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A once-weekly ferry between [[Shanghai]] and [[Nagasaki]] has recently started[http://htbc.co.jp/].
 
A once-weekly ferry between [[Shanghai]] and [[Nagasaki]] has recently started[http://htbc.co.jp/].
  
====South Korea====
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===South Korea===
 
There is a ferry service from Shanghai and Tianjin to [[Incheon]], a port city near [[Seoul]]. Other routes connect [[Qingdao]], [[Weihai]] and [[Dalian]] to Incheon.
 
There is a ferry service from Shanghai and Tianjin to [[Incheon]], a port city near [[Seoul]]. Other routes connect [[Qingdao]], [[Weihai]] and [[Dalian]] to Incheon.
  
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A masseur or masseuse might ask "does this hurt": ''tòng bú tòng?'' or ''tòng ma?''. Answer ''tòng'' or ''bú tòng''.
 
A masseur or masseuse might ask "does this hurt": ''tòng bú tòng?'' or ''tòng ma?''. Answer ''tòng'' or ''bú tòng''.
  
Be aware some massage shops or hair salons are fronts for [[China#Prostitution|prostitution]]. Venues advertising massages by the blind and without neon lighting are usually legitimate massage parlours and generally do not offer sex.
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Be aware some massage shops or hair salons are fronts for sexual service establishments. While it may seem widespread and tolerated, prostitution is illegal in mainland China, except in [[Foshan]] in [[Guangdong]], where erotic massages also known as ''Happy Endings'' are legal. The consequences for anyone caught by police can be dire. Look up yourself online the 2003 Zhuhai prostitution case that resulted in 14 jail sentences (including 2 life sentences) with Chinese authorities requesting assistance from their Japanese counterparts in detaining a group of businessmen from Osaka. Like almost everywhere else, these brothels are ran by organised crime entities exploiting those working there. Many of the prostitutes are trafficked and/or forced into this work. These establishments are indicated by pink or other neon lighting and/or women in short skirts. Venues advertising massages by the blind and without neon lighting are usually legitimate massage parlours and generally do not offer sex.
  
 
===Traditional arts===
 
===Traditional arts===
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===Crime===
 
===Crime===
 
[[File:CCTV in GDZQZX.jpg|thumb|250px|CCTV cameras are a very common sight across Mainland China.]]
 
[[File:CCTV in GDZQZX.jpg|thumb|250px|CCTV cameras are a very common sight across Mainland China.]]
China is a huge country with big regional differences in crime rates. Most of the major cities in China are safe. Violent crime remains rare and it is generally safe for even women at night. There are some scams such as the teahouse scam. Minor crimes can happen especially at transportation hubs, border crossings and in crowded areas. Contact with "Triads" or gangs are rare, except for those involved in the drug trade and human trafficking.
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China is a huge country with big regional differences in crime rates. Most of the major cities in China are safe. Violent crime remains rare and it is generally safe for even women at night. There is some scams, such as the teahouse scam, and petty crimes can happen especially at transportation hubs, border crossings and in crowded areas. On long-distance buses, especially those departing from Shenzhen, passengers are required to take a mug shot before boarding. Since this measure was introduced, reports of muggings on buses have decreased. Contact with "Triads" or gangs are rare, except for those involved in the drug trade and human trafficking.
  
 
====Begging====
 
====Begging====
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The Chinese strongly dislike drug-use, probably because their humiliation in the past 150 years is linked to the spread of drugs. Cannabis, heroin and LSD are the same to many of them, especially to the older generations. You may appear foolish when informing them that weed is common in the West. It is totally irrelevant to them.
 
The Chinese strongly dislike drug-use, probably because their humiliation in the past 150 years is linked to the spread of drugs. Cannabis, heroin and LSD are the same to many of them, especially to the older generations. You may appear foolish when informing them that weed is common in the West. It is totally irrelevant to them.
 
====Prostitution====
 
Be aware many massage shops or hair salons are fronts for prostitution. While it may seem widespread and tolerated, prostitution is illegal in mainland China, except in [[Foshan]] in [[Guangdong]], where erotic massages also known colloquially as ''Happy Endings'' are legal. The consequences for anyone arrested by police can be dire. Look up yourself online the 2003 Zhuhai prostitution case resulting in 14 jail sentences (including 2 life sentences) with Chinese authorities requesting assistance from their Japanese counterparts in detaining a group of businessmen from Osaka. Like almost everywhere else, these brothels are ran by organised crime entities exploiting those working there. Many of the prostitutes are trafficked and/or forced into this work. These establishments are indicated by pink or other neon lighting and/or women in short skirts. Prostitution is the primary vector for the increasing spread of [[China#Transmittable diseases |HIV in China.]]
 
