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War zone safety

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Zabul Province, Afghanistan

War zones or former war zones, often called hostile environments, are not the most obvious places for non-essential travel, but with the right preparation and a bit of luck they can provide the intrepid traveler with a unique experience. It is also, of course, the job of many people to travel to war zones.

Keep in mind that it is very unusual for non-combatants to be wandering around war zones. Even if you have no hostile intentions, your very presence may result in heated reactions; among other things, you may be mistaken for a spy. Tourists can be just as much a target of hostility as any military force. Indeed, tourists could be regarded as a soft target since they do not have the backup of a large organization.

A tourist or independent traveler will probably not have the same backup as someone working for an organization. Usually, those people will have a security team to provide advice and support. Without this, there may be limited backup if things go wrong.

Safety advice[edit]

A little research into your chosen destination can turn up a lot of useful advice. Some, such as government issued travel advice can be over cautious, but there are often organizations specializing in safety information for the UN for example. There will be NGOs (Non Governmental Organizations) operating in most of these places.

Wikipedia has a list of ongoing conflicts that may not be entirely up to date.

Training courses[edit]

Anyone considering a visit to a country that could be considered a war zone should consider some professional training. Such courses are becoming increasingly easy to find. A search of the Internet for 'Hostile environment course' will probably provide the address of a local company. A course will normally cover all the issues discussed here in far greater detail, usually with practical experience. They can be a lot of fun too. A course will normally be from 2-5 days and will involve role play, a lot of first aid and sometimes weapons training. Most NGO staff, journalists, diplomats etc. will have taken these courses.

  • [1] AKE International Ltd, delivers Hostile Environment Awareness Training for Journalists and NGO's overseas and the UK.
  • Pilgrims Group offer training in the UK.
  • Athena Security & Intelligence Consultants (ASIC) Ltd offer training both in the UK and globally. They are experts in the delivery of Kidnap Avoidance and Hostage Survival training as well as offering a variety of other training specialisations.
  • OnPoint Tactical [2]. located in the US. Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Escape training for civilians and military alike.
  • War Zone Tours [3] conduct regular hostile environment/Anti kidnap training to travelers visiting high risk regions of the world.
  • Anstey Group [4] located with one of their offices in the UAE delivering advise, training and protection to individuals and organizations that travels in high risk countries in the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia.
  • Spartan9 [5] provides training for individuals and organizations operating in complex and higher-risk environments.


Books and magazines dealing with wilderness survival are common, but publications dealing with war zones are few.

  • Robert Young Pelton's The World's Most Dangerous Places is a thousand page plus book that provides advice, contacts, country by country information and still remains the only book that provides unique ground truth on war zones. His web site [6] features a forum Black Flag Cafe for updates and contacts.
  • There is also the BBC TV series Holidays in the Danger Zone.
  • Rosie Garthwaite's How to Avoid Being Killed in a War Zone: The Essential Survival Guide for Dangerous Places; includes practical advice, experiences and tips for people who plan to spend time in war zones.

Land mines and unexploded ordnance[edit]

Land mine warning sign, Cambodia
Mine/UXO marking in Croatia

Most places that have seen armed conflict can be affected by mines or unexploded ordnance (UXO).

In some cases, these may remain dangerous for decades after the conflict ends — for example, China has had some deaths in the 21st century from left over World War II munitions. After a few years, heavily populated or heavily visited areas will generally have been cleaned up, but out-of-the-way places may remain dangerous.

Mines fall into two categories: anti-personnel and anti-tank. Anti-personnel mines generally are not designed to kill. Maiming an enemy combatant is more effective than killing since resources are needed to evacuate. Anti-tank mines will not normally be triggered if you stand on one. They are designed to be triggered by a vehicle. One other point, if you step on an anti-personnel mine, it explodes immediately. There is no click or any other warning as is sometimes depicted in the movies.

The best advice for any of these devices is to stay well clear. There are often warning signs of their presence. This can be as subtle as an untouched field in a heavily farmed area, an abandoned house in a busy district etc. Packing crates for mines or ammunition may be present, where they have been discarded. A convenient path may be disused. Where mines/UXO have been found, the affected area should be marked. Red paint on rocks is a sure sign. Pieces of cloth or cans hanging from a fence is another. Dead cattle or a pattern of craters are also possible. The best source of advice may be from local people.

