Texas  known as the "Lone Star State" is the second largest and second most populous state in the South in United States of America. Owing to its remarkable size, distinctive culture and politics, and colorful history, many Texans maintain a fiercely independent attitude, with Texan identity often superseding American identity. Few other American states feature their flag so prominently in businesses, on the backs of cars and in advertisements. It also is very tax-friendly with the lowest taxes in the USA. Originally a territory of Spain and, later, Mexico, Texas rebelled in 1836 and became its own nation for 10 years before being annexed by the United States in 1845. Despite having existed under the auspices of six different nations (France, Spain, Mexico, the Republic of Texas, the Confederate States of America, and the United States of America), Texas has maintained its fascinating independent spirit, making for a unique and unrivaled exploration ground for any intrigued and intrepid adventurer.
Known for their generosity, hospitality, unusual accent, and penchant for the larger-than-life, Texans are wonderful people to meet, and the variety of cultural experiences, from feasting on bratwurst with the Germans of the Hill Country to watching Flamenco dancers with the Tejanos of the Rio Grande valley, is seemingly unlimited.
The large size of the state should not be underestimated. Texas measures over 267,000 square miles (695,673 sq. km) in area, making it slightly larger than France. Having a car is essential for travel between cities, and within most. The traveler should factor on long driving times between cities and destinations.
Time Zones in Texas
The state of Texas observes two different time zones The majority of the state observes Central Time.
Hudspeth County and El Paso County located in western Texas Observes Mountain Time.
France, Spain and Mexico have all laid claim to Texas at one point or another. However, in 1836, Texas won its independence from Mexico and became the Republic of Texas. The most famous battle of the fight for independence was the stand at the Alamo. The Alamo was a stand against the invading Mexican Army. Although tragic, the sacrifice allowed the main army of Texas time enough to gather their strength and defeat the formidable Mexican army, led by General Santa Anna. Nine years later Texas agreed to be annexed by the United States and became the 28th state of the Union.
The ethnic background of Texas is extremely diverse. Fully one-third of the population has some sort of Hispanic background. There are also many German settlements (such as Fredericksburg and New Braunfels), as well as Norwegian, Polish, Czech, Swedish and French settlements. Also, a sizeable number of African-Americans (mainly in East, North and Southeast Texas) and Asian-Americans (often in in metropolitan areas of Texas) can be found.
Texas is a huge state and thusly experiences an extreme variety of weather. The state is very warm in the summer months, with temperatures often above 100ºF (38ºC). In West Texas and the Panhandle, summers are usually dry with fits of stormy weather. North (Dallas/Fort Worth region) and coastal (Houston region) areas have unstable climates (hence the oft-repeated saying about Texas weather: "If you don't like the weather, wait 10 minutes" – though 10 minutes later you might not like the change).
Thunderstorms are common, sometimes generating tornadoes and hailstorms. It is often warmer near the coast, though humidity can be unbearable in the summer. Conversely, the spring, autumn and winter are relatively pleasant for most of the state. It rarely dips below the freezing point in winter, except in the Panhandle region where the winters can get quite cold (Lubbock and Amarillo have suffered devastating blizzards in the past), and, though it is quite rare, even points as far south as Corpus Christi and Brownsville have seen snow.
Again, the sheer size of the state is not to be underestimated. Brewster County in West Texas is larger in land area than Rhode Island and Delaware combined, while Texas' largest ranch, King Ranch is larger than Rhode Island; also Texarkana is closer to Chicago than it is to El Paso, and Brownsville is closer to Mexico City than it is to Dallas. If you are wanting to take in the full Texas experience, you will need ample time to do so.
Texas has no official language. However, as with the rest of the United States, English is the predominant language of the state. Spanish is also widely spoken by approximately one-third of the population. (Don't assume that all people of Mexican heritage speak Spanish; some families have been in Texas for longer than Texas has been part of the U.S.) The Hill Country region in Texas also has it's own unique dialect of the German language thanks to the German settlers who settled much of the area, although it is mostly spoken by the elderly population and is thus dying out. Texas also has small numbers of Amharic, Arabic, Chinese, Farsi, French, Hindi, Korean, Russian, Tagalog, and Vietnamese speakers as well owning to recent trends in immigration.
Don't assume that the majority people are going to have a "Texan" accent. While you will run into many that do, the majority of Texans, especially in Dallas and other urbanized cities lack the "Texan twang" one associates with the state's residents
Texas shares an international border with Mexico as well as a 600 mile coastline. It is bordered on the north by the state of Oklahoma, on the west by the state of New Mexico, and on the east by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana. As a state of the United States, all visa and passport rules of the USA apply.
Texas is home to two major airlines: American Airlines , based out of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport; and Southwest Airlines , based out of Love Field, Dallas's secondary airport. United Airlines maintains a primary hub at Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH). American and United fly direct to/from many national and international destinations. Southwest is the no-frills discounter granddad and flies throughout Texas and most of the United States as well as Mexico and some destinations in Central America. Travel to any destination world-wide is quite painless from the larger Texas airports.
The primary (commercial) airports are in:
Texas is well-served from other points in the U.S. by the United States Interstate Highway system, the quality and condition of which is generally very good. There are many roads which cross into Texas from Mexico, most notably in McAllen, Brownsville, Laredo and El Paso. Due to the enormous amount of traffic from Mexico and Central America, Laredo is the country's largest inland port, and wait times at this and all border stations can often be tremendous. In all, Texas boasts over 72,000 miles of state and federal highways.
If you are not a U.S. citizen and you are driving into the U.S. from Mexico, you must have a visa or valid permit beforehand, as they are not issued at the bridges across the Rio Grande. If you are a U.S. citizen, you must present a passport to customs at the border crossings to re-enter the United States. Otherwise, your vacation in Mexico just got longer! If you are not a citizen, prepared to be deported.
Amtrak, +1 800 USA-RAIL (+1 800 872-7245),  offer two routes through Texas:
For the braver, more adventurous (and more frugal) passengers, the bus may be another option. Please take into consideration that this mode of transportation is used by those who cannot afford air travel (as well as individuals preferring overland travel) and you may be riding with migrant workers, and very low income Americans. Even so, conditions at most stations and on the buses are okay. Greyhound has the largest network and can take you to remote cities within Texas, and can also take you as far as Mexico City and all points in Canada. Megabus also runs buses from New Orleans to Houston and Memphis to Dallas respectively. Longhorn Charter Bus is based in Texas and operates in several large cities such as Dallas, San Antonio and Houston to name a few. GOGO Charters is another famous transportation service in Texas, operating in and around the state. SHOFUR is a charter bus rental provider that has an extensive transportation network in all 50 states.
There are a large number of bus lines operated by various companies such as Autobuses Americanos, Omnibus Mexicanos, Turimex Internacional, El Expreso, and Tornado that serve the large Mexican population in Texas, running routes across the border from Texas to regions in Mexico such as Monterrey, Guadalajara, San Luis Potosi, Zacatecas, Durango, Tampico, Mexico City, and Chihuahua. Bus passengers coming from Mexico must have a valid passport.
The road system is almost universally excellent, and even the most remote points in the state can be accessed with an average sedan. Gas stations are numerous; however, in rural West Texas, do not press your luck. Texan highways are often built with parallel frontage roads and turnarounds at most exits. Speed limits are very strictly enforced in rural areas of the state; Texas state troopers will pull you over for an infraction as small as five miles per hour over the speed limit. However, when traveling through larger cities, observing the "common speed" of traffic around you is much safer. The rural speed limit in Texas is generally 70-75 MPH (even on two lane roads), though it increases to 80 MPH on Interstates 10 and 20 in the sparsely populated far western portion of the state.
Some of the highways in Texas, particularly around cities such as Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, or Austin are toll roads. While some of them do accept cash tolls, others are all electronic and requires use of a TxTag transponder. Most Texas drivers are courteous and careful drivers, and the safety and ease of driving in Texas is similar to most developed countries. However exceptions can be found in the most congested areas of Houston and Dallas, where road rage, reckless driving and red-light running are commonplace.
In regards to driver's licenses, Texas has reciprocity agreements with 83 countries (including Canada, Mexico, United Kingdom, most of Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea), meaning your driver's license is likely good in Texas if you plan to stay less than a year. That being said it never hurts to carry an International Driving Permit (IDP) in addition to your domestic license; for foreign nationals of countries who do not have reciprocity agreements, this is a must. IDPs are available from your local automobile association and are usually valid for one year.
Flying may be a more reasonable option from crossing large expanses of the state. Many airlines like American, American Eagle, United, United Express and Southwest link cities within the state of Texas.
The primary (commercial) airports are in:
Some of the smaller airports in the state, served mainly by United, Southwest and/or American Eagle flights to/from Houston or Dallas.
Since Texas cities are geographically dispersed, travel by train is expensive and often inconvenient, though Amtrak  does provide several lines. Passenger service is no longer an option for cities in the Panhandle or southern Texas. Again, the size of the state is startling; traveling across the width of Texas (from Orange, in the eastern extremity, near Houston, to El Paso in the western extremity) is roughly the same distance as one would encounter while traveling from El Paso to Los Angeles or from Houston to Jacksonville, Florida. Texarkana, in the northeast corner of the state, is closer to Chicago than it is to the extreme southern tip of Texas.
The below are the train lines passing through (one originating from Fort Worth) and the cities & towns they stop at:
The below is a local commuter train:
Greyhound , Vonlane , AFC Transportation , ECHO Transportation , and Megabus  provides intercity bus service. Of the five companies mentioned Greyhound has the largest network and serves the most cities and towns in Texas.
Fun and Games
Culture and "Texana"
Sales tax in Texas is usually between 6.25% and 8.25%. The main items exempt from sales tax include medicines (prescription and over-the-counter), food and food seeds (but prepared food such as from a restaurant, is subject to sales tax). Texas provides one sales tax holiday per year (generally in August prior to the start of the school year, running from Friday to Sunday of the designated weekend). Clothing less than $100 (except for certain items, such as golf shoes) and school supplies are exempt from all sales tax (state and local) on this one weekend only.
The major department stores in Texas include Neiman Marcus, Saks Fifth Avenue, Nordstrom, Dillard's, Macy's, JCPenney, Sears, Kohls, and Bealls. The first three are considered to be upscale. Macy's and Dillard's is mostly midrange and most stores feature its own store brands. JCPenney, Sears, Kohls, and Bealls generally target a middle-class to working-class market.
Some noteworthy malls and shopping centers include:
In addition there are also several outlet malls located in Texas of which the most important are located at San Marcos, Round Rock, Texas City, Terrell, Grand Prairie, El Paso, and McAllen. In particular the outlet mall in San Marcos has been ranked as one of the best in the country, and is popular with both locals and Mexican tourists.
For those who want to buy genuine cowboy boots and other western wear, there are located all over Texas.
The Fry's Electronics computer retail chain has several stores located in Texas primarily in the Dallas/Fort Worth, Houston, and Austin areas. Unfortunately, most Fry's stores are not conveniently located from a tourist perspective and are very difficult to reach without a rental car.
As in the rest of the U.S., the leading convenience store chain in Texas is 7-Eleven which is coincidentally founded and based in Dallas. The two other major convenience store chains are Stripes and Circle K.
For basic supplies, try to use supermarkets and pharmacies if possible, as they have better selection and provide better value for your money than convenience stores. The major pharmacy chains in Texas are CVS, Walgreens, and Rite Aid. The major supermarket chains include H-E-B, Kroger, Randall's, Tom Thumb, Albertsons, United, Brookshire Brothers, and Aldi. Whole Foods Market which is based in Austin is the leading organic/natural supermarket throughout the state; and other organic/natural chains such as Trader Joe's, Central Market, and Sprouts Farmers Market have a presence in the larger cities as well. The ubiquitous discount store chains Walmart and Target both offer some groceries (Walmart Supercenters and SuperTargets offer a full selection of groceries) and also usually have pharmacies on site.
Aside from those Texas staples mentioned earlier it is also relatively easy to find hole in the wall ethnic restaurants serving a wide variety of authentic ethnic cuisines from around the world such as interior Mexican, Cajun, Italian, Chinese, Lebanese, Honduran, Cuban, Ethiopian, Salvadorian, Vietnamese, Thai, Indian, etc especially in large and medium sized cities thanks to the large and rapidly growing transplant/immigrant population in Texas particularly in Houston, Dallas, Austin, and San Antonio. In addition cities such as Austin have jump started the national trend on food trucks. These usually offer a variety of foods, usually at lower than normal prices. Some popular food trucks include East Side King, Chi’lantro, Hey Cupcake!, and the Peached Tortilla
As with all other states, the legal drinking age in Texas is 21. And like with most other states, Texas allows underage drinking on both private non-alcohol and alcohol selling premises, but only if a parent or legal guardian is present  
Texas has many cities with fabulous nightlife. Some of the more notable include:
The maximum legal Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) limit for adults is 0.08.
In early 2006, the controversial Texas Alcohol and Beverage Commission (TABC) program that allows for "public intoxication" arrests in any public area or business establishment, including bars, drew national attention. This was due to an unfortunate incident where people staying in a hotel were arrested for being intoxicated in that hotel's bar. There has been enough negative feedback from the public regarding the TABC program that it has been suspended for review.
Texas (especially Austin) produces a number of famous beers, particularly German-style beers, which are available throughout the state and beyond.
There are also several important regional breweries, such as:
Texas Wine & Other Spirits
While not on the level of either Napa Valley or Sonoma Valley in California, Texas does have a burgeoning wine industry that is mainly concentrated in the Hill Country west of San Antonio and Austin and in the Panhandle region around Lubbock. Several wineries in Texas such as Llano Estacado Winery have actually won many awards. There are several wineries in and around Fredericksburg that are open to the public throughout the week, but the rest usually open their tasting rooms only on weekends.
Tito's Vodka is also produced in Texas and is unusual compared with other vodkas since it is made from yellow corn, instead of the more commonly used wheat or potatoes, resulting in a mildly sweet aftertaste, and is distilled six times.
Law Enforcement in Texas
Texas Department of Public Safety is the state law enforcement agency and has jurisdiction in Texas. Texas DPS officers wear a tan uniform with a cowboy style hat. DPS marked cars are black and white with the state of Texas insignia and department of public safety lettering.Texas DPS patrol highways and can assist local and county law enforcement. Texas DPS also patrol rural communites too small to have their own police force.
County Sheriff and constable have jurisdiction within counties.
Police department have jurisdiction within their city,town and area.
Texas / Mexico Border
Due to the state's proximity to the International Boundary with Mexico, visitors should be cautious while in areas near the border.
Crossing The Border
Thousands of U.S citizens visit Mexico from Texas every year with the majority of travelers returning from an enjoyable experience. However, a minority of travelers do experience difficulties and serious inconveniences while traveling to Mexico. It is illegal to transport any guns or ammunition into Mexico and you can immediately get thrown in a Mexican jail for doing so. Before traveling to Mexico, ensure that you have the proper documentation and are familiar with the recommendations for foreign travel from the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs.
While many of the Mexican border towns adjacent to Texas such as Nuevo Progreso, Ciudad Acuña, Piedras Negras, and Ojinaga are safe, other Mexican border towns such as Ciudad Juarez, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros have been severely affected by the recent drug war violence and there have been occasions when innocents were caught in the wrong place at the wrong time when a firefight broke out, so one is advised to should exercise extreme caution when visiting the latter group of cities and heed locals advise. According to the US Department of State in recent years US citizens have been victims of "homicide, gun battles, kidnapping, carjacking, and highway robbery" in Mexico. 
Also if you are traveling further into Mexico away from the border be sure to obtain a Mexican tourism permit (forma migratoria para turista, or FMT) which is required unless you are staying within the border zone (about 15 miles in) and not staying more than 72 hours.
The crime rate in Texas is relatively low. In the larger cities, if you stay in the tourist areas you will be generally safe (talk to your hotel concierge or manager if you aren't sure about a certain area). The rural areas have a very low crime rate. College towns and suburbs in Texas have a medium crime rate.
There are a couple of things you should be aware of that have to do with drug laws Texas. Some common painkillers in other countries or in other states are illegal narcotics in Texas like codeine. Don't bring any with you unless you carry a copy of your prescription or you may join others who have received jail sentences. In contrast, antibiotics are freely available over the counter at pharmacies. If you receive a prescription for controlled drugs in Texas, such as some painkillers and antidepressants, be sure to keep the copy of the prescription with you when traveling out of the state.
Another trap for the unwary is that if you are suspected of being under the influence of drugs, a blood test can be taken, and if it shows evidence of substances that are illegal, then you will probably end up in jail even if the substances were ingested in the country or state that you were previously in. In addition to testing your blood, they will likely check your belongings. People have been jailed for possession for finding microscopic specks of drugs on them with highly sensitive equipment.
Drug smugglers and illegal immigrants are a problem in the southern region of the state along the Rio Grande. Use caution when picking up hitchhikers (or hitchhiking yourself) here. There are checkpoints along major highways leading east and north away from the US/Mexico border, at which the Border Patrol conducts random checks on vehicles for illegal passengers and/or drugs. Behave sensibly with them and you won't have any problems. If you are traveling within 50 miles of the border, be sure to carry your international passport or domestic drivers license/photo ID with you since you may be asked to produce it. Cartels are also an issue so use caution in Texas cities bordering Mexico. Many cartel members are armed and will use force if they fear you might snitch on them or even see too much of the illegal activities they are doing.
Texas generally has strict enforcement and prosecution of violent crimes, and the result is a large prison population of violent offenders. Prison sentences for violent crimes can be very long and sometimes include the death penalty. Texas executes more inmates than any other American state.
If you find yourself in an emergency situation (of any kind), dial 911 on your phone.
Residents of Texas allowed to conceal carry firearms after a thorough out extensive background check and training. Be aware it is illegal to bring any weapons into the country of Mexico. Any attempt to bring weapon supplies into Mexico will result in being detained by authorities and brought to a Mexican Jail. You will see signs forbidding firearms in some public places, and that will likely be your closest encounter with a gun. The state has a very strong gun culture, owing to its rural character, hunting traditions, and its many US military bases. The vast majority of people who carry handguns are kind, law-abiding people who will not cause any trouble for anyone. Be aware, however, that gun politics arouses very strong emotions and opinions for many Texans, and it is best to avoid discussing the topic. Also, Texas is one of the few states (along with states in the South and Rocky_Mountains_(United_States_of_America) that allows its residents to use deadly force to defend property (even of minimal value), instead of exclusively for self-defense. In rural areas, vertical stripes of purple paint on trees or posts mean "no trespassing."
As of the 2010 Census, Texas is one of five majority-minority states in the country: only 45.3% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. Texas's race relations have improved markedly since the 1960s, and its major cities are ethnically diverse with immigrants from all over the world. Many white Texans have friends, family, and spouses who are non-white. However, racism isn't entirely gone, and in some rural areas there have been reports of people being refused service (or given inferior service) due to race, even though this is against the law. The population of older Texans skews white and conservative, while younger Texans are more likely to be non-white and tolerant. In some very rural areas, hate groups like the KKK and neo-Nazi and/or neo-Confederate organizations are still active. In these areas, it's best to stay indoors at night and call the police if you encounter issues. They are trained to handle situations with hostile racists and will assist you.
Tolerance of the LGBT community varies in Texas. In a few districts of Austin, parts of Houston, and Dallas, as well as in certain towns such as Denton, Galveston, people tend to be slightly more tolerant. Outside of those areas however Texans take a more conservative stance especially in the Panhandle, East Texas, Gulf Coast and Rockwall County. Violence happens towards LGBT in Texas all the time and police will be unsympathetic, complicit, or even join in. Openly gay tourists may also be subject to arrest. A few cities have anti-discrimination laws which are ignored; all other cities don't have anti-discrimination ordinances and are not LGBT-friendly. Also Texas has a strictly enforced "no pro homo" law, which means that discussing gay rights or homosexuality issues around children is a criminal offence and can lead to a prison sentence. In many rural counties, gay sex is de facto illegal and can lead to fines or a prison sentence. LGBT visitors to Texas are emphatically discouraged from visiting Texas, especially in heavily Baptist areas such as Panhandle, East Texas, Gulf Coast and Rockwall County where police will not resist to arrest any public displays of LGBT actions and attacks are more common. If you are LGBT avoid these places at all costs.
