Zambia is a a landlocked country in Southern Africa. It is, bordered by Tanzania to the northeast, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana to the south, with a narrow strip of Namibia known as the Caprivi Strip to the southwest, Angola to the west, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the northwest.
The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by John Cecil Rhodes's British South Africa Company from 1891 until it was formally administered as a British crown colony in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration.
Britain tried to administer Northern Rhodesia in a federation with Nysaland (Malawi) and Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) however this was opposed by Northern Rhodesia which was concerned that the majority of the investment and money would flow to the south. During this period to help build the economy the British built the Kariba Dam on the Zambezi River creating Lake Kariba, one of Africa's largest lakes and providing hydro electric power for the area. The British granted self rule to their colonies in the period after the Second World War and after abandoning the federation idea Northern Rhodesia transferred to self government.
The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, one party democracy under Kenneth Kaunda and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. However Zambia under Kaunda was a staunch anti-Apartheid supporter, one of the only countries in the region to be so. As such it provided a base for the ANC to operate from, the previous South African President Jacob Zuma was at the time based in Lusaka. This created huge obstacles to Zambia, with South Rhodesia under Ian Smith's white rule invading and actually bombing Lusaka and with South Africa cutting its economic ties and attempting its own "sanctions" against the Zambians.
Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with at least two parties filing legal petitions challenging the results.
Zambia transitioned to a proper functioning democracy with the advent of Levy Mwanawasa as President. He led the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) to power with a platform of stamping out corruption. Following Mwanawasa's untimely death in office Zambia went on to the 2011 election and claimed the title of being one of the few African countries to have a sitting President lose an election. The peaceful election was taken as an indicator of how far Zambia had come and is viewed as a model African democracy.This was shown after the handover of power from the MMD to the Patriotic Front (PF) under Michael Sata. Sata would hold onto power until his untimely death in October 2014. Guy Scott served briefly as president until new elections were held on 20 January 2015, in which Edgar Lungu was elected as the sixth President.
Much of Zambia remains poor, with GDP per capita of the order of USD1800/year, and the bulk of Zambia's population lives on subsistence agriculture. The economy continues to revolve around copper; after decades of mismanagement the industry is now doing better thanks to higher commodity prices and investments made after privatization. Another recent success story has been the rebranding of tourism, driving tourists to the northern side of the Victoria Falls and Zambia's safaris, and the fast growth has come from a low base.
As can be seen even from the bizarre squashed-peanut shape of the country, Zambia is one of the stranger legacies of colonialism, agglomerating a large number of different tribes (73, according to the official count) and languages (20, plus dialects). Fortunately, with a long history of coexistence, significant migration around the country and similar Bantu-family languages, they all seem to get along pretty well and Zambia has been spared the violent inter-tribal strife that has decimated countries like Rwanda.
The Bemba are the largest group in Zambia, but they still form only about 20% of the population. The Bemba came from the Congo in the 16th century, and while their homelands are in the north and middle of Zambia, many have immigrated to Lusaka and the Copperbelt.
The Chewa, Ngoni and Nsenga tribes, all found in the east of the country, share the Nyanja language and form Zambia's second largest grouping with about 15%.
The Tonga, Ila and Lenje, known together as the Bantu Botatwe (Three Peoples), are a close runner-up with 15% of the population, concentrated in the west of the country in the Zambezi Valley and the plateaus to the north.
The Lozi in the far west (6%) are known for their craftwork, particularly basketry, and for a low-key (non-violent) secessionist movement calling for an independent Barotseland.
Other tribes in Zambia's patchwork include the Lala and Bisa (5%), the Kaonde (3%), the Mambwe and Lungu (3%), the Lunda (3%), the Lamba (2.5%) and the Luvale (2%), and 57 more. Despair not: the differences are not crucial for travelers, and locals will be happy to explain their traditions when needed, notably at festivals.
White Africans of English or Afrikaner descent (1.2%) are also visible, particularly in the more upmarket areas of the major cities.
A highlight of any trip to Zambia is a visit to any of the many traditional festivals held throughout the country. Planning ahead can be tough though, as schedules are variable and not all are held yearly. Also, if you do manage to attend, bring along tolerance for heat, dust and crowds (increasingly drunk as the evening wears on) and patience for endless speeches by local functionaries like the Assistent Vice-Secretary for Fertiliser Co-operatives in Rutungu Sub-Province. On the plus side, any foreigners attending can usually sneak into the VIP stands, although you may get hassled for photo permits.
This is a popular August festival(The Day of Mize). This ceremony takes place at Mize, the official palace of Senior Chief Ndungu, about seven kilometres west of Zambezi Boma. People of the Luvale tribe gather to celebrate their cultural heritage , bringing displays of all types of handicrafts and spicing the event with traditional singing and dancing while the chief holds court. Mize is the official palace of Senior Chief Ndungu. The Makishi dancers recreate famous events from Luvale mythology, and local artists display their work.
If you look at a map, Zambia appears to be squarely in the tropics, but thanks to its landlocked and elevated position it does have distinct seasons that run as follows:
Temperatures do fluctuate based on the altitude, if you are in a valley (such as the Zambezi) it will be warmer and if you are higher up (Kasama) it will be cooler.
