Black Hills National Forest
Earth : North America : United States of America : Great Plains : South Dakota : Badlands and Black Hills : Black Hills National Forest
The Black Hills National Forest is public land owned by the federal US government and operated by the US forest service.
The Black Hills national forest is one of the most road-built national forests in the country. Due to the odd history of South Dakota, the forest service land is actually patchworked in and out with private land, state highways and forest service roads all through the area.
The Black Hills of South Dakota are a lone series of mountains in the middle of the Great Plains. The nearest rocky mountains, the Bighorn Mountains, are about one hundred miles to the west. The nearest mountains to the east or south are several thousand miles away. It was formed by unknown means when some kind of 'uplift' occurred many millions of years ago.
The Black Hills are possibly named black because of the Ponderosa Pine trees that grow there; young trees have black bark that turns orange as the trees mature.
The Black Hills are sacred to Lakota people and were a refuge during harsh seasons on the plains. The hills unique ecosystem also provided many plants not found on the prairies that could be used for food making or medicine. Nowadays the Lakota live mostly on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation a few miles to the south.
The Hills unique formation of limestone rocks being shifted by the 'uplift', and then eroded and deposited-upon by water, make wonderful conditions for caves to form, and the area is dotted with many that you can visit. The federal government has taken over two of these via the National Park Service; Wind Cave and Jewel Cave. You can go on guided tours through these. There are several commercial caves owned privately by companies that also give tours.
Tourism is a big business in the Black Hills. In summer the temperatures rise and tourists flood in for a variety of reasons. Thus there are many touristy type shops, restaurants, casinos and so forth usually with a western theme, banking on the 'Wild West' image of Deadwood and the surrounding area.
There are also lots of mountain climbers, and therefore several mountain climbing schools and equipment supply shops. Devil's Tower which is a famous climbing destination lies a few hours to the West of the area in Wyoming.
The hills are mostly populated lower income white people, farmers and ranchers, and Indians, but in recent years lots of people from California, driven out by high land prices, have invaded the area. Many of the old citizens have sold their land to incoming Californians for a good price and have moved farther from the Hills.
The Black Hills stand in contrast to the wide sweeping prairies of western South Dakota, as they are covered with mostly Ponderosa or Lodgepole Pine. Stands of Aspen can also be found within the forest. Most of the Black Hills gently roll from 5000-6000 feet in elevation, however many peaks in the south central hills are over 7000 feet above sea level. Harney Peak is the tallest mountain at 7242 feet, which is also the highest point of South Dakota. Several trails can be taken to the top which has an old CCC fire lookout tower at the summit. In the southern hills, trees are sparse, and prairie grasses prevail. This is also where most of the larger cave systems are located, such as Wind Cave National Park and Jewel Cave National Monument.
Minerals of many types are found in abundance throughout the Black Hills, commonly found is: Granite, muscovite, and quartz. Gold and Silver were originally found in great amounts in the northern areas near the Wyoming South Dakota border.
Flora and fauna
North American Bison (buffalo), mountain goats, mule deer, cougar, and the occasional donkey can be found in abundance on the Wildlife Loop of Custer State Park in the southern-central portion of the Black Hills.
Prairie grasses, ponderosa pine, aspen, and numerous types of wild flowers such as prairie coneflower can be found within the Black Hills.
Arriving by plane will bring most visitors to the Rapid City Regional Airport  located nine miles southeast of Rapid City.
I-90 is the major east-west highway that follows along the foothills of the Black Hills. Be aware that I-90 can become closed in sections due to inclement weather in the winter time.
Aside from camping fees and hunting permits, the national forest is free for all to enjoy.
Many of the roadways throughout the Black Hills are open year-round. However, Needles Highway (Highway 87) is closed during the winter due to a lack of maintenance during snowfall.
Those with recreational vehicles should be advised that Iron Mountain Road (Highway 16A) between Keystone and S Playhouse Road consists of small one-way tunnels and several very sharp turns. Many drivers find the roadway overwhelming in such large vehicles. Seek height and width restrictions before venturing on this road.
There are quite a few amazing things to see in the Black Hills. There is Mount Rushmore National Memorial, Custer State Park, the Needles highway, Wind Cave, Jewel Cave, many scenic overlooks and bypasses, tours of a recently closed gold mine in Lead, gambling trying to cash in on western legends in Deadwood, the massive Crazy Horse sculpture, Spearfish Canyon, and so forth and so on.
Custer is pretty much the "hub" for the forest, if you can call it that, and is the best place to find lodging.
The Forestry Service operates 32 campgrounds within the forest itself, which bear nominal fees during the summer months. Potable water and toilets are available at each site, while RV hookups most often are not.
As with most any U.S. National Forest, you are free to pitch a tent pretty much wherever you like, provided you are at least 50 feet away from roads, streams, or trails; that you do not take any road marked private; and stay no longer than fourteen days (they don't want people moving in).
Wildlife poses the greatest threat in the Hills. Keep your distance.