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Zorastrian Temple, Wakhan Valley
Tajikistan in its region.svg
Flag of Tajikistan.svg
Quick Facts
Capital Dushanbe
Government Republic
Currency Somoni (TJS)
Area total: 143,100 km2
water: 400 km2
land: 142,700 km2
Population 7,211,884 (July 2008 est.)
Language Tajik, Russian
Religion Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%, Other 10%
Electricity 220 V, 50 Hz
Country code +992
Internet TLD .tj
Time Zone UTC +5

Tajikistan [3] is a landlocked country in Central Asia that borders Afghanistan to the south, Xinjiang in China to the east, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and Uzbekistan to the west and northwest. The ancient Silk Road passed through it. The Persian nation is unique in that the majority culture is non-Turkic, unlike its neighbors to the north, west and east. Only the Wakhan Corridor separates itself with Pakistan to the south respectively.



Mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in the Pamir Mountains.


The Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate Tajikistan's landscape. The western Fergana Valley is in north, and the Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys are in the southwest.

The country's lowest point is at Syr Darya (300 m), and its highest point is at Qullai Ismoili Somoni (7,495 m).


The region covering today's Tajikistan was part the of Persian empires for much of its history. This region has been an important place for flourishing Persian culture and language.

In recent history, Tajikistan has experienced three changes in government and a five-year civil war since it gained independence from the USSR in 1991. A peace agreement among rival factions was signed in 1997 and implemented in 2000. The central government's less than total control over some areas of the country has forced it to compromise and forge alliances among factions. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.

Tajikistan is one of the world's poorest countries. The uneven transition after independence from the former Soviet Union, a recent civil war and recurring natural disasters have all contributed to the poor economic situation. The economy has further been beset by cosmic corruption, economic mismanagement and high unemployment. As a result, majority of the population work in agriculture for a livelihood.

Because the country is poor, more than a million Tajiks work abroad in other countries, mainly in Russia, and send remittances back home. Even though the economy has been expanding rapidly in recent years, much of the measures of further developing the country are proving to be inefficient and ineffective.


Tajikistan regions map.png
Ferghana Valley
Central Asia's notoriously unstable, but fascinating, culturally vibrant region spans three countries in one of the world's most convoluted political geographical jumbles.
The Tajik heartland, home to the capital, Dushanbe.
Tajikistan's diverse southwestern province, and the center of the rebellion that led to Tajikistan's disastrous post-Soviet civil war.
One of the world's highest mountain regions, with soaring landscapes, trekking, climbing, and one incredible drive down the Pamir Highway.
Beautiful valleys amidst the majestic Fann Mountains, and ancient ruins by Panjakent.


  • Dushanbe — the capital and largest city by far.
  • Isfara — an ancient Silk Road town in the center of the Ferhghana Valley on the Kyrgyzstani border.
  • Istaravshan — an old city home to the well known and beautiful Abdullatif Madrassah and Mosque.
  • Khorugh — largest city of and gateway to the Pamirs.
  • Khujand — the center of Tajikistan's Ferghana Valley region, and the nation's second largest city.
  • Konibodom — in the heart of the Ferghana Valley, on the Uzbekistani border.
  • Kulob — the country's third largest city.
  • Qurghonteppa — the largest city in Khatlon, and the political heart of the rebellion in Tajikistan's last civil war.
  • Tursunzoda — an aluminum town west of Dushanbe on the road and railroad to Uzbekistan.

Other destinations[edit]

  • Pamir mountains, with passes between 3200 and 4500 meters, and Lake Karakol.
  • Zeravshan valley including the Fan Mountains, one of Central Asia's prime trekking and climbing destinations.
  • Yagnob valley, a land of decedents of Sogdian people who are last remaining speakers of the ancient Sogdian language.

Get in[edit]


Nationals from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Mongolia, Jordan, Russia and Ukraine do not need a visa for visits up to 90 days.

Following the trends of other Central Asian countries, visas are increasingly easy to obtain, particularly for nationals of wealthy countries. This policy is designed to stimulate tourist activity in Tajikistan. The big change has been the abolition of OVIR registration for tourist visits under 30 days. Letters of invitation are no longer needed on arrival at Dushanbe airport, but are needed to prearrange a visa from the UK and US embassies.

From June 2016, Ministry of Foreign affairs of Tajikistan launched an electronic visa system "e-visa" with GBAO permit which is valid at international airports and at land borders. More information at

Due to the Corona virus crisis, the representative offices of foreign airlines in the Republic of Tajikistan are urged to temporarily ban the sale of airline tickets for flights from China, Iran, Afghanistan, Korea, Italy, as well as passengers intending to enter the Republic of Tajikistan from these countries official site in Russian

By plane[edit]

National carrier Tajik Air and the new private airline Somon Air are the country's two airlines. From Dushanbe, flights are available to numerous cities across Russia, including Moscow, St. Petersburg, Samara, Sochi, Chelyabinsk, Novosibirsk, Perm, Krasnoyarsk, Orenburg, Irkutsk, Nizhnevartovsk, Surgut, Kazan, & Yekaterinburg. Destinations within Central Asia include Bishkek, Almaty, Urumqi, & Kabul.

Aside from Russia, the main international destinations to/from Tajikistan are:

  • Istanbul — Turkish Airlines, Somon Air
  • Dubai/Sharjah — Somon Air, Tajik Air
  • Frankfurt — Somon Air
  • Tehran — Somon Air, Iran Aseman Airlines
  • Kabul — Kam Air
  • Urumqi — China Southern Airlines

Somon Air plans to add services to China in the future.

The airport in Khujand has service to about a dozen Russian cities through 8 carriers plus a weekly China Southern Airlines flight to Urumqi.

By car[edit]

While relations with Uzbekistan are the worst among Tajikistan's neighbors, it is the most crossed by travellers and the roads to these crossings are in much better condition than those leading to Kyrgyzstan or Afghanistan. The current situation (June 2010) is unknown, but in recent years Tajik vehicles have not been allowed into Uzbekistan and Uzbek vehicles needed to pay large tariffs to enter Tajikistan. So your trip may require taking one vehicle to the border and catching a ride on another after crossing the border. The journey from Tashkent to Khujand takes about two and a half hours and is frequently travelled by private cars and marshrutkas (minibuses) which will take you along for a small amount (under $US10). UPDATE2018: From Tashkent you can take a shared taxi to Oybek border point from Kuylyuk bazaar (20000sum=$2.25), cross the border and take a shared taxi to Buston (5somoni=$0.60) and change to a marshrutka to Khujand (5-7 somoni). The short (60km) trip from Samarkand, Uzbekistan to Penjikent is also frequently travelled by private cars and marshrutkas. Currently (July 2012) border crossing near Penjikent is closed due to strained relations between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. If you want to go to Samarkand from Khujand, you have to cross border at Oybek post (250km from Samarkand). There are marshrutkas and taxis from Khujand to Oybek. Taxis cost from 50 to 100 somonis depending on time of a day.

In winter months, snow blocks the passes connecting Dushanbe with the north of Tajikistan. To travel to Dushanbe during these months, you need to head south and cross from Termez, which will take you around the west & south sides of the mountains and take you to Dushanbe.

From Kyrgyzstan, there are a couple of options, mostly from Osh and none make for a very smooth journey. The rugged, remote Pamir Highway (see next paragraph) is the slowest, but most popular. From the crossroads at Sary-Tash, a road leads west for 500km through the Karategin Valley to Dushanbe. A little rugged near the border, but not nearly so as the Pamir Highway. A third option is from the Batken region to Isfara, but it passes through several of the Uzbek enclaves within Kyrgyzstan, necessitating a multiple-entry Uzbek visa and plenty of time for border crossings; bypassing these enclaves is a pain and requires navigating lots of poor, local roads with little or no signage. Travelling through the Ferghana Valley, it also has the least interesting scenery and recent ethnic confrontations in the region make this a poor choice for travellers.

A scenic, albeit rough, journey into Tajikistan is via the Pamir Highway which runs from Osh to Khorog to Dushanbe. Just about the only highway in the GBAO region, this route ranges from smooth tarmac full of busses, trucks to a single-lane road carved into a cliff. The border crossing lies at 4280m and peaks at the Ak-Baital Pass at 4,655m. The journey takes 2-3 days from Osh-Khorog and three on the rougher stretch from Khorog to Dushanbe, longer if you want to stop and enjoy the scenery. Minivans travel the route from Osh to Murghab every few days for $US15; hitch hiking on Kamaz trucks and ZIL petrol tankers is also possible anywhere enroute for $US10. A 4 wheel drive is necessary and large portions of the highway are impassible in winter and frequently blocked by mudslides in spring.

The US has funded a couple of bridges connecting Tajikistan with Afghanistan. Roads from Qurghonteppa, Kulob, & Dushanbe lead to the main crossing at Nizhnii Panj. From there, a road leads south to Kunduz which unfortunately, as of 2010, is a stronghold of the Taliban in the north of Afghanistan. There is a bridge at Khorog leading to Feizabad, Afghanistan as well as a few mountainous roads elsewhere in the GBAO leading to Afghanistan.

