. A classic example is the difference between the Chinese characters for "four" (四, sì) and "death" (死, sǐ), different only by tones.
  
Advice: The first step is to learn to properly read the romanization or 'hànyǔ pīnyīn' with tones! There are still many sites with small Chinese phrase chapters which do not indicate the Mandarin tones needed. For simple sentences, one ''may'' be able to get away without tones, but this can cause confusion in more complex situations, so tones are '''very''' important. A classic example is the difference between the Chinese characters for "four" (四, sì) and "death" (死, sǐ), different only by tones. A good idea for practicing is to make Chinese friends online since millions of young people in China also look for somebody to practice English with.  
+
A good idea for practicing is to make Chinese friends online since millions of young people in China also look for somebody to practice English with.
  
*[http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Chinese_%28Mandarin%29 Chinese (Wikibooks.org)]: Free lessons providing detailed grammar explanations, audio samples and stroke order animations.
 
*[http://www.daydayupchinese.com/ Day Day Up Chinese]: Online textbook with dialogues, example sentences, grammar, vocabulary and cultural notes, and some practice exercises
 
*[http://www.digitaldialects.com/Chinese.htm Digital Dialects Chinese]: Interactive games for learning Chinese in both Pinyin and simplified characters.
 
*[http://www.zhongwenred.com ZhongWen Red]: Free basic online Mandarin tutorials with audio.
 
*[http://www.chinese-course.com Chinese Flashcards]: Annotated Texts, Flashcards, Multiple choice tests
 
*[http://www.mandarintoplist.com Mandarin Toplist]: List of the major Mandarin instructional websites with short reviews
 
* [https://addons.mozilla.org/firefox/addon/10573 a keyboard for typing chinese characters for firefox]
 
* [http://www.yocoy.com/i-You/ Mandarin phrasebook app for travelers]
 
  
 
[[de:Sprachführer Mandarin]]
 
[[de:Sprachführer Mandarin]]
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[[he:שיחון מנדרינית]]
 
[[he:שיחון מנדרינית]]
 
[[ja:中国語会話集]]
 
[[ja:中国語会話集]]
 +
[[nl:Taalgids Chinees]]
 
[[sv:Kinesisk parlör]]
 
[[sv:Kinesisk parlör]]
 
[[WikiPedia:Chinese language]]
 
[[WikiPedia:Chinese language]]

Latest revision as of 17:20, 13 September 2019

Chinese script in Chinatown, Singapore

Mandarin Chinese is the official language of Mainland China and Taiwan, and is one of the official languages of Singapore. In English, it is often just called "Mandarin" or "Chinese". In China, it is called Putonghua (普通话), meaning "common speech", while in Taiwan it is referred to as Guoyu (國語), "the national language." It has been the main language of education in China (excluding Hong Kong and Macau) since the 1950s. Standard Mandarin is close to, but not quite identical with, the Mandarin dialect of the Beijing area. In Singapore, it is officially referred to as HuaYu (华语).

Note that while the spoken Mandarin in the above places is more or less the same, the written characters are different. Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau all still use traditional characters, whereas Mainland China and Singapore use a simplified derivative. Educated people living in Mainland China or Singapore can still understand traditional character with no problem but not vice versa, for example Taiwanese people may have difficulty recognising some simplified characters.

UnderstandEdit

 
A map of china dialects

Chinese dialects are sometimes mutually intelligible, for example Sichuanese and mandarin or henan dialect(henanese) and mandarin. The same way Japanese dialects are intelligible among each other, but some like Cantonese and mandarin or hokkien(minnan) and mandarin are not intelligible the same way some German dialects are not intelligible with standard German.

All Chinese dialects, in general, use the same set of characters in reading and writing. A Cantonese speaker and a Mandarin speaker will not be able to understand each other, but either can generally read what the other writes. Even a speaker of Japanese or Korean will recognise many characters.

While formal written Chinese is the same everywhere, there can be significant differences when the "dialects" are written in colloquial form. For example Cantonese as used in Hong Kong, more informal phrasings are used in everyday speech than what would be written. Thus, there are some extra characters that are sometimes used in addition to the common characters to represent the spoken dialect and other colloquial words.

One additional complication is that mainland China and Singapore use simplified characters, a long-debated change completed by the mainland Chinese government in 1956 to facilitate the standardization of language across China's broad minority groups and sub-dialects of Mandarin and other Chinese languages. Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macau and some overseas Chinese still use the traditional characters. In addition, the Dungan language, which is spoken in some parts of neighbouring countries, is considered to be a variant of Mandarin but uses the Cyrillic alphabet instead of Chinese characters.

About one fifth of the people in the world speak some form of Chinese as their native language. It is a tonal language that is related to Burmese and Tibetan. Although Japanese and Korean use Chinese written characters the spoken languages are not related to Chinese. Also, the unrelated Vietnamese language (which uses a distinctive version of the Latin alphabet) language has borrowed many words from Chinese and at one time used Chinese characters as well.

Travellers headed for Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong or Macau may find Cantonese more useful than Mandarin. Those heading for Taiwan or Southern Fujian may find the Minnan useful as well.

Chinese, like most other Asian languages such as Arabic, is famous for being difficult to learn. While English speakers would initially have problems with the tones and recognizing the many different characters (Chinese has no alphabet), the grammar is very simple and can be picked up very easily. Most notably, Chinese grammar does not have conjugation, tenses, gender, plurals or other grammatical rules found in other major languages such as English or French.

Pronunciation guideEdit

The pronunciation guide below uses Hanyu pinyin, the official romanization of the People's Republic of China. Until recently, Taiwan used the Wade-Giles system, which is quite different, then switched to Tongyong pinyin, only slightly different from Hanyu pinyin, and now officially uses Hanyu pinyin just like the People's Republic.

Pinyin allows very accurate pronunciation of Chinese if you understand how it works, but the way that it uses letters like q, x, c, z and even i is not at all intuitive to the English speaker. Studying the pronunciation guide below carefully is thus essential. After you master the pronunciation you still may not be understood, its time to move on to the next challenge, speaking the accurate tones.

Some pinyin vowels (especially "e", "i", "ü") can be tricky, so it is best to get a native speaker to demonstrate. Also, beware of the spelling rules listed in the exceptions below.

as in father; otherwise, pronounced as in "awesome"
a in an
as "a" in "cat" or "back" (just the English short "a" sound)
unrounded back vowel (IPA [ɤ]), similar to duh; in unstressed syllables becames a schwa (IPA [ə]), like idea
as in see or key;
after sh, zh, s, z or r, not really a vowel at all but just a stretched-out consonant sound
as in more
as in soon; but read ü in ju, qu, yu and xu
ü 
as in French lune or German grün

DiphthongsEdit

These are the diphthongs in Chinese:

ai 
as in pie
ao
as in pouch
ei 
as in pay
ia
as in ya
ia in ' ian'
as in yes
iao
as in meow
ie
as in yes
iong
as in Pyongyang
ou
as in mow
ua
as in what
uo
as in war

ConsonantsEdit

Chinese stops distinguish between aspirated and unaspirated, not voiceless and voiced as in English. Aspirated sounds are pronounced with a distinctive puff of air as they are pronounced in English when at the beginning of a word, while unaspirated sounds are pronounced without the puff, as in English when found in clusters.

Place a hand in front of your mouth and compare pit (aspirated) with spit (unaspirated) to see the difference.

Unaspirated Aspirated
b
as in spot
p
as in pit
d
as in do
t
as in tongue
g
as in skin
k
as in king
j
as in jeer
q
as in cheap
zh
as in jungle
ch
as in chore
z
as in ads
c
as in rats

Here are the other consonants in Chinese:

as in mow
as in fun
as in none or none
as in lease but pronounced like a Spanish "r" in "rojo"
as in her
as in sheep
sh 
as in shoot
as in fair, but can be "zh" as in "pleasure"
as in sag
ng 
as in sing
as in wing but silent in wu. Before a, ai, ang, eng, and/or o, this may sound like the English v/ German w.
as in yet but silent in yi, yu

If you think that is a fairly intimidating repertoire, rest assured that many Chinese people, particularly those who are not native Mandarin speakers, will merge many of the sounds above (especially q with ch and j with zh).

ExceptionsEdit

There is a fairly large number of niggling exceptions to the basic rules above, based on the position of the sound:

wu- 
as u-, so 五百 wubai is pronounced "ubai"
yi- 
as i-, so 一个 yige is pronounced "ige"
yü- 
as ü-, so 豫园 Yuyuan is pronounced "ü-üan"

TonesEdit

Where do I put my tone marks?
If you are confused by how to put tone marks above the Hanyu Pinyin, follow the steps below:

Always insert tone marks above the vowels. If there is more than one vowel letter, follow the steps below:

(1) Insert it above the 'a' if that letter is present. For example, it is rǎo and not raǒ

(2) If not, insert it above 'o'. For example, guó and not gúo

(3) Insert it above the letter 'e' if the letters 'a' and 'o' are not present. For example, jué and not júe

(4) If only 'i', 'u' and 'ü' are the only present letters, insert it in the letter that occurs last. For example, jiù and not jìu, chuí and not chúi. Note, if the vowel present is ü, the tone mark is put in addition to the umlaut. For example, lǜ

There are four tones in Mandarin that must be followed for proper pronunciation. If you are not used to tonal languages, never underestimate the importance of these tones. Consider a vowel with a different tone as simply a different vowel altogether, and you will realize why Chinese will not understand you if you use the wrong tone — is to as "I want a cake" is to "I want a coke". Be especially wary of questions that have a falling tone, or conversely exclamations that have an "asking" tone (eg jǐngchá, police). In other words, pronounced like does not imply meaning. While Mandarin speakers also vary their tone just like English speakers do to differentiate a statement from a question and convey emotion, this is much more subtle than in English. Do not try it until you have mastered the basic tones.

1. first tone ( ā ) 
flat, high pitch that is more sung instead of spoken.
2. second tone ( á ) 
low to middle, rising pitch that is pronounced like the end of a question phrase (Whát?).
3. third tone ( ǎ ) 
middle to low to high, dipping pitch: for two consecutive words in the third tone, the first word is pronounced as if it is in the second tone. For example, 打扰 dǎrǎo is pronounced as dárǎo.
4. fourth tone ( à ) 
high to low, rapidly falling pitch that is pronounced like a command (Stop!).
5. fifth tone 
neutral pitch that is rarely used by itself (except for phrase particles) but frequently occurring as the second part of a phrase.

Phrase listEdit

All phrases shown in here use the simplified characters used in mainland China and Singapore. See Chinese phrasebook - Traditional for a version using the traditional characters still used on Taiwan and Hong Kong.

BasicsEdit

To be or not to be?
Chinese does not have words for "yes" and "no" as such; instead, questions are typically answered by repeating the verb. Here are common examples:

To be or not to be
是 shì, 不是 bú shì
To have or not have / there is or is not
有 yǒu, 没有 méi yǒu
To be right or wrong
对 duì, 不对 bú duì


Hello. 
你好。 Nǐ hǎo.
How are you? 
你好吗? Nǐ hǎo ma?
Fine, thank you. 
很好, 谢谢。 Hěn hǎo, xièxie.
May I please ask, what is your name? 
请问你叫什么名? Qǐngwèn nǐjiào shěnme míng?
What is your name? 
你叫什么名字? Nǐ jiào shénme míngzi?
My name is ______ . 
我叫 _____ 。 Wǒ jiào ______ .
Nice to meet you. 
很高兴认识你。 Hěn gāoxìng rènshì nǐ.
Please. 
请。 Qǐng.
Thank you. 
谢谢。 Xièxiè.
You're welcome. 
不客气。 Bú kèqi.
Excuse me. (getting attention
请问 qǐng wèn
Excuse me. (begging pardon
打扰一下。 Dǎrǎo yixià ; 麻烦您了, Máfán nín le.
Excuse me. (coming through
对不起 Duìbùqǐ * or * 请让一下 Qǐng ràng yixià
I'm sorry. 
对不起。 Duìbùqǐ.
It's okay. (polite response to "I'm sorry")
没关系 (méiguānxi).
Goodbye 
再见。 Zàijiàn
Goodbye (informal
拜拜。 Bāi-bāi (Bye bye)
I can't speak Chinese. 
我不会讲中文。 Wǒ bú huì jiáng zhōngwén.
Do you speak English? 
你会说英语吗? Nǐ huì shuō Yīngyǔ ma?
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
这里有人会说英语吗? Zhèlĭ yǒu rén hùi shuō Yīngyǔ ma?
Help! (in emergencies)
救命! Jiùmìng!
Good morning. 
早安。 zǎo ān.
Good evening. 
晚上好。 Wǎnshàng hǎo.
Good night. 
晚安。 Wǎn'ān.
I don't understand (something heard). 
我听不懂。 Wǒ tīng bù dǒng.
I don't understand (something read). 
我看不懂。 Wǒ kàn bù dǒng.
Where is the toilet? 
厕所在哪里? Cèsuǒ zài nǎli?
Where is the bathroom(polite)? 
洗手间在哪里? Xǐshǒujiān zài nǎli?

ProblemsEdit

Asking a question in Chinese
There are many ways to ask a question in Chinese. Here are two easy ones for travelers...

Verb/Adj. + bù + Verb/Adj. 
Example - 好不好?hăo bù hăo? - Are you all right? (literally - good not good?)

Exception - 有没有? yŏu méi yŏu? - Do you have? (literally - have not have?)

Sentence + ma 
Example - nĭ shì zhōngguóren ma? - Are you Chinese? (literally - you are chinese + ma)
Leave me alone. 
不要打扰我。 (búyào dǎrǎo wǒ)
I don't want it! (useful for people who come up trying to sell you something) 
我不要 (wǒ búyào!)
Don't touch me! 
不要碰我! (búyào pèng wǒ!)
I'll call the police. 
我会叫警察。 (wǒ yào jiào jǐngchá le)
Police! 
警察! (jǐngchá!) or in Mainland China: 公安!(gōng'ān) (either will be understood in Mainland China)
Stop! Thief! 
住手!小偷! (zhùshǒu! xiǎotōu!)
I need your help. 
我需要你的帮助。 (wǒ xūyào nǐde bāngzhù)
It's an emergency. 
这是紧急情况。 (zhèshì jǐnjí qíngkuàng)
I'm lost. 
我迷路了。 (wǒ mílù le)
I lost my bag. 
我丟了手提包。 (wǒ diūle shǒutíbāo)
I lost my wallet. 
我丟了钱包。 (wǒ diūle qiánbāo)
I'm sick. 
我生病了。 (wǒ shēngbìng le)
I've been injured. 
我受伤了。 (wǒ shòushāng le)
I need a doctor. 
我需要医生。 (wǒ xūyào yīshēng)
Can I make a telephone call? 
我可以打个电话吗? (wǒ kěyǐ dǎ ge diànhuà ma?)
Can I use your phone? 
我可以用您的电话吗?(wǒ kěyǐ yòng nín de diànhuà ne?)
Can I use your cell phone? 
我可以用您的手机吗?(wǒ kěyǐ yòng nín de shǒujī ma?)

Going to the doctorEdit

I am sick. 
我生病了。 (wǒ shēngbìng le)
Painful. 
痛。 (tòng)
Uncomfortable. 
不舒服。 (bù shūfú)
Itchy/ticklish. 
痒。(yǎng)
Sore (In muscle strains). 
酸。(suān)
Fever. 
发烧。 (fāshāo)
Cough. 
咳嗽。 (késòu)
Sneeze. 
打喷嚏 (dǎ pēntì)
Diarrhoea. 
泻肚子/拉肚子 (xiè dùzi/lā dùzi)
Running nose. 
流鼻涕 (liú bítì)
Phlegm. 
痰。 (tán)
Hands/Arms. 
手。 (shǒu)
Fingers. 
手指。(shǒuzhǐ)
Wrist. 
手腕。 (shǒuwàn)
Shoulder. 
肩膀。 (jiānbǎng)
Feet. 
脚。 (jiǎo)
Toes. 
脚指。 (jiǎozhǐ)
Legs. 
腿。 (tuǐ)
Nails. 
指甲。 (zhǐjiǎ)
Body. 
身体。 (shēntǐ)
Eyes. 
眼睛。 (yǎnjīng)
Ears. 
耳朵。 (ěrduo)
Nose. 
鼻子。 (bízi)
Face. 
脸。 (liǎn)
Hair. 
头发。 (tóufǎ)
Head. 
头。 (tóu)
Neck. 
颈项/脖子。 (jǐngxiàng/bózi)
Throat. 
喉咙。 (hóulóng)
Chest. 
胸。 (xiōng)
Abdomen. 
肚子。 (dùzi)
Hip/Waist. 
腰。 (yāo)
Buttocks. 
屁股。 (pìgǔ)
Back. 
背。 (bèi)

NumbersEdit

Chinese numbers are very regular. While Arabic numerals have become more common, the Chinese numerals shown below are still used, particularly in informal contexts like markets. The characters in parentheses can be seen as upper case of Chinese numerals. They are generally used in financial contexts, such as writing cheques and printing banknotes.

〇 (零) líng
一 (壹) yī
二 (贰) èr (两 liǎng is used when specifying quantities)
三 (叁) sān
四 (肆) sì
五 (伍) wǔ
六 (陆) liù
七 (柒) qī
八 (捌) bā
九 (玖) jiǔ
10 
十 (拾) shí
11 
十一 shí-yī
12 
十二 shí-èr
13 
十三 shí-sān
14 
十四 shí-sì
15 
十五 shí-wǔ
16 
十六 shí-liù
17 
十七 shí-qī
18 
十八 shí-bā
19 
十九 shí-jiǔ
20 
二十 èr-shí
21 
二十一 èr-shí-yī
22 
二十二 èr-shí-èr
23 
二十三 èr-shí-sān
30 
三十 sān-shí
40 
四十 sì-shí
50 
五十 wǔ-shí
60 
六十 liù-shí
70 
七十 qī-shí
80 
八十 bā-shí
90 
九十 jiǔ-shí

For numbers above 100, any "gaps" must be filled in with 〇 líng, as eg. 一百一 yībǎiyī would otherwise be taken as shorthand for "110". A single unit of tens may be written and pronounced either 一十 yīshí or just 十 shí.

100 
一百 (壹佰) yī-bǎi
101 
一百〇一 (壹佰零壹) yī-bǎi-líng-yī
110 
一百一十 (壹佰壹拾) yī-bǎi-yī-shí
111 
一百一十一 yī-bǎi-yī-shí-yī
200 
二百 èr-bǎi or 两百:liǎng-bǎi
300 
三百 sān-bǎi
500 
五百 wǔ-bǎi
1000 
一千 (壹仟) yī-qiān
2000 
二千 èr-qiān
or 两千 liǎng-qiān

Numbers starting from 10,000 are grouped by in units of four digits starting with 万 wàn (ten thousand). "One million" in Chinese is thus "hundred ten-thousands" (一百万).

10,000 
一万 (壹萬) yī-wàn
10,001 
一万〇一 yī-wàn-líng-yī
10,002 
一万〇二 yī-wàn-líng-èr
20,000 
二万 èr-wàn
50,000 
五万 wǔ-wàn
100,000 
十万 shí-wàn
200,000 
二十万 èr-shí-wàn
1,000,000 
一百万 yī-bǎi-wàn
10,000,000 
一千万 yī-qiān-wàn
100,000,000 
一亿 (壹億) yī-yì
1,000,000,000,000 
一兆 yī-zhào


Number _____ (train, bus, etc.) : number measure word (路 lù, 号 hào, 次 cì...) _____ (huǒchē, gōnggòng-qìchē, etc.)

For example,

  • Bus Line 457: sìbǎi-wǔshí-qī lù gōnggòng-qìchē (四百五十七 路 公共汽车)

  • Subway Line 8: dìtiĕ hào xiàn (地铁 八 号 线)


Measure words are used in combination with a number to indicate an amount of mass nouns, similar to how English requires "two pieces of paper" rather than just "two paper". [1] When unsure, use 个 (ge); even though it may not be correct, you will probably be understood because it is the most common measure word. (One person: 一个人 yīgè rén; two apples: 两个苹果 liǎnggè píngguǒ; note that two of something always uses 两 liǎng rather than 二 èr).

half 
半 bàn
less than 
少於 shǎoyú
more than 
多於 duōyú
more 
更 gèng

TimeEdit

now 
现在 xiànzài
later 
以后 or 稍后, yǐhòu or shāohòu
before 
以前, yǐqián
morning 
早上, zǎoshàng
noon
中午, zhōngwǔ
afternoon 
下午, xiàwǔ
evening/night 
晚上, wǎnshàng
midnight
半夜 bànyè or 午夜 (wǔyè)

Clock timeEdit

What time is it? 
现在几点? Xiànzài jǐ diǎn?
It is nine in the morning. 
早上9点钟。 Zǎoshàng jǐu diǎn zhōng.
Three-thirty PM. 
下午3点半. Xiàwǔ sān diǎn bàn.
3:38 PM 
下午3点38分 Xiàwǔ sāndiǎn sānshíbā fēn.

DurationEdit

_____ minute(s) 
_____ 分钟 fēnzhōng
_____ hour(s) 
_____ 小时 xiǎoshí
_____ day(s) 
_____ 天 tiān
_____ week(s) 
_____ 星期 xīngqī
_____ month(s) 
_____ 月 yùe
_____ year(s) 
_____ 年 nián

DaysEdit

today 
今天 jīntiān
yesterday 
昨天 zuótiān
the day before yesterday
前天qiăntiān
tomorrow 
明天 míngtiān
the day after tomorrow
后天 hòutiān
this week 
这个星期 zhè ge xīngqī
last week 
上个星期 shàng ge xīngqī
next week 
下个星期 xià ge xīngqī

Weekdays in Chinese are easy: starting with 1 for Monday, just add the number after 星期 xīngqī. In Taiwan, 星期 is pronounced xīngqí (second tone on the second syllable).

Sunday 
星期天 xīngqī tiān or xīngqī rì (星期日)
Monday 
星期一 xīngqī yī
Tuesday 
星期二 xīngqī èr
Wednesday 
星期三 xīngqī sān
Thursday 
星期四 xīngqī sì
Friday 
星期五 xīngqī wǔ
Saturday 
星期六 xīngqī liù

星期 can also be replaced with 礼拜 lǐbài and occasionally 周 zhōu. eg. 星期三=礼拜三=周三/ xīngqī sān = lǐbài sān = zhōu sān

MonthsEdit

Months in Chinese are also easy: starting with 1 for January, just add the number before 月 yuè.

January 
一月, yī yuè
February 
二月, èr yuè
March 
三月, sān yuè
April 
四月, sì yuè
May 
五月, wŭ yuè
June 
六月, liù yuè
July 
七月, qī yuè
August 
八月, bā yuè
September 
九月, jiŭ yuè
October 
十月, shí yuè
November 
十一月, shí yī yuè
December 
十二月, shí èr yuè

From January to December, you just need to use this pattern: number (1-12) + yuè.

Writing DatesEdit

Writing dates in the lunar calendar


If you are attempting to name a date in the Chinese lunar calendar, add the words ‘农历’ before the name of the month to distinguish it from the months of the solar calendar, although it is not strictly necessary. There are some differences: The words 日(rì)/ 号(hào) are generally not required when stating dates in the lunar calendar; it is assumed. Besides that, the 1st Month is called 正月 (zhèngyuè). If the number of the day is less than 11, the word 初 is used before the value of the day. Besides that, if the value of the day is more than 20, the word 廿 (niàn) is used, so the 23rd day is 廿三 for example.

15th day of the 8th lunar month (the mid-autumn festival)
(农历)八月十五 ( (nónglì) bāyuè shí-wǔ).
1st day of the 1st lunar month
(农历)正月初一 ( (nónglì) zhèngyuè chūyī).
23rd day of the 9th lunar month
( 农历) 九月廿三 ( (nónglì) jiŭ yuè niànsān).


