Already in ancient times Podkarpackie was situated on major trade routes north of the Carpathians between the Black Sea and Central Europe. In the early Middle Ages Podkarpackie was disputed between the Kingdom of Poland and Ruthenia, and became part of Małopolskie which was the major part of Poland since the Polish capital was moved from Gniezno to Kraków in 1040. Especially the cities along the San River became very rich in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Beautiful palaces were built in Lublin Renaissance, Mannerist and Baroque style by the nobility of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After the First Partition of Poland in 1772 most of its territory was annexed by Austria and formed a part of the so-called Galicja-Lodomeria. Galicja-Lodomeria gained an autonomy within the Austria-Hungary empire in 1867. After World War I Podkarpackie became part of the Second Polish Republic, but was divided along the San River after the invasion of Poland and occupied by Nazi-Germany and the Soviet Union between 1939 and 1944, when its Western part in 1939 and its Eastern part in 1941 were incorporated into the German General government. After World War II it again became part of Poland. Now-a-days it is situated in the South-East of the country, although it used to be in the middle of the Commonwealth between two major trade and economic centers in Kraków and Lwów.
Some major airlines, Poland's national carriers LOT Polish Airlines and some other low cost airlines fly to Rzeszów's Rzeszów-Jasionka (RZE). Domestic flights operated by LOT connect Rzeszów with Warsaw's Frederic Chopin Airport (WAW). In summer season they offer flights to Newark.
Podkarpackie boarders three other Polish voivodships: