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{{pagebanner|Pamukkale Banner.jpg}} [[Image:Pamukkale.jpg|thumb|350px|The travertine hot springs.]] '''Pamukkale''' is in inland [[Southern Aegean|southeastern]] [[Aegean Turkey]]. ==Understand==Pamukkale, which has been used as a spa since the second century BC, literally means "cotton castle" in Turkish. The travertine features have their origins in the shifting of a fault in the valley of the Menderes river (between here and (Denizli). As the fault shifted, very hot springs with a very high mineral content (notably chalk) arose at this location. Apart from the slightly radioactive minerals, the calcium and hydrogen carbonate react to create calcium carbonate (also known as travertine) and limestone. This is what gives Pamukkale its whiteness and created the pools. It can get quite hot in summer, a hat and especially sunglasses will certainly be very helpful against the sun and the reflecting sun rays from the chalky cascades. On the other hand, the cold winter climate could make the experience slightly uncomfortable. Climbing up the cascades barefoot, with cold water running downstream will be a tough task
==Get in==
The nearest major city is [[Denizli]], where you will likely arrive first before getting to Pamukkale.
===By plane===
*Closest airport is [[Denizli ]] - Cardak Airport is 65 km or 1 hour away and there are 3 Turkish Airlines flights twice daily to and from [[Istanbul]]Atatürk Airport and one AnadoluJet flight daily to and from Sabiha Gökcen Airport. From the airport you can take a shuttle to Denizli or Pamukkale. Turkish Airlines offers the service to their customers for 10TL, and the company Baytur offers the service for 26TL.
*[[Izmir ]] Adnan Menderes Airport is another alternative to the area. Pamukkale is 252 km from the airport, a drive of about 4 hours (4-1/2 to 5 hours by bus)or 6-7 hours by train. (Check TCDD [] for train schedule.)
===By train===
There are trains to/The nearest train station is in [[Denizli]], which currently has services from [[Izmir]] only. The [[Istanbul]] service (''Pamukkale Express'') was suspended in 2008, presumably because of track renovations, Ankara and Istanbulit is not certain when/if the services will re-start.
===By bus===
Bus to Pamukkale/[[Denizli ]] can be found from almost all the cities of Turkey. Bus services include water, hot drinks and a snack.There are virtually ''no'' bus companies that take you directly to Pamukkale despite what the ticket sellers tell you. The bus will drop you in [[Denizli ]] and then you have to catch get on the local dolmus minibus to Pamukkale (about 20 km away).*More details web: The minibus might not be free. Metroturizm offers bus service which takes you directly to Pamukkale from [[http://wwwGoreme]].turkeytravelserviceSo does Pamukkale bus]
===By dolmus''dolmuş''===Take From Denizli bus station, take a '''dolmus''dolmuş''''', a type of cheap communal taxi that usually seating seats about 10 persons (but it's possible they'll squeeze in more), from nearby [[Denizli]]. Frequent mini-buses serve the village of Pamukkale in a 20 minute ride. They leave from #75 in the bus terminal and it costs 4 TL per trip. It is also possible to make reservation the bus ticket from Pamukkale Village. And the bus company can arrange shuttle bus to bus station if there is enough number of people.
==Get around==
Even when you're way on the edge of the village, you can reach everything (i.e. the village center and the travertine pools) on foot in about ten to fifteen minutes.
[[Image:Pamukkale.jpg|thumb|The travertine hot springs.]]
* The petrified waterfalls/travertine are a [[UNESCO World Heritage Site]]. They are a beautiful sight.
[[Image:Pamukkale_Theater_tr.jpg|thumb|Roman theater]]
*The 12,000 seat Roman theater of Hierapolis should not be missed.
* Another lesser known site, but one that holds a considerable significance Biblically is Laodikya, just 10 minutes from <b>The Travertines of Pamukkale on the Denizli road. It's mentioned in the Bible as one of the 7 Churches of the Revelations and even though it hasn't been reconstructed as much as the more famous sites like Ephesus, is a great place to experience the Roman history without the crowds.</b>
* Karahyit, These are a set of bizarre calcium cliff bathing pools overlooking the red spring is also 5 minutes from town of Pamukkale. You can access them via a toll-booth, not as big however tough pollution control regulations require removing your shoes in order to walk on them (so bring something to put your shoes in!), so the travertines stay white as ever. This job is made tougher in winters when the water flowing down the chalky cascades will be freezing cold. You can avoid the calcium outcrop, but worth climb and take a looktaxi to the top of the hill and enter from the side of Hierapolis.But the real charm of the place lies in experiencing these travertines
* Kaklik caves These petrified waterfalls/travertine are like a small version [[UNESCO World Heritage List|UNESCO World Heritage site]]. The admission cost is 50TL (as of Pamukkale, but in a cave, underground and May 2019). This price includes addmission to nearby Roman city of Hierapolis as well. Lower parts of the travertine cascades are about 30 minutes from Pamukkalereported to have better views than the top.
==Understand==Day tours are offered for around 45 Lira (as of January 2010) including English-speaking guide, entrance fee to Hierapolis and the travertines and buffet lunch. Different companies seem to offer similar tours, ask around. Such tours leave from the Pamukkale bus company office on the main street opposite the travertines, and the Koray Hotel. There may be tours starting from other places around the town as well. For those who rather not visit the travertines under the scorching sun, there are also night tours as well, which start from small guesthouses.
*'''Pamukkale''' means "cotton castle" in Turkish*The springs have been used as a spa since the second century BC[[Image:Pamukkale_Theater_tr.jpg|thumb|300px|Roman theater]]
Other than the travertines, places worth a look around Pamukkale are:* The travertine features have their origins great (12,000-seat) '''Roman amphitheater of Hierapolis''' should not be missed, and lies just above the travertines. * Swim with roman ruins in a large natural swimming pool located just past the topmost travertines. (50TL admission to the shifting of pools, free admission to visit. 5TL for lockers)* Another lesser known site, but one that holds a considerable significance Biblically is '''Laodikya''', just 10 km (10 minutes on a fault local ''dolmuş'') from Pamukkale on the Denizli road. It's mentioned in the valley Bible as one of the Menderes river (between here 7 Churches of Revelation and Denizli). As even though it hasn't been reconstructed as much as the fault shiftedmore famous sites like [[Ephesus]], very hot springs with is a great place to experience the Roman history without the crowds. A peaceful way to spend a very high mineral content (notably chalk) arose day looking at this locationruins but also the beautiful scenery there as well. Apart * '''Karahayit''', the red spring is also 5 minutes from the slightly radioactive mineralsPamukkale, not even nearly as big as the calcium and hydrogen carbonate react outcrop, but worth a look or if you want to create calcium carbonate (also known as travertine) try their mud baths. Springs and limestonemud bath located at the northern edge of the town. This is what gives * '''Kaklik caves''' are like a small version of Pamukkale it's whiteness , but in a cave, underground and created the poolsare about 30 minutes from Pamukkale.
*You can walk down barefooted in the waterfalls from the village on top. The place is crowded when the tour-buses arrive.*No shoes are allowed on the travertines. If you stay at one don't want to walk back to top, you can use the buses dropping off people back to top, which depart from near lower end of the small pensions they might give you travertines. You should wear a tour swimming suit. A lot of people bathe in the ruins and travertines at nightbaths here.*It is also worth seeing making the effort to get to the remains of the ancient city of [[Aphrodisias]]&mdash;one of the best preserved Roman sites in [[Southern Aegean|southeastern Aegean]]. You can rent a van from [[Denizli ]] to get there. Or the local hotels run tours Local bus companies will arrange bussing for approx 25 lira30-40 TL.*Also there are thermal baths at Bathe in the top mineral hot springs. This is an enclosed pool, with an additional entrance fee of the travertine pools and the ancient city 50 TL as of Hierapolis with a great AmphytheatreMay 2019, above waterfalls.*Of moderate interest might be visiting [[Denizli it]]. It's a bit dull but there's a lively market. *'''Loadikya''' is another less visited ruin site only 10 km from Pamukkale on the local dolmus, entrance is free and there are usually few tourists there. Peaceful way to spend a day looking at ruins but also the beautiful scenery there as well.
*'''Mehmets Heaven''', on the main street near the Travertines has an excellent view of Pamukkale from his porch out back. Great food and well priced. Super nice owner as well.