A border crossing with China was opened in 2004. The crossing and connecting roads link the Pamir Highway with the the Karakorum Highway and provides a link to Kashgar (Kashi) to the north and Pakistan to the south. As of 2010, it remains closed to foreigners.

By boat[edit]

There is no longer a ferry operating across the Pyanj River between Afghanistan and Tajikistan; when it did, it cost roughly $US10 one way. Since the opening of the U.S. funded bridge over the Pyanj, the ferry is no longer necessary.

By train[edit]

The train to Moscow is popular with migrant workers. It takes around five days and crosses through Uzbekistan (twice), Turkmenistan, & Kazakhstan; transit visas are required for all these countries.

Train 367 - 08:08 leaves Dushanbe (Mondays & Wednesdays). 14:04 Arrives Khujand next day. Final destination Kanibadam.

Train 335 - Khujand-Samarqand-Saratov is three times a week. 18:44 depart Khujand (Mon, Thur, Sat) 02:15 arrives Samarqand.

Train 336 - 06:10 departs Samarqand (Wed, Fri, Sunday) 14:27 arrives Khujand.

Get around[edit]

By minivan / shared taxi[edit]

Scheduled minivans run between the major cities but otherwise hiring a vehicle or sharing one with other passengers is the only way to travel around the country. Prices are generally per person, not for the vehicle, and divided by the number of passengers.

SUV's can be hired and leave daily from Khujand's large minibus terminal located just outside the city. Prices are negotiable but should be in the range 60 USD per person. Assure the vehicle is fit for long road travel, inspect spare tire.

By plane[edit]

As the country is broken into many isolated areas by mountain passes that are closed in winter, travel during this time is by air only, if the planes are flying. Tajik Air and Somon Air may operate flights to Khudzhand (between 35 and 70 minutes, depending on the plane) and Khorog, a thrilling plunge through mountain peaks. This flight does not go if it is windy. Ticket vendors next to the Green Market in Dushanbe can provide a reliable estimate of their timetable. Make sure you arrive early for your flight. Also, passports and visas will be checked on domestic flights, so bring them with you. Be aware that airlines in Tajikistan have domestic flights as their least priority, so flights are often delayed or cancelled without notification.

By train[edit]

Train service within Tajikistan has been been discontinued. However, several international routes may be open. "Caravanistan"

Car or Motorcycle[edit]

The Pamir highway is increasingly popular as an adventure driving destination. It is used on the Mongol Rally southern route by many participants and there are a large number of drivers who attempt it every year. Many trips start or end in Bishkek or Osh, Kyrgyzstan. It is possible to rent SUVs or motorcycles in Kyrgyzstan to drive on the Pamir Highway. Just be prepared for the challenge.

  • Muztoo, Historical Museum Osh Kyrgyzstan, +996 551 006 115, [1]. $100-$200. (N 40.529433,E 72.793146) editSwiss expat owned and operated. Their office is in the Historical Museum at the foot of Sulayman-Too, right in the center of Osh. In the museum there are two corridors to the left. Their office is at the very end of the second corridor. They offer mostly motorcycles (Yamaha XT600s) and also some Toyota SUVs.


Tajik, mutually intelligible with Persian and often considered a dialect of it, is the primary and historical language of Tajikistan. However, due to Soviet promotion, almost all Tajiks also speak Russian. There are also a very small number of ethnic Russians with Russian as their native language. Russian is widely used in government, which makes it widely spoken by government officials such as policemen.

English, however is hardly spoken, and the only people likely to speak a word are youths, especially in the capital, but even to them Russian is often a stronger language since it is widely taught to them by their parents.

See[edit][add listing]

Whilst Tajikistan may not appear on most people's priority destinations, its mountains are some of the most beautiful in the world and the terrain is wild and remote in many parts. The main attraction for tourists is the road trip on the 'Pamir Highway' (M41), journeying from the capital, Dushanbe, eastwards into the Pamir mountains and onwards to the north-eastern border between Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.

The route has become a significant attraction for adventure travelers using various modes of transport and cyclists, motor-cyclists and 4x4 drivers all seek the challenge of this bone-crunching 2000Km switchback through the western arm of the Himalayas.

Recent tourism resource developments have seen responsible steps made in accommodating the increasing numbers of travellers and a balance is being achieved, maintaining the cultural and environmental heritage of the communities.

Do[edit][add listing]

Tajikistan is a stunning place, and there is plenty to do, from the Silk Road mystique of places like Khujand and Istaravshan, to the stunning, untouched mountain scenery of the Pamirs and their accompanying allure of unclimbed peaks and virgin trekking routes.

In the north of Tajikistan, the Fann Mountains provide world class trekking and climbing opportunities. And they are relatively easy and quick to reach from the capital Dushanbe. There are different trail heads to start from. A number of trekking routes start from Sarytag, which is 20 minutes past the famed Iskanderkul. This is a 3.5 hour drive from Dushanbe. Another trail head accessible by vehicle is Artush, just 1.5 hours from Penjikent. It is possible to arrange organised trekking tours in Penjikent. For a trek in the Pamirs more time is required as these mountains are further from the capital and the infrastructure (Pamir Highway) is less developed. However, it is worth the long travel and the options are endless. There are two websites that provide good information about trekking in Tajikistan:, Paramount Journey and Trekking in Tajikistan There are possibilities for short trekking and climbing trips around Dushanbe and in Shirkent Valley that can be organized by Alp Club

Buy[edit][add listing]

Somoni (TJS, Tajik: cомонӣ) is the national currency. As of January, 2018, US$ 1 roughly equals to 8.88 somoni, while € 1 equals to 10.7 somoni.

  • Traditional Tajik padded coats. Comfortable and perfect for the colder weather in the mountains. The ensemble can be completed with a hat and sash.
  • Mercedes Benz (approx. $US 7,000) cars and Land Cruisers from Dushanbe's Sunday Car Market. Also available: Russian cars, jeeps, minivans, and an assortment of other models.
  • Vodka. Ruski Standard is the best one by far.
  • Rugs and carpets. The good ones are imported from Afghanistan or Uzbekistan.

Food in Tajikistan is a cross between that of Central Asia and that of Afghanistan & Pakistan along with a bit of Russian influence.

Eat[edit][add listing]

  • Oshi palov- The national dish is made with rice, beef or mutton, and carrots. All fried together in vegetable oil or mutton fat in a special qazan (a wok-shaped cauldron) over an open flame. The meat is cubed, the carrots are chopped finely into long strips, and the rice is colored yellow or orange by the frying carrots and the oil. The dish is eaten communally from a single large plate placed at the center of the table
  • A traditional dish that is still eaten with hands from a communal plate is qurutob, before serving the dish is topped with onions fried in oil until golden and other fried vegetables. No meat is added. Qurotob is considered the national dish.
  • Sambusa- (baked pastries)
  • Shashlik (shish-kebab)- Grilled-on-coal fish, liver, chicken, mutton and beef.
  • Tushbera soup- (like ravioli, or pasta with meat in it)
  • Ugro soup- (handmade spaghetti soup served with cheese cream and basilic)
  • Jiz-biz- (fired freshcut lamb or mutton on its own juice)
  • Dolma- (steamed rolls with grape leafs and meat inside, served with sour cream and red pepper)
  • Mantu -(steamed pasta with meat inside, served with sour cream and fried onions)
  • Shurbo- (fresh vegetable soup with lamb or beef, served with green onion and basilic)
  • Many types of bread like chappoti, kulcha, nan, fatir, qalama, etc.
  • Damlama- (like English stew, steamed lamb or beef with vegetables in its own juice)
  • Khash- (soup with sheeps' legs and arms, joints and tendons)
  • Melons and watermelons are extremely popular among locals and are very cheap in local markets

Take care with street food and do NOT eat unwashed vegetables and fruits. It's best to soak them in distilled water and cook thoroughly.

Now the situation is different. National cuisine is becoming more popular in Tajikistan, such as Shurpo, Oshi Palov, Mantu, Sambusa and etc.

Drink[edit][add listing]

The drinking age in Tajikistan is 18.

  • Green tea. Tajiks customarily pour a small amount out three times and return it to the pot.
  • Compote. A distilled fruit punch.

Sleep[edit][add listing]

Sleeping options in Tajikistan include the following:

Hotels. In Dushanbe, there are a small number of large hotels. The Hyatt Regency just built recently and opens doors in March 2009. Another one of big hotels is "Tajikistan" (recently renovated), located in the central city. Most are ex-Soviet era and tend to be over priced and in poor condition. There are a couple of newly built hotels offering western standards of accommodation for around from $US70 to $US220 per room.

MSDSP Guesthouses,

The Aga Khan's Mountain Societies Development Support Programme has a network of guesthouses in places like Kalaikhum and Khorog, offering a good standard of accommodation. Full board is around $US40 per person

Formal Homestays.

The French NGO ACTED is establishing a network of Homestays in the Pamir region, around Murghab, For around $US10 per person per night you get a comfortable bed in a family home. The facilities are basic, i.e. no running water and an outside toilet, but guests can expect comfortable clean rooms, good local food, and a very warm welcome.

Independent Guesthouses.

In Dushanbe, Khorog, and Murghab there are a small but growing number of independent guesthouses. These are similar in standard and price to the ACTED homestays.

Online Accommodation (couchsurfing).

Many cities of Tajikistan offer free accommodation in homestays through the

  • Yetihostel, Gafurova 34/1 (82 district), 992987133005, [2]. Yeti Hostel is the first hostel in Dushanbe, which is located in 82 district of Dushanbe, about 10 min drive from the city center. 20.  edit



At embassies, NGOs [4], some hotels. A few hundred expatriates live in Dushanbe. Several ads each week in the electronic newsletter WhatsOnInDushanbe. For investors, cf. [5] and similar publications.

Habitat for Humanity-Tajikistan, [6], constructs homes for needy, low-income families in addition to completing many unfinished Soviet-era homes and apartment blocks, provides seismic retrofits, works to provide sanitary water, and more. Once or twice a year, volunteer trips (through HFH "Global Village" program, [7] ) are offered, entailing 2 weeks of building houses combined with a few days of sightseeing.

Stay safe[edit]

Tajikistan is a safe country, though some factional fighting spilling over from nearby Afghanistan (as well as local warlordism) still occurs in Tajikistan. Visitors should keep abreast of the security situation and not take any unnecessary risks.


Tajik law enforcement entities are completely ineffective and inadequate. Policemen, in particular the traffic police, are notorious for their corruption and many members of the police routinely target citizens and visitors alike for bribes. Furthermore, they have been routinely accused of collaborating with criminals. Due to these discouraging facts, they should not at all be consulted should you be a victim of a crime. Instead, consult your embassy.

Law enforcement entities occasionally stop visitors to see their documents/ID, so always be sure to carry your papers around with you everywhere you go. In the event that you encounter a police officer, demand that they show you their ID and most importantly, do not sign any paperwork that you do not understand. If you are unable to understand what language the paperwork is in, an interpreter is your best bet.


Most Taxis are unlicensed in Tajikistan and they should be avoided at all times. A private car/driver is one option that you can depend on.

Crime Issues[edit]

Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Tajikistan are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.

After sunset, it is not advisable to walk around outside alone; and generally do not travel unaccompanied to rural areas. Any concern you should have during your stay in Tajikistan, please write about as soon as possible it to the local embassy of your country.

Stay healthy[edit]

The standard of the health care system in Tajikistan is considerably lower than in Western countries. Due to insufficient funding, hospitals often lack modern equipment and medicines.

DO NOT drink tap water. There is no working purification system, and outbreaks of typhoid and cholera (rarely) are common. Other preventable endemic illnesses are hepatitis A, rabies, poliomyelitis and tick-borne encephalitis. The occasional anthrax case comes in, but it's rare nowadays. There are, during the hot season, a few pockets where malaria can occur. HIV is a growing health threat in Tajikistan. There is now an English-speaking comprehensive primary care clinic in operation by the name of Prospekt Medical [8], right behind the Embassy of China. In the Pamir mountains, the risk of altitude sickness is substantial - one may read up on this here: [9] (in English) or [10] (in German). In case of ANY accident, call your embassy. Health insurance and medical evacuation insurance are recommended.

The government of Tajikistan requires long term visitors who remain in country for more than 90 days to present a medical certificate showing that they are HIV-free, or to submit to an HIV test in Tajikistan, given the fact that HIV is a growing health threat in Tajikistan.


Tajikistan is a somewhat conservative society. Women should be fairly modest in public, but head coverings are exceptions and not the norm.


Note that Tajik telecom companies charge for internet usage by the amount downloaded. This is especially important to note for persons planning on living in Tajikistan and paying directly for the service, for example $US50 per month for up to 1GB of downloads.



Most embassies are in Dushanbe, check Dushanbe#Embassies. Although a Afghan embassy has been reported ([11], July 2012) to be in Khorugh and offering same day visas for 40$.

  • United States - 109A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Zarafshon, Dushanbe 734019, tel: +992-37-229-23-00, fax: +992-37-229-2309. The consular section is open from 8AM to 5PM Monday through Friday and closed on U.S. and Tajik holidays.
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