When writing the date, you name the month (number (1-12) + yuè), before inserting the day (number (1-31) + 日(rì)/ 号(hào) ). Note that the usage of 号(hào), which is more often used in spoken language, is more colloquial than that of 日(rì), which is more often used in written documents.

6th January
一月六号 (yī yuè liù hào) or 一月六日 (yī yuè liù rì)
25th December
十二月二十五号 (shí-èr yuè èr-shí-wǔ hào)

ColoursEdit

black 
黑色 hēi sè
white 
白色 bái sè
grey 
灰色 huī sè
red 
红色 hóng sè
blue 
蓝色 lán sè
yellow 
黄色 huáng sè
green 
绿色 lǜ sè
orange 
橙色 chéng sè
purple 
紫色 zǐ sè
brown 
褐色 he sè, 棕色 zōng sè,
gold 
金色 jīn se
Do you have it in another colour?  
你们有没有另外颜色? nǐmen yǒu méiyǒu lìngwài yánsè ?

Sè means 'colour' so 'hóng sè' is literally 'red colour'. More common for brown and easier to remember is 'coffee colour': 咖啡色 kā fēi sè

TransportationEdit

Bus and TrainEdit

Generally Number _____ (train, bus, etc.) : number measure word (路 lù, 号 hào, 次 cì...) _____ (huǒchē, gōnggòng-qìchē, etc.)

For example,
  • Number Z263 train: zhí èrbǎi-liùshí-sān cì huǒchē.(直 二百六十三 次 火车) see also Train class number in China
  • Bus Line 457: sìbǎi-wǔshí-qī lù gōnggòng-qìchē (四百五十七 路 公共汽车)
  • Subway Line 8: dìtiĕ hào xiàn (地铁 八 号 线)


How much is a ticket to _____? 
去______的票多少钱? qù _____ de piào duō shǎo qián?
Do you go to ___(the central station)? 
去不去___(火车站)? qù bù qù ___ (huǒ chē zhàn)?

DirectionsEdit

How do I get to _____ ? 
怎么去_____ zěnme qù _____?
...the train station? 
...火车站? ...huǒchē zhàn?
...the bus station? 
...汽车总站? ...qìchē zǒngzhàn?
...the airport? 
...机场? ...jī chǎng?
street 
街 jiē;
road 
路 lù
avenue 
大道 dàjiē
Turn left. 
左边转弯 zuǒbiān zhuǎnwān/左拐zuǒguǎi
Turn right. 
右边转弯 yòubiān zhuǎnwān/右拐yòuguăi
Go straight
一直走 yìzhízŏu
I've reached my destination
到了dàole
U-turn
掉头 diàotóu
Taxi driver
司机 sījī
Please use the meter machine
请打表 qǐng dǎbiǎo
Please turn up the aircon/heater
请把空调开大一点。 qǐng kōngtiáo kāi dàdiǎn
left 
左边 zuǒbiān
right 
右边 yòubiān
straight ahead 
往前走 wǎngqián zǒu
north 
北 bĕi
south 
南 nán
east 
东 dōng
west 
西 xī

TaxiEdit

Taxi 出租车 chū zū chē
Take me to _____, please. 
请您开到_____。 qǐng nín kāidào _____。

LodgingEdit

Common signs

入口 
Entrance [rùkǒu]
出口 
Exit [chūkǒu]
推 
Push [tuī]
拉 
Pull [lā]
厕所 / 洗手间 
Toilet [cèsuǒ] / [xǐshǒujiān]
男 
Men [nán]
女 
Women [nǚ]
禁止 
Forbidden [jìnzhǐ]
吸烟 
Smoking [xīyān]


Do you have any rooms available? 
你们有房间吗? Nǐmen yǒu fángjiān ma?
Does the room come with... 
有没有... Yǒu méiyǒu...
...bedsheets? 
...床单? ...chuángdān?
...a bathroom? 
...浴室? ...yùshì?
...a telephone? 
...电话? ...diànhuà?
...a TV? 
...电视? ...diànshì ?
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
我打算住_____夜。 Wǒ dǎsuàn zhù _____ yè.
Do you have a safe? 
你们有没有保险箱? Nǐmen yǒu méiyǒu bǎoxiǎn xiāng?
Can you wake me at _____? 
请明天早上_____叫醒我。 Qǐng míngtiān zǎoshàng _____ jiàoxǐng wǒ.
I want to check out. 
我现在要走了。 Wǒ xiànzài yào zǒu le.

MoneyEdit

pay
付 fù
cash
现钱 xiàn qián
credit card
信用卡 xìn yòng kǎ
check
支票 zhīpiào

EatingEdit

Reading a Chinese Menu
Look for these characters to get an idea of what you're ordering. With help from The Eater's Guide to Chinese Characters (J. McCawley) and using Simplified Chinese.

dīng
丁 (cubed/diced)
piàn
片 (thinly sliced)
丝 (shredded)
kuài
块 (chunk/cut into bite-sized pieces)
qiú
球 (curled)
chăo
炒 (stir-fried)
zhá or zhà
炸 (deep-fried)
kăo
烤 (dry-roasted)
shāo
烧 (roasted w/ sauce)
Can I look at the menu, please? 
请给我看看菜单. qǐng gěi wǒ kànkan Càidān.
Do you have an English menu? 
你有没有英文菜单? nǐ yŏu méi yǒu yīngwén Càidān?