Even if minefields are marked, in time rain and rivers can move devices into other areas. This has been a problem in the Balkans, where death and injury from mines on river banks are common.

When in an area that is known or suspected to be mined, stay on a paved road when possible. If not possible, follow car tracks or well-trod footpaths. Should you, despite your best efforts, find yourself in a mined area, STOP. Stay where you are and call for assistance from someone who knows what they are doing. If this is not possible, retrace your exact steps back to safety (this is very dangerous). If you have a long rod (even a pen might work), you may be able to check for mines and escape the area. Insert the rod into the ground at a very shallow angle. Mines will not normally be triggered when they are hit from the side. You need to check an area just big enough for your foot. Keep doing this for every step. It could take hours, even days to get out of the danger area, but you should be alive. However be extremely careful as some mines have anti-removal devices, and may explode. Many mines will jump upwards and then explode so it is recommended to quickly sprawl if you notice a mine jump.


Travel insurance generally does not cover you for travel to war zones. People who go to war zones as part of their work are usually covered by special insurance with very high premiums, the cost of which is usually borne by the company.

Road blocks[edit]

Road blocks are common, not just in war zones. They will usually be hidden round a corner in the road (especially if they are not official). Road blocks are most commonly an opportunity for the people manning them to extort money from passers by. There are a few useful rules for dealing with road blocks. First, keep your hands in sight. That way, no one will think you may have a weapon ready. Look pleased to see the people who have stopped you, even if you feel contempt for them. Be polite. Try to stay in the vehicle. If this is not possible, try to stay together, especially if you or others in your group are female. Keep all doors locked and if possible windows closed.

Do not photograph any military checkpoints, roadblocks or facilities. Also do not photograph sensitive areas like bridges, border checkpoints, communications facilities and airports. When in doubt, ask for permission beforehand. In many nations it is an offense to photograph these items - the military may suspect you are gathering information for hostile forces to use in an attack.


To avoid the danger of kidnapping it may be wise to look into hiring a professional bodyguard and a camouflage passport, which is a faux passport "issued" by a non-existent country. Camouflage passports are used to throw off terrorists and abductors, who may be looking to single out a person from a specific nation. Camouflage passports cannot be used for official business, because anyone can purchase these passports with minimal identity verification.

In any kidnapping/abduction, the kidnappers have the least control right at the start. As time passes, their control over the situation increases and the opportunity for the victim to act reduces. Many kidnap attempts are foiled because the intended victim reacts to the attempt in a way that the kidnappers did not expect. If driving a vehicle, reversing away from danger or changing direction may help. Specialist courses are available for drivers.

There are numerous measures an individual can take to avoid/minimise the risk of Kidnap/Abduction. Additionally, should the worst occur and despite all your best efforts, you are taken captive - there are things you can and should be doing in order to maximise the chances of safe repatriation and to minimise unnecessary harm befalling you or other captives. Specialist training in Kidnap Avoidance/Hostage Survival is available and should be sought by those intending to operate in high risk areas - or even those personnel whose personal or corporate profile renders them at an increased risk of kidnap. Athena Security & Intelligence Consultants (ASIC) Ltd [7] offer such training to corporate and private Clients both in the UK and abroad.


If you are unfamiliar with firearms and what they can do, get training before you enter a hostile environment. As an unarmed civilian, your best bet is to avoid active conflict areas.

If you are shot at, move and move fast. If you can, move across the line of fire and not directly away from the shooting. If you are part of a group, scatter in different directions. This may confuse the person with the firearm, long enough to find cover.

Do not take cover behind vehicles. Pistol bullets easily pass through both doors of a car; rifle bullets can pass through a vehicle lengthwise; grenades, mortars and cannon shells can destroy most vehicles altogether. Stopped or disabled vehicles are "bullet magnets" that draw fire. The best protection provided by a car or truck is its ability to move away at high speed. If forced to take cover behind a vehicle or inside one, put the engine block between yourself and the shooter - it rarely gets penetrated by small arms fire.

Walls, trees, and structures provide concealment, but may not provide cover. The 7.62mm round used by the AK-47, a common assault rifle in war zones, can pass through a concrete block. The less powerful 9mm pistol round can go through a dozen layers of sheetrock. [8]

A rule of thumb to keep in mind is the 'three-second rule' which basically states if you need to move to another place of cover, it should not be more than a three second sprint away. If possible, suppress hostile fire while moving. A good phrase to remember (if possible) is: 'I'm up, He's seen me, I'm down.' Basically, you are up out of cover and moving (fast), you assume the shooter has seen you and is taking aim, and then you are back down behind suitable defensive cover before he can fire.


The chances of being caught up in an explosion are pretty remote. Avoiding high risk locations, such as restaurants or bars frequented by people that could be targets is an option. If you are unlucky enough to be in the area of an explosion, leave as quickly as possible. This is because an increasingly common tactic by terrorists is to trigger a small explosion, followed by a large one to catch crowds and rescuers.

If you are caught in an area subjected to bombardment by artillery or other heavy weapons, stay low and find cover as quickly as you can. The basement of a concrete or otherwise reinforced structure is ideal but any kind of sturdy (key word is sturdy: a wooden roof is more liable to become shrapnel than protection) overhead cover improves your odds.


Bulletproof vests[edit]

A bulletproof vest [9] might save your life in some circumstances, but there are problems. No vest can protect body parts that it does not cover. Vests that are reasonably light and comfortable will stop most pistol bullets and some shrapnel, but not anything heavier. They will stop a slashing attack with a knife, and possibly thrust attacks depending on the vest (see Wikipedia article).

Armour strong enough to stop most rifle bullets exists, but it is heavy, bulky, uncomfortable, and conspicuous. No form of body armour will stop a heavy round such as .50 caliber.

A few vendors ([10], [11]) are now offering clothing that looks fairly normal, even stylish, but is actually bulletproof. This may be a good option because it is less conspicuous and easier to wear all the time. It is expensive — from a few hundred to several thousand dollars a garment — but if your life is at risk and you can get the funds, it is obviously worth it. If an employer wants to send you to a war zone, ask them to pay for this.


In some areas, some travelers go armed; for example civilian contractors in Iraq are sometimes advised to carry weapons. The best response to such advice is, obviously, not to go there! If you must go, traveling with armed guards is generally a better alternative than arming yourself.

For most travelers, carrying a weapon will increase the risks rather than reducing them. If you carry a weapon, you are not a civilian. You will be seen as a spy or soldier, and treated as such by armed groups. Carrying a weapon you are not trained to use is extremely foolish. Even if you are an expert, a pistol will not be much use against people with AK-47s or sniper rifles. This is a case where if you need to ask, then you shouldn't do it.


The following countries locations of heavy conflict (1000+ deaths per annum), or are otherwise extremely dangerous for tourists:

  • Afghanistan - Terrorism, widespread corruption
  • Gaza Strip - Kidnappings, political violence, intermittent conflict
  • Iraq - Terrorism, kidnappings, war, political violence, widespread corruption, government instability
  • Libya - Civil War, Political Violence, kidnappings, government instability, terrorism, civil unrest
  • Pakistan - Terrorism, corruption, kidnapping, War in North-West Pakistan, Guerrila War in Balochistan Province.
  • Somalia - government instability, terrorism, kidnappings, widespread corruption
  • South Sudan - Civil war, Political violence, kidnappings, government instability, high risk of genocide
  • Syria - Civil War, political violence, terrorism, government instability, kidnappings, civil unrest
  • Ukraine (only Lugansk & Donetsk Oblasts): political violence, war, government instability, civil unrest. In the rest of Ukraine, it is usually safe and calm except some corruption.
  • Yemen - Civil war, government instability, South Yemen insurgency in southern Yemen, al-Qaeda Insurgency in northeast Yemen, Houthi insurgency in west Yemen, political violence, widespread corruption

The following countries are not necessarily war zones, but using war zone safety might be a good idea:

  • Algeria - Terrorism, kidnappings, insurgency.
  • Angola - Terrorism and insurgency in Cabinda, police corruption
  • Armenia - Conflict with Azerbaijan in Nagorno-Karabakh.
  • Azerbaijan - Conflict with Armenia in Nagorno-Karabakh.
  • Brazil - Homicide, violent robbery
  • Burundi - Spillover from Kivu conflict in the DRC, political violence
  • Cameroon - Kidnappings, terrorism and insurgency in Northern Cameroon
  • Central African Republic - Political violence, widespread corruption, war, government instability
  • Chad - Political turmoil and violent crime, terrorism, insurgency in western and northern Chad
  • China - Terrorism and insurgency mainly in Xinjiang and Tibet.
  • Colombia - Homicide, kidnappings
  • Democratic Republic of Congo - Ongoing war in both North and South Kivu, Insurgencies in Katanga, Orientale and Maniema provinces, government instability, kidnappings, famine, disease, widespread corruption, tribal violence
  • Egypt - Terrorism, Conflict in North Sinai.
  • El Salvador - Homicide
  • Georgia - Crime and landmines in Russian-occupied South Ossetia and Abkhazia
  • Guatemala - Homicide, police corruption, raping. The main tourist destinations are generally safe, at least during the day time (f.e. Antigua is all right)
  • Guinea Bissau - Violent crime, corruption
  • Guinea - Corruption, Violent robbery
  • Haiti - Crime, unrest, muggings.
  • Honduras - Homicide, kidnappings
  • Iran - Restrictive government
  • Indonesia - Terrorism and insurgency mainly in West Papua and Papua, political violence.
  • Israel - Terrorism (in areas that are close to the Palestinian Territories and Gaza Strip)
  • Jordan - Terrorism, conflict along Syrian and Iraqi borders.
  • Kenya - Terrorism
  • Kosovo - Insurgency/dispute
  • Kuwait - Terrorism
  • Lebanon - Civil unrest, spillover from Syrian civil war, political violence
  • Malaysia - Terrorism and insurgency mainly in Sabah. Other areas are generally safe.
  • Mali - government instability, famine, war in northern Mali
  • Mauritania - Terrorism and kidnappings
  • Mexico - Homicide, widespread corruption, Mexican Drug War, crime, civil unrest, kidnappings. Baja California Sur, Huatulco to Puerto Escondido, and Yucatan peninsula are generally safe.
  • Mozambique - Political violence and insurgency
  • Myanmar - Insurgency in Shan, Mon, Chin (Zomi), Karen, Kayah, Rakhine and Kachin states. Rest of parts are safe.
  • Niger - Government instability, terrorism, kidnappings, insurgency in southern Niger
  • Nigeria - Insurgency in northern Nigeria, government instability, insurgency in the Niger Delta, crime, kidnappings, corruption
  • North Korea - Harsh/restrictive government, kidnapping, plus tense relations with South Korea and the Western world, particularly the U.S.
  • Philippines - Terrorism and insurgency mainly in Sulu, Basilan, Zamboanga Peninsula, Tawi Tawi, and Lanao Del Sur, kidnappings, police corruption, violent crime.
  • Russia - Terrorism and kidnappings mainly in North Caucasus, police corruption.
  • Saudi Arabia - Harsh/restrictive government, discrimination against non-Muslims.
  • Sudan - Harsh/restrictive government, terrorism, kidnappings, political violence, tribal violence, wars in Darfur and Kordofan and conflict with South Sudan along the border
  • Tajikistan - Harsh/restrictive government, discrimination against non-Muslims.
  • Thailand - Violent robbery, terrorism in four deep southern provinces, other remaining parts are safe.
  • Turkey - Terrorism, harsh/restrictive government, kidnappings and insurgency mainly in southeastern Turkey, police corruption.
  • Turkmenistan - Harsh/restrictive government.
  • Ukraine - political violence in Crimea, which was occupied by Russia in 2014
  • Uzbekistan - Harsh/restrictive government.
  • Venezuela - Homicide, kidnappings.

First aid[edit]

Basic first aid, as taught by a local Red Cross [12] will show you how to treat minor injuries and perform CPR. These and similar courses are often inexpensive or free.

Hostile environment, combat medic, or "defensive medical" courses focus on control of bleeding, shock, airway management, and trauma care. They usually include training in the use of tourniquets, H-bandages, nasal airways, and hemostatic agents like QuikClot or CELOX.

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