  
 
====Scams====
 
====Scams====
 
: ''See also: [[Common scams]]''
 
: ''See also: [[Common scams]]''
  
Tourist areas Beijing and Shanghai are plagued by the "teahouse scam" targeting foreigners. The scam goes something like this.
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Beijing and Shanghai are plagued by the "teahouse scam", the most common safety concern for foreign travelers.
* Around the likes of Tiananmen Square and Wangfujing in Beijing and the Bund, People's Square, and Nanjing Road in Shanghai, scammers stroll up to foreigners and attempt to start a conversation in English
 
* They often seek opportunities to try to assist with orientation and bargaining as a means to engage and build rapport with their intended target
 
* They then invite the intended target to a teahouse, café or pub
 
* Every item consumed there, including each cup of tea, biscuit and slice of fruit is massively overpriced
 
* Sometimes scam artists offer to split the enormous bill and ask the victim to pay at least half of it
 
* A variant of this scam is being invited by "art students" to shabby art shops and being pressured to buy overpriced reproductions
 
  
That being said, it is common for curious Chinese to start a genuine conversation with a visitor and sometimes follow it with an invitation to a meal or a drink. Being vigilant is sensible; being paranoid about all invitations and interactions with the Chinese will ruin a travel experience. Remember the following tips:
+
The scam goes something like this. Around Tiananmen Square and Wangfujing in Beijing and the Bund, People's Square, and Nanjing Road in Shanghai, scam artists stroll up to foreigners and attempt to start a conversation in English. They sometimes assist with bargaining and orientation. They then invite the tourist to a teahouse, café or pub. Every item consumed there, including each cup of tea, biscuit and slice of fruit is highly overpriced. Sometimes scam artists offer to split the huge bill and ask the victim to pay at least half of it. A variant of this scam is being invited by "art students" to shabby art shops and being pressured to buy overpriced reproductions.
  
# If feeling suspicious about the venue you are invited to, instead propose a venue of your choice. If the other person insists on going to their "place" and resists your suggestions, it should be considered a scam alarm bell. Consider if it is time to calmly say "No thank you" and walk away.
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That being said, it is common for curious Chinese to start a genuine conversation with a visitor and follow it with an invitation to a meal or a drink. Being paranoid about all invitations and interactions with the Chinese will ruin a travel experience.
# Proposing a friendly selfie photograph (especially saying it is for immediate posting straight on to the internet), with the person engaging you before going anywhere can generate a reactive indication of the intent for which you are being engaged; people who avoid being photographed have a reason such avoidance
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# In a genuine tea shop, tea sampling is always free. A tea shop wants visitors to taste tea and buy the leaves. Prices will be mentioned beforehand. Never agree to any products without seeing a price list first
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Remember the following tips:
 +
# If feeling suspicious about the place you are invited to go, choose somewhere else such as McDonald's, Starbucks, KFC. If they insist on going to their "place" and resist your suggestions, it is likely the beginning of a scam.
 +
# In a genuine tea shop, tea sampling is always free. A tea shop wants visitors to taste tea and buy the leaves. Charges will be mentioned beforehand.
 
# Teahouses usually only serve premium tea with the customer's knowledge. As a Laowai, a foreigner, do not feel embarrassed to ask about the price.
 
# Teahouses usually only serve premium tea with the customer's knowledge. As a Laowai, a foreigner, do not feel embarrassed to ask about the price.
 
# Being asked to foot an unusually high bill (more than Y500) without prior knowledge indicates a scam. Don’t pay. Call 110 and report the scam.
 
# Being asked to foot an unusually high bill (more than Y500) without prior knowledge indicates a scam. Don’t pay. Call 110 and report the scam.
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====Theft====
 
====Theft====
 
: ''See also: [[Pickpockets]]''
 
: ''See also: [[Pickpockets]]''
Pick-pocketing and other theft such as of bags, bicycles and / or electronic devices is common. Being sensible and vigilant in securing your belongings goes a long way.
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Pick-pocketing and other theft such as of bags, electronic devices and bicycles is common. Being sensible and vigilant in securing your belongings goes a long way. For bicycle riders, follow what local people do. If bikes are parked anywhere, just tie yours to a pole. It is common to park a bike without securing it to any fixed object, instead only locking the wheel. Restaurants and Internet cafes with bikes inside are a warning sign. Bike parking is common outside supermarkets or shopping centers, and usually charges RMB 1-2 per day (usually until 8-10pm). Battery packs of electric bicycles and scooters may be targeted.
  
For bicycle riders, follow what local people do. If bikes are parked anywhere, just tie yours to a pole. It is common to park a bike without securing it to any fixed object, instead only locking the wheel. Restaurants and Internet cafes with bikes inside are a warning sign. Bike parking is common outside supermarkets or shopping centers, and usually charges RMB 1-2 per day (usually until 8-10pm). Battery packs of electric bicycles and scooters may be targeted.
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===Pollution===
 +
Pollution is severe in the world's factory and smog afflicts the big cities. And construction and renovation make China a noisy nation.
  
On long-distance buses, especially those departing from Shenzhen, passengers are required to take a mug shot before boarding. Since this measure was introduced, reports of muggings on buses have decreased.
+
Beijing, by some accounts, is the most polluted city in the world. 16 of the worst-polluted cities in the world are in China. Even the countryside, depending on the province in question, is not immune. The nature of air pollution makes it highly variable from day to day, depending on the weather. On days with strong wind or rain, the sky will be clear of any pollution. In general, air pollution is worst in the north. Coastal cities such as Shanghai will have better air quality, and pollution is worse during the winter than in the summer. High-altitude locations and plains like parts of Yunnan and Sichuan, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Tibet and outlying islands such as Hainan usually have good air quality.
  
 
===Privacy and Security===
 
===Privacy and Security===
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===Health care===
 
===Health care===
====Western medicine====
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Many drugs are available from a pharmacist without a prescription. It is possible to ask to see the instructions that came with the box. Western medicine is called xīyào (西药).
 
Many drugs are available from a pharmacist without a prescription. It is possible to ask to see the instructions that came with the box. Western medicine is called xīyào (西药).
  
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Ensure that needles used for injections or any other procedure that requires breaking the skin are new and unused - insist on seeing the packet being broken open. In some parts of China it is acceptable to re-use needles, albeit after sterilization.
 
Ensure that needles used for injections or any other procedure that requires breaking the skin are new and unused - insist on seeing the packet being broken open. In some parts of China it is acceptable to re-use needles, albeit after sterilization.
  
====Traditional Chinese Medicine====
+
For acupuncture, although the disposable needles are common in mainland China, the client is free to provide his or her own needles. The disposable type, called Wujun zhenjiu zhen (无菌針灸針, sterilized acupuncture needles), usually cost ¥10-20 per 100 needles and are available in many pharmacies. There should be minimal to no bleeding when the needle is inserted and removed by a sufficiently skilled acupuncturist.
While Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is widespread in China, regulation is lax and it is not unheard of for Chinese physicians to prescribe herbs which are actually detrimental to one's health. Do some research and bring along a trusted local friend to help when visiting a Chinese physician. Alternatively, head to Hong Kong or Taiwan instead, as the practice is better regulated there.
 
  
For acupuncture, although the disposable needles are common in mainland China, the client is free to provide his or her own needles. The disposable type, called Wujun zhenjiu zhen (无菌針灸針, sterilized acupuncture needles), usually cost ¥10-20 per 100 needles and are available in many pharmacies. There should be minimal to no bleeding when the needle is inserted and removed by a sufficiently skilled acupuncturist.
+
While Traditional Chinese Medicine is widespread in China, regulation is lax and it is not unheard of for Chinese physicians to prescribe herbs which are actually detrimental to one's health. Do some research and bring along a trusted local friend to help when visiting a Chinese physician. Alternatively, head to Hong Kong or Taiwan instead, as the practice is better regulated there.
  
====Transmittable diseases====
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If making more than a short trip to China, it may be a good idea to get vaccinated against Hepatitis A and Typhoid as they can be spread via contaminated food.
[[Image:Dog_on_a_stick.jpg|thumb|Dog meat for sale.]]
 
A list of transmittable diseases in China is at this link [https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/destinations/asia-east/china on the Fit For Travel website]. Numerous vaccinations are recommended there. Serious illnesses transmitted by [[mosquitoes]] include [[malaria]], [[dengue fever]] and Japanese Encephalitis.
 
  
Rabies kills 2000 people in China each year. This is statistically only a small 0.000001429% of a population of 1.4 billion. However you do not want to be one of the 2000. See this document for sensible precautions [https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/rabies]. The rabies situation is made worse since the 2009 launch of the Yulin Dog Meat Festival (The dog meat trade is the only trade known to encourage the mass unregulated movement, sale and slaughter of millions of dogs each year, posing a significant human health risk through the potential transmission of animal borne diseases, notably rabies, but also cholera and other deadly diseases). 20 million dogs eaten annually makes China the world's largest dog meat consumer. Dog eating often provokes hypocritical indignation by non-Chinese whose otherwise extensive exploitation of animals doesn't include dog eating. Dogs reared on farms are done so with the profit motive of ingestion by humans. There are also many cases of pets stolen to end up in human stomachs via restaurant tables. The karma of rabies transmission from ingesting meat of an infected dog needs no explanation.
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Parts of southern China have [[mosquitoes]] which transmit [[malaria]], [[dengue fever]], etc. [http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/destinations/traveler/none/china The CDC has a '''complete list of recommended vaccines for travel to China'''.]
  
HIV in China like anywhere else is most common among prostitutes, clients of prostitutes and injecting drug users. An official report published in February 2009 stated that in 2008, for the first time, HIV/AIDS was China's leading cause of death among infectious diseases. Nearly 7,000 people died in China from the disorder in the first nine months of 2008.
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According to the United Nations "China is currently experiencing one of the most rapidly expanding HIV epidemics in the world. Since 1998, the number of reported cases has increased by about 30% yearly. By 2010, China could have as many as ten million infections and 260,000 orphans if without intervention"; Chinese President Hu Jintao has recently pledged to fight the spread of AIDS/HIV within China. Sex workers, clients of sex workers and injecting drug users are the most-infected groups.
  
[[Image:Countries_with_confirm_tamiflu_resistance_of_swine_flu.png|thumb|This 2009 map shows China among countries with reported swine flu resistance to Tamiflu.]]
+
New diseases are sometimes a threat in China, particularly in its more densely populated parts. More recently, there have been cases of bird flu; avoid under-cooked poultry or eggs. Partly as a result of the SARS experience, China's government has taken the global threat of Swine Flu '''very seriously'''.
New diseases appear in China, particularly in its more densely populated parts. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (aka HPAI or bird flu) is well associated with poultry agriculture in China. Influenza A/H5N1 recorded in China in 1996 became in 1997 the 1st influenza variant to transmit from poultry to humans. China is the world's largest producer and consumer of pig meat. In August 2004, researchers in China found bird flu H5N1 in pigs. Pigs are unusual as they can be infected with influenza strains that usually infect three different species: pigs, birds and humans. This makes pigs a host where influenza viruses might exchange genes, producing dangerous new strains. Influenza transmission from pigs to humans was also identified as far back as 2004 (by the researchers at the University of Iowa). Another issue is widespread use of antibiotics in animal agriculture (especially in China but also globally) intended to promote growth and prevent disease has propagated the antibiotic resistant superbug crisis. Such antibiotics are ingested when people consume meat.
 
  
 
===Personal hygiene===
 
===Personal hygiene===
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Wash hands often with soap, or better, carry disposable disinfectant tissues (found in almost any department or cosmetics store), especially after having used public computers; the main cause for a cold or flu is through touching one's face, especially the nose, with infected hands.
 
Wash hands often with soap, or better, carry disposable disinfectant tissues (found in almost any department or cosmetics store), especially after having used public computers; the main cause for a cold or flu is through touching one's face, especially the nose, with infected hands.
 
===Pollution===
 
Pollution is severe in the world's factory and smog afflicts many big cities. Construction and renovation can generate considerable noise pollution as can busy overground rail stations.
 
 
Beijing, by some accounts, is the most polluted city in the world. 16 of the worst-polluted cities in the world are in China. Even the countryside, depending on the province in question, is not immune. The nature of air pollution makes it highly variable from day to day, depending on the weather. On days with strong wind or rain, the sky will be clear of any pollution. In general, air pollution is worst in the north. Coastal cities such as Shanghai will have better air quality, and pollution is worse during the winter than in the summer. High-altitude locations and plains like parts of Yunnan and Sichuan, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Tibet and outlying islands such as Hainan usually have good air quality. [[Shenzhen]]'s policy of electrifying the entire bus and taxi fleet makes a very noticeable difference compared to smogged cities like Beijing and Wuhan.
 
  
 
==Respect==
 
==Respect==

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