(Listen for... Yes, we have one. : 有 yǒu - No, we don't. : 没有 méi yǒu)

I'm a vegetarian 
我吃素的 wǒ chī sù de
breakfast 
早饭 zǎofàn or 早餐 zǎocān
lunch 
午饭 wǔfàn or 中饭 zhōngfàn or 午餐 wǔcān
supper 
晚饭 wǎnfàn or 晚餐 wǎncān
beef 
牛肉 niúròu
pork
猪肉 zhūròu,or sometimes simply '肉' ròu.
mutton
羊肉 yángròu
chicken
鸡 jī
fish
鱼 yú
vegetable
蔬菜 shūcài
cheese 
奶酪 nǎilào
eggs 
鸡蛋 jīdàn
bread 
面包 miànbāo
noodles 
面条 miàntiáo
fried rice
炒饭 chǎofàn
dumpling
饺子 jiǎozi
rice 
米饭 mĭfàn
soup 
汤 tāng
coffee 
咖啡 kāfēi
black coffee: 黑咖啡 hēi kāfēi
milk
牛奶 niúnǎi
sugar
糖 táng
tea (drink
茶 chá
green tea
绿茶 lǜ chá
scented tea
花茶 huāchá
black tea
红茶 hóngchá
juice 
(水)果汁 (shuǐ)guǒzhī, literally 'fruit juice'.
water 
水 shuĭ
natural mineral water
矿泉水 kuàngquán shuǐ
beer 
啤酒 píjiŭ
red/white wine 
红/白 葡萄 酒 hóng/bái pútáo jiŭ
It was delicious. 
很好吃。 hěn hǎochī.
The check, please. 
请结帐。 qǐng jiézhàng.

BarsEdit

Do you serve alcohol? 
卖不卖酒? ( mài búmài jiǔ?)
Is there table service? 
有没有餐桌服务? (yǒu méiyǒu cānzhuō fúwù?)
A beer/two beers, please. 
请给我一杯/两杯啤酒。 (qǐng gěiwǒ yìbēi/liǎngbēi píjiǔ)
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
请给我一杯红/白酒。 (qǐng gěi wǒ yìbēi hóng/bái jiǔ)
A pint, please. 
请给我一品脱。 (qǐng gěi wǒ yìpǐntuō)
A bottle, please. 
请给我一瓶。 (qǐng gěi wǒ yìpíng)
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
请给我_____和_____。 (qǐng gěi wǒ _____ hé _____)
whiskey 
威士忌 (wēishìjì)
vodka 
伏特加 (fútèjiā)
rum 
朗姆酒 (lángmǔ jiǔ)
water 
水 (shuǐ)
mineral spring (i.e. bottled) water 
矿泉水 (kuàngquánshuǐ)
boiled water
开水 (kāishuǐ)
club soda 
苏打水 (sūdǎshuǐ)
tonic water 
通宁水 (tōngníng shuǐ)/汤力水 (tānglì shuǐ)
orange juice 
柳橙汁 (liǔchéng zhī)
Coke (soda
可乐 (kělè)
Do you have any bar snacks? 
有没有吧台小吃? (yǒu méiyǒu bātái xiaochi?)
One more, please. 
请再给我一个。 (qǐng zài gěi wǒ yígè')
Another round, please. 
请再来一轮。 (qǐng zàilái yìlún)
When is closing time? 
几点打烊/关门? (jǐdiǎn dǎyáng/guānmén?)
Where is the toilet? 
厕所在哪里? (cèsuǒ zài nǎli?)
Where is the washingroom? 
洗手间在哪儿?(xǐshǒujiān zài nǎr?

ShoppingEdit

Do you have this in my size? 
有没有我的尺寸? (yǒu méiyǒu wǒde chǐcùn?)
How much is this? 
多少钱? (duōshǎo qián?)
That's too expensive. 
太贵了。 (tài guì le)
Would you take _____? 
_____元可以吗? (_____ yuán kěyǐ ma?)
expensive 
贵 (guì)
cheap 
便宜 (piányi)
I can't afford it. 
我付不起。 (wǒ fù bù qǐ)
I don't want it. 
我不要。 (wǒ bú yào)
You're cheating me. 
你在骗我。 (nǐ zài piàn wǒ) Use with caution!
I'm not interested. 
我没有兴趣。 (wǒ méiyǒu xìngqù)
OK, I'll take it. 
我要买这个。 (wǒ yào mǎi zhège)
Please provide me with a carrier-bag. 
请给我袋子。 (qǐng gěi wǒ dàizi)
Do you ship (overseas)? 
可以邮寄到海外吗? (kěyǐ yóujì dào hǎiwài ma?)
I need... 
我要_____ (wǒ yào _____)
...toothpaste. 
牙膏 (yágāo)
...a toothbrush. 
牙刷 (yáshuā)
...tampons. 
卫生棉条 (wèishēng miántiáo)
...soap. 
肥皂 (féizào)
...shampoo. 
洗发精 (xǐfàjīng)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
镇痛剂 (zhèntòngjì)
...cold medicine. 
感冒药 (gǎnmào yào)
...stomach medicine. 
胃肠药 (wèicháng yào)
...a razor. 
剃刀 (tìdāo)
...an umbrella. 
雨伞 (yǔsǎn)
...sunblock lotion. 
防晒油 (fángshàiyóu)
...a postcard. 
明信片 (míngxìnpiàn)
...postage stamps. 
邮票 (yóupiào)
...batteries. 
电池 (diànchí)
...writing paper. 
纸 (zhǐ)
...a pen. 
笔 ()
...a pencil. 
铅笔 (qiānbǐ)
...glasses. 
眼镜 (yǎnjìng)
...English-language books. 
英文书 (Yīngwén shū)
...English-language magazines. 
英文杂志 (Yīngwén zázhì)
...an English-language newspaper. 
英文报纸 (Yīngwén bàozhǐ)
...a Chinese-English dictionary. 
汉英词典 (Hàn-Yīng cídiǎn)
...an English-Chinese dictionary. 
英汉词典 (Yīng-Hàn cídiǎn)

DrivingEdit

I want to rent a car. 
我想要租车。 (wǒ xiǎngyào zūchē)
Can I get insurance? 
我可以买保险吗? (wǒ kěyǐ mǎi bǎoxiǎn ma?)
stop (on a street sign
停 (tíng)
one way 
单行道 (dānxíngdào)
yield 
让路 (rànglù)
no parking 
禁止停车 (jìnzhǐ tíngchē)
speed limit 
速度限制 (sùdù xiànzhì)
gas (petrol) station 
加油站 (jiāyóuzhàn)
petrol 
汽油 (qìyóu)
diesel 
柴油 (cháiyóu)

AuthorityEdit

I haven't done anything wrong. 
我没有做错事。 (wǒ méiyǒu zuòcuò shì)
It was a misunderstanding. 
这是误会。 (zhè shì wùhuì)
Where are you taking me? 
你带我去哪里? (nǐ dài wǒ qù nǎlǐ?)
Am I under arrest? 
我被捕了吗? (wǒ bèibǔle ma?)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
我是 美国/澳洲/英国/加拿大 公民。 (wǒ shì měiguó/àozhōu/yīngguó/jiānádà gōngmín)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
我希望跟 美国/澳洲/英国/加拿大 的 大使馆/领事馆 联系。 (wǒ xīwàng gēn měiguó/àozhōu/yīngguó/jiānádà de dàshǐguǎn/lǐngshìguǎn liánxì)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
我希望跟律师联系。 (wǒ xīwàng gēn lǜshī liánxì)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
我可以支付罚款吗? (wǒ kěyǐ zhī fù fákuǎn ma?)

Telephone and the InternetEdit

Telephone & Internet

In most Chinese cities, there are no telephone booths. Instead, small street shops have telephones which can usually be used for national calls. Look for signs like this: 公用电话 Public Telephone Most cafes are cheaper than in hotels. Many mid-range hotels and chains now offer free wireless or plug-in internet. Those cafes are quite hidden sometimes and you should look for the following Chinese characters:

网吧 Internet Cafe


Can I make international calls here? 
可以打国际电话吗? (kěyǐ dǎ guójì diànhuà ma?)
How much is it to America/Australia/Britain/Canada? 
打给 美国/澳洲/英国/加拿大 是多少钱? (dǎgěi měiguó/àozhōu/yīngguó/jiānádà shì duōshǎo qián?)
Where can I find an Internet cafe? 
哪里有网吧? (nǎlǐ yǒu wǎng ba?)
How much is it per hour? 
一小时是多少钱? (yī xiǎoshí shì duōshǎo qián?)

Learning moreEdit

Chinese is the most spoken language of the world, with more speakers than the next two, Hindi and Spanish, combined. However, there are still few learners of Chinese in the Western world and you might get weird looks if you say you want to start learning it: "Instead of anger of frustration, the student should instead feel a smug superiority of being ahead of everyone else!"

The first step is to learn to read the romanization with tones. Avoid any phrasebook that does not mark the tones.

For simple sentences, one may be able to get away without tones, but this can cause confusion in more complex situations, so tones are very important. A classic example is the difference between the Chinese characters for "four" (四, sì) and "death" (死, sǐ), different only by tones.

A good idea for practicing is to make Chinese friends online since millions of young people in China also look for somebody to practice English with.


This is a guide phrasebook. It covers all the major topics for traveling without resorting to English. But please Plunge forward and help us make it a star!