Zambia can be divided into five geographic regions:
See also: African National Parks
Zambian visa policy is best summarized as confusing: there is a bewildering thicket of rules on who needs visas, whether visas can be obtained on arrival, and how much they cost. Local border posts also apply their own interpretations. Due to recent political turbulence in Zimbabwe, Zambia has been cashing in on the unexpected boom in its tourism industry, with visa fees hiked and the previous visa waiver program canceled: you're now expected to pay in cash on arrival at the immigration kiosks.
Since 2014, it has been possible to pay by credit card at Lusaka International (Kenneth Kaunda) Airport.
The upside is that once customs has figured out what category you're in, actually obtaining the visa is rarely a problem and a rule of thumb is that most Western visitors can get visas on arrival. Visa-free entry is possible for some nationalities, including Hong Kong, Ireland, Malaysia, Singapore, Zimbabwe and South Africa. See the immigration department's web-site  for the full list of visa-exempt nationalities. Current visa prices are US$50 for a single-entry and US$80 for a multiple-entry visa for all nationalities and is valid for 3 months; US passport holders can only apply for a multiple-entry visa, but it is then valid for 3 years.
Do check with the nearest Zambian embassy for the latest information; the Zambian Embassy to the US has some information on their homepage , and getting the visa before arrival will reduce the uncertainty factor.
If you require a visa to enter Zambia, you might be able to apply for one at a British embassy, high commission or consulate in the country where you legally reside if there is no Zambian diplomatic post. For example, the British embassies in Al Khobar, Amman, Belgrade, Budapest, Damascus, Guatemala City, Helsinki, Jakarta, Jeddah, Kiev, Prague, Pristina, Rabat, Riga, Riyadh, Rome, Sofia, Tallinn, Vienna, Warsaw and Zagreb accept Zambian visa applications (this list is not exhaustive). British diplomatic posts charge £50 to process a Zambian visa application and an extra £70 if the authorities in Zambia require the visa application to be referred to them. The authorities in Zambia can also decide to charge an additional fee if they correspond with you directly.
Lusaka Airport Customs and Immigration is unprepared to deal with tourists. There are four lanes, segmented by: Zambian passport holders; Residents; Tourists; and Diplomats. Tellingly, the lane for tourists is sometimes unstaffed. Although there are many immigration officers present the tourist lane is often unstaffed. Be prepared for all other lanes to empty before being processed.
For those who would prefer to leave the hassle to someone else, specialist safari holiday companies  can arrange immigration for you.
Zambia's main international gateway is Lusaka; gone are the days when getting to Zambia meant flying via Johannesburg, Lusaka is fast becoming something of a regional hub. KLM now fly direct from Amsterdam and Emirates are offering low cost connections via it's middle east base alongside the existing British Airways service and a much expanded Ethiopian network. Kenya Airways, Angola Air and Rwanda Air are other airlines that fly into Lusaka. Mostly on a daily basis. Kenya airways has several flights to Lusaka per day as well as at least one flight per day to Ndola and Livingstone and so does South African Airways. Air Namibia also now offer low cost connections from Cape Town via Windhoek. British Airways fly to Livingstone from Johannesburg with Pro-Flight, a local operator, connecting Lusaka with Livingstone, near spectacular Victoria Falls, and Mfuwe, near South Luangwa National Park, and the other regional destinations. Mahogany Air is a new local airline offering competition to Proflight. They operate From Lusaka to Livingstone and Lusaka to Ndola at least twice per day. Mahogany Air has a new fleet of aircraft and is mostly cheaper than Proflight.
Lusaka remains well-served by flights from Johannesburg, Cairo, Dubai, Nairobi, Lilongwe, Addis Ababa, and London. KLM remains the main intercontinental carrier that flies to Lusaka from Europe, with direct flights from Amsterdam. South African Airways fly to Lusaka and Livingstone from Johannesburg with multiple flights per day.Flights to Lusaka are more plentiful and EgyptAir from Cairo, Kenya Airways from Nairobi and Ethiopian Airlines from Addis and Air Namibia from Windhoek fly daily.
(NB: in Johannesburg the airlines have no control over baggage in transit and the airport's baggage concessionnaire is exempt from responsibility by contract, so lost and especially pilfered baggage can be an issue.)
Livingstone International Airport has daily direct flights from Johannesburg with the carriers: South African Airways, British Airways and Kulula. Direct flights from Nelspruit/Kruger are available on Airlink Monday, Wednesday and Friday.
Travelers can also fly to Ndola without connecting through Lusaka International Airport using South African Airways which has a daily flight from Jo'burg to Ndola. Ndola is the capital of the Copperbelt province and has an international airport which services such regional airlines as Kenya Airways and the aforementioned South African Airways.
Local carriers have not fared well for various reasons with Zambian Airways, Zambia Airlines and Zambezi airlines all not trading as of mid 2013.
TAZARA  trains run between Kapiri Mposhi, Zambia, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, on Tuesdays and Thursdays. According to the schedule the trip takes 38 hours, but these trains break down regularly. If you are on a tight schedule, a train might not be your best option. On the other hand, a train ride between Dar es Salaam and Zambia is a beautiful way to see the countryside at a reasonable price (about $55 for a first class sleeper and $40 for second).
Several important things to note about this trip, however:
Via Zimbabwe/Victoria Falls: trains in Zimbabwe run from Bulawayo to Victoria Falls. You can take a taxi or hike 13 km across the border at the Victoria Falls Bridge to Livingstone station in Zambia and catch a Zambia Railways train to Lusaka and the Copperbelt connecting with the Tazara railway in Kapiri Mposhi.
Vehicles drive on the left side of the road in Zambia.
There are many ways to get into Zambia by car, but the most popular include:
Crossing international borders by car will incur a tax, depending on the size of the vehicle. The process can also take awhile as you will have to pay at different booths or offices, often not conveniently located. For a standard sedan, you can expect to pay the following:
Border crossings are not without corruption and you are particularly vulnerable when travelling by car. Try to avoid arriving early in the day to avoid having to choose between paying a bribe or spending the night in the car at the border post.
A nice 4x4 route in Zambia
For Adventurous Campers:
The South Luangwa tour:
Lusaka-Petauke-Malama-Mfuwe-Nsefu-Chipata-Lilongwe or Mpika
Very adventurous en scenic routes and campsites. Recommendable and for sure unforgettable.
Zambia is a big country and the public roads are pretty fair for a normal car. Sometimes there are deep potholes (holes in the road), but they are avoidable if you do not drive too fast. Most Zambians drive in a controlled way, sometimes a little too fast. Be especially aware for buses and trucks. They are wide and very long and drive far too fast. If you see a truck or bus approaching, then drive slower and keep left as left as you can. They tend to use your half of the road, pushing you off the road. If you want to see more of Zambia, you will need a good 4x4 four wheel drive car. Especially from december until early April at times rain falls and the roads are wet and muddy. Zambia is a wonderful country, lovely paople, full of stunning nature and wildlife. The most well known parks in Zambia are Kafue (West of Lusaka) and South Luangwa (East of Lusaka). South Luangwa is known and ackowledged to be one of the most beautiful wildlife parks in all Africa. Most National Parks in Zambia, like South Luangwa National Parl (SLNP), can be visited with your privat car. However, to enjoy this to the full, you will need a 4x4 car.
The South Luangwa National Park is surrounded by the so called GMA’s (Game Management Areas). You will find only limited habitation and you will be able to see an abundance of wildlife, like, lions, leopards, elephants, girafs, etc. A recommendable tour is from Petauke to Malama, on to Mfuwe and to the Nsefu sector (or the other way around). This route can only be done with a well equipped 4x4 car. You will see and enjouy to the full, the true rural Africa, the local people and their villages and wildlife. From Lusaka you take the road to Chipata (Great Eastern Road) and from that road (well before Chipata) take the junction to Petauke. Once you drove through Petauke you will go off the tarred road on a very fair gravel road. After 60km on this road, you turn left followed by a 120km local rural road to Malama Chiefdom and Mfuwe. The road is really not too bad. On the way you will have to go over some steep hills, but you will manage. When you go under the electricity network cables (ZESCO Main Power Lines), you enter the Malama Chiefdom and will be only 15km away from the junction. This junction will lead (via the Malama Chief’s Palace) you either to the Lusangazi Gate of the National Park (left) or onwards direction Mfuwe (right). The junction is at a little village. If you are able and willing to do so: The people here and in the villages around the Chief’s Palace, are very friendly and helpful. Leave something for them. It will be highly appreciated because the local people are poor.
If you head for Mfuwe, you will find a campsite after 9km along the Luangwa River, called Malama Umoyo Camp. It is near (1,5km after) the scouts training center. This (basic) campsite is located at a stunning location overlooking the Luangwa River and a dry lagoon, most of the time filled with wildlife. Your hosts here are Menno en Virginie. From here it is also possible to make a daytrip to the National Park.
From Malama Umoyo Camp it is 42km (2,5 hours drive) to Mfuwe. Mfuwe is a local but bigger than normal village. In the Mfuwe area you will find a lot of lodges, but also a good campsite. Recommendable is Croc Valley Camp. If you arrive from Malama and hit the tarred road, you turn left after 3km and after a few hundred meters right off the tarred road on to a gravelled road. Signposts will lead you further to Croc Valley Camp. Your hosts at Croc Valley Camp are Shaun and Milly. From here it is only a 5 minute drive to the main gate of the South Luangwa National Park (SLNP). Entree fee for the SLNP is USD 25 per person per 24 hours and USD 35 for a privat car entering the park. At 06:00 the park is open and for privat cars it is open until 18:00 hours. From Mfuwe/Croc Valley Camp you can proceed to the Nsefu sector. Do not forget to fill your fuel tank in Mfuwe. You follow the tarred road to Chipata and the local airport and after about 12km from Mfuwe (the cropping it is called) you turn left (you will see a signpost and two palm trees). After about 12km you will reach the gate of the National Park. If you are going to camp, then tell at the gate that you are on your way to Zikomo camp. Zikomo Camp is just outside the borders of the park. Right after the gate you turn left and follow the road (about 4 to 5 km) to Zikomo Camp. Your host at the camp is Demian Wallace. The Nsefu sector is part of the SNLP and considered by many as the most beautiful part of the park. After visiting Mfuwe, you can then return to Chipata (about 2 hours drive). Chipata is the capital of the Eastern Province and a good place to buy supplies and refuel. There are two supermarkets and lots of shops. Opposite Total fuel station you can find Afroc. Here you can refill camping gaz. From Chipata it is a 20 minutes drive to the Malawi border. Crossing the border will take about half an hour. When entering Malawi, you have to fill in a TIP form for your car and pay Malawi Kwacha 5,000. This will allow your car in Malwai for 30 days. Do not forget to insure your car for Malawi, because they check on it frequently. Just after the border there is an insurance company. Try to get Malawi Kwachas before you enter the border post because they only accept Malawi Kwachas and not US dollars or any other currency. At the border there are many money changers. Tip: Take one US 100 note in your hand, put away your wallet, and change this for 100 x 180 Malawi kwacha. Be careful. These guys are quick and often give you less then they say. So you get MKW 18,000 for USD 100. You should a least get a 15% better rate than the official bank rate. If you passed the border it will be another 125km over a good tarred road to Lilongwe. Watch your speed, especially where it says you have to drive 50km.
From Mfuwe there is the possibility to go right through the park to the North. This is a really adventurous road. Do NOT drive this road when it is wet/raining! When you passed the northern gate, you will reach the escarpment and you have to drive up a very steep road. It can be done by good 4x4 drivers, but do it slowly. Once out of the Luangwa valley you will have a stunning view over the valley. You then can proceed to Mpika. In Mpika you can camp and get new supplies and fuel. From Mpika you can visit Kasanka NP (in November you will be able to see the daily migrations of millions of bats) or you can go up north. Recommended is to visit Shiwa Ngandu. A beautiful mansion built by an excentric Bristish gentleman (Stewart Gore Brown) a 100 years ago in the middle of nowhere. Camping you can near the hot water springs. The water is lovely and relaxing for at least a half hour dip. Mark Harvey and his wife are your hosts here. From here you can proceed for example to Tanzania (to Ruaha NP, also a place not to miss).
PS. When visiting Mfuwe, and you prefer a lodge for a good sleep, dinner and a warm shower: Thornicroft Lodge en Croc Valley are both recommendable (good value for money).
International bus routes exist. You can take a bus across the border into Malawi, Zimbabwe, or Tanzania. Immigration might be painstaking, considering the large number of people requiring simultaneous processing .There is also a bus route into South Africa through Zimbabwe. Most cross border traders opt for this mode of transport as it is considered cheaper than flying. However it will take one more than one day non-stop driving to reach South Africa.
Zambia is landlocked but borders on Tanzania's Lake Tanganyika, and there are regular international ferry services across the lake a few times a week. The ship, M/S Liemba was built in Germany in 1914, cut in pieces, shiped to Tanzania, carried by train to Kigoma (Tanzania)and reassembled there again. It is a ship of Titanic era, sunk twice, charming ship with reasonable services. This trip should be taken if you are not short of time.
Zambia is large and distances long, so budget plenty of time for getting around.
Domestic flights on Proflight  or air viva connect Zambia's major cities and tourist destinations. While undoubtedly the fastest and most comfortable way of getting around, they are quite expensive with an hour-long flight (say, Lusaka-Mfuwe) typically costing around US$150 one-way. Also note that planes are small and schedules sparse, but if you can rustle up enough people you can also charter planes for not much more.
Minibuses — meaning vans outfitted with seats — are popular, but they are often irregular, dangerous, and uncomfortable. To maximize profits, a "conductor" will squeeze as many paying customers — and their luggage, or katundu (ka-TOON-doo) — into the bus as possible; whether or not the customers are comfortable is irrelevant. In terms of meeting locals, however, this method is among the best, and it can provide a traveler with a truly "authentic" experience. Payment is made during the journey — banknotes are passed down the bus to the conductor at the front, and change comes back via the same route.
Larger, more sophisticated "luxury coaches" exist, too. These tend to be more reliable and safer; they depart on-time; they have dedicated space for guests and luggage; and tickets may be purchased in advance. Luxury coaches are much more comfortable and are virtually guaranteed to arrive, but they might seem "generic" to a seasoned traveler.
Vehicles drive on the left side of the road in Zambia — at least most of the time.
Car rental agencies exist in Zambia, but the costs are potentially great. Not only are rental rates high ($100/day), but some of the main roads in Zambia are in very poor condition. Potholes often take up the entire road, and during the rainy season, large sections of the roads wash away. As you move away from city centers (possibly only a kilometer or so away) you will encounter dirt roads. Although they might look solid, the dirt is often loose, and the chances of an accident are huge if you do not keep to a reasonable speed. Although you are not likely to get lost driving in Zambia (there are only a few roads), you are likely to underestimate the destructive power of these roads and damage a rental vehicle, or worse, yourself! 4WD vehicles are recommended at any time and necessary on dirt roads in the rainy season, although some roads will become completely impassable then.
Remember: there are no Roadside Assistance Packages, and very few ambulances. Emergency recovery and tow trucks are now available in the major towns and depending on the distance may come to your rescue.
You can catch TAZARA line trains between New Kapiri Mposhi and Nakonde in the north-east (Tanzania border). The separate Zambia Railways line Livingstone and Kitwe via Lusaka and Kapiri Mposhi (2 km from the TAZARA station). They are relatively reliable and safe, but slow.
Hitchhiking in Zambia is popular, although it can be extremely hit-or-miss as traffic density is low. Also note that, if picked up by a local, you will be expected to pay for the ride. Nevertheless, hitchhiking does not carry with it the same stigma in Zambia as it does in the States; you are unlikely to be harmed, and you might make a great connection.
In Zambia, travelers do not "thumb" a ride. The proper method for flagging transportation is:
Due to its former colonial status, English is Zambia's official language and the language most often spoken in schools, on the radio, in government offices, etc. However, there are over 70 different Bantu languages spoken throughout the country, the most important of which are Bemba, spoken in Lusaka(a little), the Copperbelt and the north; Nyanja (Chewa), spoken in the east as well as in Lusaka where it is the main language; Tonga, spoken in the south and Livingstone; Lozi, which predominates in Western province; Lunda and Kaonde are spoken in Northwestern Province.
Many urban Zambians will speak at least passable English. As you move into the rural areas, though, expect communication to become more difficult. Nevertheless, do not be surprised to find a rural Zambian who speaks flawless English.
The most important thing to remember when speaking to Zambians is to greet them. When you first approach a Zambian, always begin by asking, "How are you?" even if you do not care. They will consider you very respectful. Sport, especially football (soccer) is a very good conversation topic with men; church is a good topic with either gender.
Wherever you happen to be in the country it is a good idea to learn the local way of exchanging greetings, asking for something politely and thanking someone. These simple phrases will help make life easier.
Zambia is making a name for itself as a must do safari destination. It's marketing itself as the real Africa and if you visit any of the South African reserves before you go to Zambia you will agree with them! There are no traffic jams around the Lions here! The future for Zambia also looks a lot brighter than many of its neighbours, its new government under President Sata seems to be behind conservation. It recently declined granting a uranium mining licence in Lower Zambezi National Park because of the environmental damage it would cause.
Organised safaris are the way to go in Zambia. Self driving is an option but is only for the fully self sufficient. Zambia is home to some of Africa's greatest national parks. Lower Zambezi, South Luangwa and the frankly huge (the worlds second biggest NP) Kafue are the main ones, but North Luangwa and the virtually inaccessible Luiwa Plains are worth a mention. Although sometimes you might find the borders of them hard to define, there are no fences in Zambia, it really is the Africa of your imagination.
Safaris are through various operators, many being very expensive, but good value options are available and it's best to use a local established operator such as The River Safari Company, South Luangwa Safaris or check Zambia's tourist information web site.
Zambia offers many different opportunities for volunteering and giving back, such as wildlife conservation with Chimpanzees, English and sports education or community aid and healthcare. There are many ways to get in contact with the desired volunteer project, one of which is a comparison platform. On Volunteer World, a social startup from Germany, . , for example, you can search and compare all volunteering options in Zambia. edit
On 1 January 2013 a new Kwacha was introduced using a rate of 1000 old Kwacha to one new Kwacha. New Kwacha are internationally symbolised as ZMW and old Kwacha ceased being legal tender on 1 July 2013.
Originally, the Kwacha — meaning "sunrise," so-named to celebrate Zambia's independence — was tied to the US dollar, so conversion was simple.
However, in the late-90's, the Kwacha was floated and subsequently devalued rapidly. Since mid 2005 the Kwacha re-appreciated strongly, due to international debt-relief and the boost of the copper prices. The currency became stronger and more stable through the latter part of the decade to the extent that in January 2013 the government re-based the currency. Effectively it got rid of three zero's! This means Zambia has new notes starting from the 2 Kwacha note and is now one of the few African countries to use coins. The new ISO code is ZMW (formerly ZMK). Initial reaction to the move was positive. Razia Khan, head of Africa research at Standard Chartered commented: “The rebasing might be Kwacha positive, to the extent that it is a continued commitment to low, and stable inflation”.
Great care is advised to anyone using informal traders when getting change.
US dollars used to be commonly used for larger purchases however, alongside the re-basing of the Kwacha from January 2013, this practice was made illegal for all Zambian businesses. All transactions are now carried out only in re-based new Kwacha. (The dollar was becoming less popular anyway due to its fluctuating exchange rates).
Buying in shops
Most shopkeepers advertise fixed prices and are unwilling to negotiate, but this is not a given. On the other hand, most "freelance" salesmen — vendors selling curios; taxi drivers; etc. — who do not post their prices are usually willing to negotiate. As a (very) general rule of thumb, assume the first price they mention is at least double the amount they will accept. You should not be afraid to barter — after all, Zambians bargain among themselves — but try not to get carried away with saving a few pennies.
Tipping is not required — indeed, it was at one point illegal — but often expected. Porters expect USD0.50 or so per bag, and better restaurants typically add in a 10% service charge or expect an equivalent tip.
Finally, keep in mind the Zambian custom of mbasela (em-buh-SAY-la) — giving a freebie when more than one item is purchased. If you buy a few small items, do not be shy about asking for your mbasela.
Zambia is comparatively expensive compared to its neighbors. A bare-bones budget traveller will be looking at a minimum of USD40/day just for a bed and three meals, and transport is (again, comparatively) expensive, in part due to the great distances involved. Foreign currencies just don't go as far as in other developing countries, and often prices in Zambia are the same as what one would be paying in the West. At the other end of the spectrum, all-inclusive safari lodges or Lusaka/Livingstone's five-star hotels will take care of all your needs but charge US$200/day and up for the privilege. Finding a middle ground between these two extremes can be difficult but there are safari operators who will offer 'DIY' camping for around USD5 to USD95 and above - it pays to look around (see below).
Zambian safaris are amongst the best available in Africa; they offer top quality viewing experiences with the continent's top guides. Zambia's national parks are not 'commercialised' as in other countries (e.g. Kenya and South Africa) and one will not see the ridiculous zebra striped game viewing buses, Land Cruisers etc.
Changing your money
Changing your money to Kwacha is reasonably easy in the tourist centres of Lusaka and Livingstone and at your border entry. Most major banks will change money and there are various local bureaux de change. As with every country only use major companies to change your money, not road side money changers, this is especially important in Zambia if you are not familiar with the rebased notes, you could end up with worthless "öld money".
US Dollar. If you bring US$ only the "big heads" (new notes) are accepted in banks and bureaux de change, small heads are not accepted (if you are lucky you can change them in Livingstone). U.S. $50 and U.S. $100 notes are the best to bring, for smaller nominations you will get a poorer rate at the bureaux (5-10% less) One dollar bills are not accepted unless you are in a major hotel, if you are heading to Zimbabwe save the one dollars, they are useful to pay for small items there.
Euro. Changing Euros is a difficult thing to do especially up country, bureaux are giving a very poor rate (25% less then the market rate!). International banks will accept, but with commission charge. Finance Bank, Arcades shopping Centre Lusaka, is known to accept Euro's at a good rate and without commission charge. Bureaux and Banks will only change a maximum of 1000 US$ (or equivalent) per person per day though you can bypass this by simply going right to the next Bureaux or Bank! Watch the rates as they can change overnight, fluctuations of 3-5% per day are common.
British Pound (Sterling)(GBP) Sterling is easy to change and is accepted in banks, bureaux and most hotels and commands a good exchange rate as it seems to fluctuate against the Kwacha less than the other major currencies.
South African Rand Due to the rapid decline of the value of the Rand and concerns over its future value this can be a difficult sell to all but major hotels and banks. Expect to be asked for British pounds or US dollars instead. You won't get a good rate of exchange even if you can change it, best to spend them in SA or Namibia.
Other second tier currencies like the Australian dollar are not worth bothering with. Expect blank looks from the locals, and a mocking laugh from those in the tourist trade.
ATMs may be found in major cities, but you should not depend on them to be functional. Most of the ATM's accept only VISA. Other international credit cards (like MASTERCARD and AMEX) are generally a problem except with First National Bank (FNB), Barclays Bank and Standard Chartered Bank. Barclays does accept Mastercard and can be found at the airport (by the exit) and in Lusaka on Cairo Road. Maestro is definitely a problem in Zambia and very few ATM's accept Maestro. Most, if not all supermarkets and big restaurants accept debit or credit cards, as do practically all high-end hotels and safari lodges. Surcharges don't apply in Zambia and ATMs only dispense local currency.
Credit cards & Travelers cheques
Although using forms of payment other than cash is growing in popularity, you should not depend on credit to get around the country. Visa is the card of choice in this part of Africa, Mastercard is far less popular with all other cards virtually unheard of outside of the international hotel chains. It is worth noting that a Mastercard will not work in a Visa ATM or Visa card swipe machine. If you only have a Mastercard prepare to be declined! Currently Barclays and Stanbic are the only banks that operate MasterCard ATM's. Stanbic is in Livingstone town centre and in Lusaka the branch is opposite the Arcades Shopping centre. Barclays can be found at Lusaka airport, at the exit, and on Cairo Road in Lusaka.
Traveler's cheques are almost impossible to process in Zambia, most chance you will have in the Lusaka international banks (Stanbic, Standard Chartered), but even then you will get a very poor rate, a high commission charge and it will take you a couple of hours, if you are lucky. If you prefer to take the risk and use Traveller's cheques, the only ones who will be accepted (if you are lucky) are the ones from American Express (Thomas Cook's are currently not accepted!).
Traditional Zambian food revolves around one staple, maize, served in one form, nshima (n'SHEE-ma). Nshima is basically a type of thick porridge, rolled into balls with your right hand and dipped into a variety of stews known as relishes (ndiwo, umunani). Those who can afford them eat relishes of beef, chicken or fish, but the many who can't make do with beans, tiny dried fish (kapenta), peanuts, pumpkin leaves (chibwabwa) and other vegetables such as okra (ndelele), cabbage and rape. At breakfast, nshima can be served watered down into a soup, maybe with a little sugar. Local restaurants will serve nshima and relish for less than 5000K ($1).
Western food has also made major inroads, particularly in major cities, and in Lusaka or Livingstone you can find almost any food you like. Fast food — including burgers, pizza, and fried chicken — is very popular in Zambia. Bakeries making cheap fresh bread are a common sight in towns, and rice from Chama provides an alternative staple if all the maize starts to get to you.
For sit-down meals, ethnic eateries are popular. In Lusaka, especially noteworthy is the Sunday brunch at The Intercontinental; and if you like Indian food, be sure to hit The Dil. Of course, game parks often cater to wealthy — usually foreign — visitors; therefore, high-quality Western meals can be found easily. Along the major roadways, you will find "tuck shops" featuring packaged cookies or take-away meals — meat pies or sausage rolls, for instance — which may or may not satisfy you.
Finally, in terms of hygiene outside the major cities, you are unlikely to find a proper washroom with running water. You will probably be given or have a set up of a bowl of water, a piece of soap, and a (damp) towel. Therefore, some travelers bring small bottles of anti-bacterial hand soap with them.
Tap water in Zambia is generally not drinkable, at least unless boiled. Bottled water is widely available in cities, but not necessarily in rural areas.
A traditional local drink worth trying is maheu, a somewhat gritty and vaguely yogurty but refreshing beverage made from maize meal. Factory-produced maheu is sweet, comes in plastic bottles and is available in a variety of flavors including banana, chocolate and strawberry, while homemade versions are usually unflavored and less sweet.
Coke products are accessible and cheap at less than a quarter a bottle, but beware of the deposit system: in rural areas, you may have to return an empty bottle before they'll sell you a new one!
Zambia's best-known brew is Mosi, a clear 4% lager available everywhere. Eagle has more taste and more kick at 5.5%, while Zambezi Lager is a microbrew worth sampling if you run into it. The South African brand Castle is also bottled locally, and all of the above run around $1 in a store or $1-2 in a bar.
If you are near the borders, you are likely to find Carlsberg (good, from Malawi), Simba (excellent, from the Democratic Republic of the Congo), Kilimanjaro (nice lager, from Tanzania), and Tusker (strong, from Kenya). Other imports can be found in larger markets but will also cost more.
The locals' drink of choice is masese (muh-SE-say) or ucwala (uch-WALA), also known as Chibuku after the biggest brand, made from maize, millet, or cassava and resembling sour porridge in texture and taste. If you want to try this, it's best to look out for the factory-made kind in milk-carton-like containers.
In rural areas, there are opportunities to drink local "homebrews." A wide variety of homebrews exist in Zambia, from beers made from honey (in the Southern province of the country), to wine made from tea leaves (in the Eastern portion of the country).
Finally, there is kachasu (cuh-CHA-suh) a spirit distilled from anything Zambians can get their hands on — including battery acid and fertilizer. For obvious reasons, therefore, it is better to avoid this moonshine.
On a final note, most men at bars are relaxing, while many women at bars are working. Therefore, if you are a single woman in a Zambian bar, be aware that you might be approached and offered the opportunity to do something you did not intend to do.
In Zambia, you can sleep in an top-notch hotel for a few hundred dollars (such as The Intercontinental); you can stay in an independent hotel (like the The Ndeke), for about $50; or you can opt for a budget experience and spend about: $8(camping) or $15(dorm bed) $30(double room) (at Lusaka Backpackers) for a highly adequate space. If you are overlanding in your own, or a hired vehicle Zambia is a dream destination, its almost what Zambia is made for. The only word of caution for overlanders is in towns and cities, although Zambia is largely safe overlander vehicles can be temptation to some, use a dedicated accommodation site where you can park up and leave your vehicle and belongings safely whilst you are exploring the city or shopping. Currently Wanderers Lodge & Backpackers] is the only place to safely leave your overland vehicle in centrail Lusaka, they have a safe clean campsite, ensuite rooms, a bar that serves food, and importantly you can walk to Manda Hill knowing your vehicle is safely locked away. Of course, choosing accommodation off the beaten path might be more exciting but unsafe.
Outside the big cities or tourist areas, however, you might be hard-pressed to find quality accommodation. If your tastes run to the elegant — or even if you demand constant electricity — you might want to reconsider venturing too deep into the bush. However, if you seek an enjoyable, memorable, and authentic night at a local hotel, you might be pleasantly surprised.
The University of Zambia is the official university. However, it is not affordable for most Zambians. There are also Technical Schools throughout Zambia, and Teacher's Training Colleges are found in each Provincial Capital, providing two year's coursework for about $300.
Northrise University is in Ndola. As a private university, it focuses on business, information technology and theological study.
For tourists, the biggest educational experiences would likely be:
Unemployment in Zambia was 16% in 2005 according to the Zambian Central Statistical Office. The agriculture, forestry and fisheries industries employ over 70% of Zambian workers. The legal minimum wage for nonunionized workers equates to around $16.50 (83,200 kwacha) per month. Most minimum wage earners supplement this through subsistence farming. In practice, almost all unionized workers received salaries considerably higher than the nonunionized minimum wage.
As for tourists, temporary work is likely to be difficult to secure. Although there is a substantial expat community in Zambia, most of these individuals are contracted by international agencies; by and large, they did not come to Zambia and then find work. Persistence and connections might pay off, but outside of the few hostels or Western-oriented bars, a tourist should not expect to find ready employment.
Zambia is one of the few African countries which is generally safe, crime levels are similar to a European country. Bearing this in mind you should always be aware that some of the people are desperately poor and common sense should prevail.
Women should avoid going to bars alone. Furthermore, men should avoid purchasing drinks for Zambian women they meet casually in bars; this is an invitation to spend the night.
While it's possible to get a good exchange rate from an individual money-changer on the street (although you really should use banks if you can), you should avoid changing money with groups of men. They are likely running a scam.
Generally, Zambians are friendly people. However — as with any location — be careful about walking at night, especially if you've been drinking. There are few streetlights, and many of the locals are very poor.
Carjacking is also a potential risk while driving after dark.
Many places of accommodation have electric fences, gates and guards for added security. You can check before booking.
Corruption became endemic in Zambia under president Rupiah Banda. Don't expect the police to be of any substantial assistance to you. If you need to log a report for insurance purposes, you can expect to have pay to do so. If you make an accusation or indicate a suspicion with a local, the person you lodge the complaint against may be interrogated and beaten by the police. However this situation has improved under new president Michael Sata.
Gay & Lesbian Travelers
As is the case in most African countries, Zambia has a social and cultural atmosphere of discrimination towards the LGBT community. There are laws against sexual relations between males. These have been enforced against Zambians, but it is unlikely that foreign tourists will be arrested. Increased foreign pressure has been put to bear on Zambia's policies towards this human rights issue. The former Deputy President, Guy Scott, has indicated that the government is held to God following the conservative local population. Considerable change is unlikely any time soon. Guy Scott suggested the Zambian government is aware of gay bars in Lusaka and had no intention of moving against them, but suggested however that gays should remain restrained. In this part of the world, a Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy is a significant improvement on overt prosecution.
Whilst staying in a hotel is generally safe, your best bet might be a backpackers. These tend to be owned, run and frequented by more cosmopolitan staff and guests who are often well traveled and will have seen it all before. You should be aware that on leaving your backpackers, public signs of affection are not a good idea.
Drinking tap water in the cities is potentially risky, unless either (a) you have a strong stomach, or (b) you are at a restaurant or hotel that caters to foreigners. If neither of these conditions apply to you, you should probably stick with the bottled stuff.
The HIV infection rate among adults was estimated to be 16.5% in 2003. Do not have unprotected sex.
Zambia is a highly malarial country. Especially at dusk, you should make every effort to cover exposed skin with clothing or insect repellent. In addition, using malarial prophylaxis in highly recommended.
In practice, yellow fever is not a problem in Zambia anymore, except perhaps in the extreme west along the Congolese borders. However, many countries will insist on a yellow fever vaccination certificate if they find out you've been to Zambia, so it's best to get a jab.
Zambians follow a strict patriarchal society — men are afforded more respect than women, and older men are respected more than younger men. However, you might find that a white person, of any gender or age, is granted the most respect of all. A holdover from colonial times, this might make a traveler uncomfortable, but this is largely a Zambian's way of being courteous. Accept their hospitality.
Zambians are a curious people. To a Western mindset, this might be interpreted as unnecessarily staring at you or talking about you in front of you. Be prepared to be greeted by kids yelling mzungu, mzungu! (literally, white man) and answer lots of questions about yourself.
Zambians love to shake hands, and you should oblige them. However, Zambians often like to hold hands for the duration of a conversation. This should not be interpreted as anything sexual; they are merely trying to "connect" with you. If you feel uncomfortable, simply pull your hand away. If you wish to be courteous or show respect then holding your right wrist or elbow with your left hand as you shake is acceptable. Do not expect a firm handshake as this is considered agressive, likewise do not be too firm in yours.
Eye contact is also considered aggressive and disrespectful, you can make eye contact but do not hold it, slide your eyes away, but do not face away.
Women should not wear shorts or mini-skirts, especially as they travel away from Lusaka. (Thighs, to Zambian men, are huge turn-ons.) Low-cut tops, however, while discouraged, are not nearly as provocative.
Pointing with the index finger should not be done, it is considered vulgar.
Finally, when meeting a Zambian — even to ask a question — you should always say hello and ask how they are. Properly greeting a Zambian is very important. They are uncomfortable with the Western notion of simply "getting to the point." Enquiries about children are generally welcome and are a good way to break the ice.
The Zambian mail service is slow and a little flaky (especially in Lusaka), but not completely hopeless. This is due to the amount of mail they receive in Lusaka against a small number of employees. Smaller like Livingstone and Ndola tend to have better service delivery. However, with the EMS branch of the Zambia Postal Service, you're better off using them as they are very efficient sometimes more than private courier service. Using a private courier service is still recommended if sending something important.
The country code for Zambia is "260." The city code for Lusaka Province is "0211" , Southern Province "0213" Copperbelt province "0212" For the city code for other towns check the directory. However, phone service both within Zambia and into Zambia is very hit-or-miss. In large cities, you are more likely to get regular, dependable phone service, but it is by no means a guarantee. The farther you travel from Lusaka, the less likely you are to maintain a good connection. International calling rates can be as high as $1.5 per minute.
Cell phones have been booming in recent years, and Zambia has a highly competitive market with three main operators: airtel (097), Zamtel (095) and MTN (096). Generally speaking, airtel has the largest network, while Cell Z is the cheapest. You can pick up a local SIM card for as little as K5 ($0.5). Prepaid time is sold in "units" corresponding to dollars: figure on 0.2 units for an SMS or up to 1 unit/minute for calls, although as always the precise tariffs are bewilderingly complex. If you plan on roaming with your non-Zambian SIM, check first to see if your home operator has made any roaming agreements; Zambia is usually not on the top of their list. Also note that the roaming prices are very high and coverage in rural areas can be spotty.
Booths labeled "public telephone" these days consist, more often than not, of a guy renting out his cellphone. Typical rates are K5/min ($0.5) for domestic and K15/min ($1.5) for international calls.
Internet cafes are springing up in Zambia, but again, connections can be sporadic and very slow. Moreover, because constant electricity is not a guarantee, some Internet cafes operate backup generators, which can be extremely costly. Be prepared to see Internet cafe charges as high as 25 cents per minute. Some hotels might offer Internet connections to their guests.