*<eat name="Kayas Wine House" alt="" address="Kale Mah. Ataturk Cad. No 3" directions="centre" phone="0090 258 272 2267" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="">Recently started serving food, not only Turkish but also international (Korean, Japanese...) in traditional but trendy surroundings. Located in the centre of town, close to all the major hotels.</eat>
*<eat name="Lamuko's Lokanta" alt="" address="Main Street Pamukkale" directions="" phone="0090 542 390 8175" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="">Japanese and Korean food in the centre of Pamukkale, next to Pamukkale Bus Company office. Delicious!</eat>
*<eat name="Kale Hotel" alt="" address=" Atatürk Cad. 16 " directions="(on the main street in the centre of town)" phone="+90 258 272-26-07" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="">This place has great Chinese, Korean, and Japanese food at an excellent deal. It's also got Turkish food, but is a great change if you'd like something other than gözleme, pide or kebabs. Entrees are around 10 TL and it has beer and wine.</eat>
*<eat name=" Traverten Pide" alt="" address="Traverten Sokak, No 3/A, Pamukkale, Turkey" directions="" phone="90 532 304 0285" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="">Doesn't look much from the outside but it is a lovely little place serving turkish foods, pide, kebab, kebap, the normal stuff. Prices good, cheap eats, however food freshly prepared and meals of generous size. Pide 7tl upwards, big iskander 20tl, worth a visit.</eat>
*You should try Turkish national drink called '''Ayran''', which is very healthya salty yogurt drink similar to a salty lassi. It is may be an aquired acquired taste though, but should be tried while in Turkey.T*he The wines produced in the Pamukkale area are becoming quite famous and are winning awards for the quality and standard.Note that Turkish wine may disappoint.*'''Raki!!''' is a traditional Turkish drink, generally served with mezes (tapas like appetizers, generally followed by a fish or lion's milk as meat dish). With an anise-seed flavor, it is known, again may be an acquired taste. Great with fish or any long meal as it is meant toopen to open up your appetite.* Efes or Tuborg are the go-to beers in all of Turkey, and are often the only beers available.
There are small family-run pensions at the village south of the travertines. Most have swimming-pools filled with the warm greenish milky water from the travertines. They also offer very delicious Turkish food.
*'''Melrose Allgau <sleep name="Artemis Yoruk Hotel''' is a nice family" alt="" address="Atatürk Cad. 48/A" directions="" phone="+90 258 272-26-74" email="[email protected]" fax="+90 258 272-26-run pansiyon at the eastern end of town with nice 75" url="" checkin="" checkout="" price="€ 12/€ 20 single/double rooms for about 32 YTL and upwards, including breakfast. The friendly owners serve cheap They advertise € 9 pp dorms with breakfast but tasty home cooked mealsmay refuse to take less than 25TL if you just show up. ThereWalk a bit further and you's ll find cheaper accommodation">Hotel just opposite the bus stop with a pool and a laundry service nice garden, and a pool filled rooftop restaurant which serves traditional Turkish food. Rooms with spring wateren-suite, TV, and air-con. They Owners can speak English.</sleep> * <sleep name="Hotel Dört Mevsim" alt="they also used go by the name Four Seasons though neither affiliated nor has any similarity to the hotel chain" address="" directions="" phone="+90 258 272-20-09" email="[email protected]" fax="+90 258 272-26-32" url="" checkin="7:30AM-11:30PM" checkout="11:30AM" price="€ 14/€ 17 sinlge/double rooms, € 10 pp dorms, all including breakfast. Visa, Euro/Mastercard are accepted">Hotel with free wi-fi, swimming pool, free car park, babysitting service, and air-con. They allow campers to put up pets at no extra cost. They also have a campground on their tentsyard.</sleep> *<sleep name="Kale Hotel" alt="" address="Kale Mah. Atatürk Cad. 16" directions="on the main street in the centre of town" phone="+90 258 272-26-07" url="" fax="+90 258 272-26-07" email="[email protected]" checkin="" checkout="11AM" price="€ 12" lat="37.9175536" long="29.1211402">A family-run guesthouse. Rooms with satellite TV. There is a hostel dorm. Roof-top terrace, swimming pool, free wi-fi, Ottoman Corner, restaurant, day trips and excursions.</sleep>
*'''Artemis Yoruk <sleep name="Koray Hotel''' Great location, right in the centre of town and just opposite the bus stop" alt="" address="Pamuk Mah. Fevzi Çakmak Cad. 29" directions="" phone="+90 258 272-22-22" email="[email protected]. Great range of rooms, dorm, single, double, triple and familycom" fax="+90 258 272-20-95" url="http://www. Price included breakfasthotelkoray. HUGE pool com" checkin="" checkout="" price="" lat="" long="">Friendly and nice family-run, with garden, great for relaxing. Traditional Turkish food served all day bar and restaurant and night on the rooftop terracea large swimming pool. Owners very helpful and very attentive (fluent English)Rooms with satellite TV. Lots of tour information including AfrodisiasThe hotel can organize day tours, Laodikyaexpress bus tickets, book exchangeplane tickets, free internetand offers a transfer service.</sleep>
*'''Venus <sleep name="Melrose Allgau Hotel''' is a comfortable, popular choice with " alt="" address="Vali Vekfi Ertürk Cad. 8" directions="" phone="+90 258 272-22-50" email="[email protected]" fax="+90 258 272-31-20" url="" checkin="" checkout="" price="€ 20/€ 25 single, /doublerooms, tripleincluding breakfast. Credit cards are accepted">A nice family-run pansiyon at the eastern end of town with nice rooms, quad and five person rooms that all of which have been newly renovated and are available for very reasonable pricesair-con. The friendly owners serve cheap but tasty home cooked meals. There is also wireless internet connection, 's a laundry service and a swimming pool filled with the famous Pamukkale spring water and a restaurant where the hotel's guests and other visitors from all around the town get to try traditional home cooked Turkish meals and local wines. They also provide travel services and information and have fluent English speaking staffused to allow campers to put up their tents.</sleep>
*'''Melrose Residence House <sleep name="Öztürk White Hill Hotel''' Pamukkale (Hierapolis) is situated on the south west of Turkey's Anatolian peninsula" alt="" address="Pamuk Mah. One of the most familiar images of Turkey is the gleamingFevzi Çakmak Cad. 31" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" checkin="" checkout="" price="">A small family-white calcium formations {travertine pools } of Pamukkale in Turkey. In this beautiful region the Melrose Residence House Hotel is locatedowned hostel. </sleep>
*'''Four Seasons Pamukkale <sleep name="Sinter Terasse Hause Hotel''' Come to you feel at home, Hotel Dort Mevsim Easily the best place you will stay in Pamukkale" alt="" address="Pamuk Mah. Hasan Tahsin Cad. 22" directions="" phone="+90 531 708 81 16" email="[email protected]" fax="+90 258 272-22-33" url="http://www.sinterterassehotel. Great value cheapcom/" checkin="" checkout="" price="€ 20/€ 28 single/double rooms, clean roomincluding breakfast">A comfortable, nice bathroomfamıly run hotel with wireless internet access and cable TV. Rooms with en-suite, great food and friendly our staff enjoyable!air-con. Staff can speak English and German.</sleep>
*'''Ozturk White Hill <sleep name="Venüs Hotel''' One of Pamukkale's best" alt="" address="Pamuk Mah. Hasan Tahsin Cad. 16" directions="" phone="+90 258 272-21-loved hostels52" email="[email protected]" fax="+90 258 272-29- as it is consistently rated one of the top hostels in the country93" url="http://www. We’re" checkin="" checkout="" price="€ 20/€ 28 single/double rooms, including breakfast">A comfortable hotel with wireless internet access, a small familyswimming pool filled with thermal water from travertines. Rooms with en-owned suite, and run hostel with a homey atmosphereair-- the perfect place to relax and enjoy your time in Pamukkalecon. Staff can speak English.</sleep>
==Get Out==
<!--suggestions * [[Denizli]] is a short bus ride away, and from here one can transfer to, among other options, [[Selçuk]] & its Roman ruins of [[Ephesus]], or the popular Mediterranean resort city of where [[Antalya]]. Just shop around at the various travel agencies scattered throughout Pamukkale to go next? get the best price quotes, though beware their mark-->ups for fees/"taxes" (in particular, Neşe Tours charges high hidden "taxes": e.g. 45 TL for a bus to [[Bergama]] that was supposed to include the 3 TL dolmuş price to [[Denizli]], when in fact the dolmuş must be paid extra upon arriving in [[Denizli]], and one could buy the same [[Bergama]] bus ticket for a mere 30 TL at the Denizli bus station counter). 
{{isPartOf|Southern Aegean}}
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