The startling heat of a Texas summer is not to be underestimated. The state has experienced temperatures as high as 120ºF (49ºC), and though this extreme is rare, it is a good indicator of how hot things can get. Areas from north central Texas down to the coast also tend to experience stifling humidity during the spring and summer months, so pack accordingly with plenty of loose, light colored clothing.
Western portions of the state tends to experience higher temperatures and lower humidity. It is true that the Texas deserts are beautiful, but the heat can be dangerous without the proper precautions. Bring plenty of water and sunscreen. If you are venturing off into the desert, it might be best to do so later in the afternoon once the sun has begun to lower in the sky. Do not go alone, and always let someone else know where you will be going and when you should return. Follow desert survival guidelines.
Be aware of the weather during hurricane season on the coast (June 1 to November 30, though hurricanes move slow and provide days to weeks of warning). If you planning to visit areas along the Gulf Coast during hurricane season, you might want to check out the hurricane safety page. Many hurricanes and tropical storms have been known to cause tornado's and flooding in inland areas as well so even if you are not directly on the coast it would be advised to pay attention to weather reports if a hurricane is foretasted to pass through an area.
As in most southern states, snakes are common in Texas. If you see a snake, it's more likely to be a harmless garden snake than anything else, and in all cases, it's probably more scared of you than you are of it. Several venomous species are also native to Texas, including rattlesnakes. You are more likely to encounter a snake in a rural or desert area than in urban or suburban areas. If you see a snake, don't handle it or touch it unless you know what you're doing and/or have prior experience handling snakes. The best thing to do is just leave it alone and continue on your way. If a snake bites you, you should assume it is venomous and immediately seek emergency medical attention and/or call 911.
Tornadoes are endemic to eastern and central Texas during the spring and summer months (and occasionally into the fall). When traveling during these times, listen to local weather reports (local radio and/or TV network affiliate) to maintain your situational awareness. Texas has a well-deserved reputation for rapid changes in weather conditions, so don't be complacent. Tornadoes can be exceptionally large and deadly, and most towns and radio stations will have sirens and/or other severe weather alert systems to inform the public. If there is an imminent threat of a tornado, do not stay outside to take pictures, and do not try to outrun a tornado in your vehicle. Seek immediate shelter!
Refer to the Tornado safety page for further information.
Texans pride themselves on being friendly and hospitable to visitors. When talking with someone, if you smile, give a firm handshake, and look them in the eye, you'll generally have a better outcome to your conversation.
Texas has a historical reputation as the home of devout evangelical Christians, and in particular Southern Baptists. This stereotype is somewhat out of date, both because of the rise of the share of the population that is Hispanic (and a corresponding rise in people self-identifying as Catholic, which is now the largest religious affiliation in Texas), and the overall nationwide decline in the share of people who identify with any religion at all (40.2% of Texans and growing, as of the 2010 Census). With that said, Texans are still more likely to go to weekly religious services than people in most other states. In particular, people living in rural areas are strongly religious while those in urban areas can be strongly or moderately. Conservative Christian religion can have a strong influence in social and cultural life for those people. If you visit Texas, you may be invited to church, to pray, or to discuss your religion. It's best simply to show respect for your hosts and try to stay out of any longer discussions. In urban areas, they will almost certainly not bring up their religion or yours unless you do it first. In any case, if you are genuinely curious, asking respectful questions about others' beliefs will usually be answered in a straightforward way. As when traveling generally, it's best to avoid jokes (even well-intentioned ones) about religious figures or things that your hosts find to be religiously significant.
The following US states share borders with Texas:
These Mexican states also share a border with Texas: