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Yellow fever

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'''{{cautionbox|This is an article about health issues. While contributors do their best, we cannot take account of your individual health needs. Consult your doctor for individual medical advice.'''}} {{traveltopic}}
== About Yellow Fever ==
'''Yellow fever''' is a potentially fatal [[Tropical diseases|tropical disease ]] caused by a virus that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. Illness ranges in severity from an influenza-like syndrome to severe hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever. Yellow fever can be prevented by vaccination. Travellers to areas with yellow fever transmission should take precautions against exposure to [[mosquitoes]]. <br>'''Countries where yellow fever is endemic''' - with [ CDC] vaccination recommendation (may be abbreviated) as at mid-2006 in brackets - are: <br>'''[[Africa]]'''[[Image:Yellow_Fever_Africa_2009.jpeg|thumb|300px|CDC map of yellow fever-endemic zones in Africa in 2009.]]{| class="wikitable sortable" |+ align=center | border=1|- bgcolor="#efefef"! Country! Traveller's Age! Additional Comments|-| [[Angola]]| over 9 mo.||-|[[Benin]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Burkina Faso]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Burundi]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Cameroon]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Cape Verde]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Central African Republic]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Chad]]|over 9 mo.||-|Congo: [[Democratic Republic of the Congo]]|over 9 mo.||-|Congo: [[Republic of the mosquito Congo]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Côte d'Ivoire]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Equatorial Guinea]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Ethiopia]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Gabon]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[The Gambia]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Ghana]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Guinea]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Guinea-Bissau]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Kenya]]|over 9 mo.|cities of Nairobi and Mombasa have lower risk of transmission than rural areas|-|[[Liberia]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Mali]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Mauritania]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Niger]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Nigeria]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Rwanda]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Sao Tome and Principe]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Senegal]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Sierra Leone]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Somalia]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Sudan]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Tanzania]]|over 9 mo.|city of Dar es Salaam has a lower risk of transmission than rural areas|-|[[Togo]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Uganda]]|over 9 mo.||} <br>'''[[Central America]]''' & '''[[South America]]'Aedes''[[Image:Yellow_Fever_Americas_2009. Its symptoms include jpeg|thumb|300px|CDC map of yellow fever-endemic zones in the Americas in 2009.]]{| class="wikitable sortable" |+ align=center | border=1|- bgcolor="#efefef"! Country! Traveller's Age! Additional Comments|-|[[Argentina]]|over 9 mo.|going to the northern and north-eastern forested areas, jaundiceincluding Iguaçu Falls|-|[[Bolivia]]|over 9 mo.|travelling to areas east of the Andes Mountains|-|[[Brazil]]|over 9 mo.|going to the endemic zone|-|[[Colombia]]|over 9 mo.|where itinerary is limited to the cities of Bogotá, Cali, or Medellín, risk is lower and travellers may consider foregoing vaccination|-|[[Ecuador]]|over 9 mo.|who are travelling to areas east of the Andes Mountains|-|[[French Guiana]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Guyana]]|over 9 mo.||-|[[Panama]]|over 9 mo.|travelling to the provinces of Darien, Kunayala (San Blas) and bloodey vomitPanama, excluding the Canal Zone|-|[[Paraguay]]|over 9 mo.|travelling to the forested areas on the east and it can cause deathwest|-|[[Peru]]|over 9 mo. Be sure |travelling to take precautions against the areas east of the Andes Mountains, except if only travelling to the cities of Cuzco and Machu Picchu|-|[[MosquitoesSuriname]]|over 9 mo.||-|mosquito bites[[Trinidad and Tobago]] |over 9 mo.||-|[[Venezuela]]|over 9 mo.|except if you are visiting a country where yellow fever is present.only travelling to the northern coastal area|}
== Vaccination ==
A '''vaccine''' is available which provides immunity for at least ten years. Many countries will require that you be vaccinated against yellow fever if you are coming '''from''' a country where it is present or have been in such a country within the last 6 days (the incubation period). If this is the case you will need to present a "World Health Organisation International Certificate of Vaccination" with an appropriately dated certification on the "International Certificate of Vaccination or Revaccination Against Yellow Fever" page to immigration officials. This little yellow booklet will be given to you when you are vaccinated against yellow fever for the first time. Carry it with your passport: you'll typically present them to immigration officials at the same time.
It is generally easiest to get a yellow fever vaccination in your home country before you leave on your trip. The vaccination is not in the normal vaccination schedules of many countries outside the infected areas since it is unnecessary unless you are travelling and has a somewhat higher risk of complications than many other vaccines. You will need to especially request a yellow fever vaccination from a designated '''yellow fever vaccination center'''. Immunity is considered to start '''10 days''' from the time of the vaccination, so be sure to get vaccinated 10 days before you enter an infected country. The vaccine is live and not entirely inactive: many people have mild flu-like symptoms for a couple of days after receiving this vaccine, so it would be good not to be planning anything strenuous in those days.
Note that in many cases Depending on how the vaccine is cultivated, you will may need to allow about half an hour for a yellow fever vaccination as you will be observed for an allergic reaction to the vaccine after it is administered.
== Vaccination requirements ==
Some countries have mandatory yellow fever vaccination requirements. The exact requirements vary from country to country and may also vary from time to time. The following is a list of countries require or recommend immunization against which had yellow fever:vaccination requirements as at mid-2006. Countries requiring proof of vaccination upon arrival from all other countries (as opposed to only upon arrival from endemic zones) for all travellers more than one year old are marked below. {| class="wikitable sortable" | border=1|- bgcolor="#efefef"! Country! Proof of Vaccination|-|[[Afghanistan]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Albania]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Algeria]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Angola]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Antigua and Barbuda]]|from other endemic zones|-*|[[North AmericaAruba]]**|from other endemic zones|-|[[CanadaAustralia]] does not require visitors to be immunized.**|from other endemic zones|-|[[USABahamas]] does not require visitors to be immunized.**|from other endemic zones|-|[[MexicoBangladesh]] does not require visitors to be immunized.**|from other endemic zones|-|[[GuatemalaBarbados]] requires visitors |from infected areas to be immunized.other endemic zones|-**|[[Belize]] requires visitors |from other endemic zones|-|[[Benin]]|always|-|[[Bhutan]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Bolivia]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Botswana]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Brazil]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Brunei]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Burkina Faso]]|always|-|[[Burundi]]|from infected areas to be immunized.other endemic zones|-|[[Cambodia]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Cameroon]]|always|-**|[[HondurasCape Verde]] requires visitors |from infected areas to be immunized.other endemic zones|-|[[Central African Republic]]|always|-**|[[El SalvadorChina]] requires visitors |from infected areas to be immunized.other endemic zones|-**|[[NicaraguaChristmas Island]] requires visitors |from infected areas to be immunized.other endemic zones|-|[[Democratic Republic of the Congo|Democratic Republic]]<br>[[Democratic Republic of the Congo|of the Congo]]|always|-|[[Republic of the Congo]]|always|-|[[Cote d'Ivoire]]|always|-**|[[Costa Rica]] does not require visitors to be immunized.**|from other endemic zones|-|[[East Timor]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Ecuador]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Egypt]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[El Salvador]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Equatorial Guinea]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[PanamaEritrea]] recommends visitors to Chepo, Darién, and San Blas to be immunized.*|from other endemic zones|-|[[South AmericaEthiopia]]**|from other endemic zones|-|[[BrazilFiji]] requires visitors |from infected to be immunized. Yellow fever is other endemic in Maranhão, Tocantins, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, parts of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Paraná, and all states northwest.zones|-**|[[French Guiana]] requires all visitors to be immunized.**|always|-|[[French Polynesia]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Gabon]]|always|-|[[Gambia]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Ghana]]|always|-|[[Grenada]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Guadeloupe]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Guatemala]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Guinea]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[SurinamGuinea-Bissau]] requires visitors |from infected areas to be immunized.other endemic zones|-**|[[Guyana]] requires visitors |from other endemic zones|-|[[Haiti]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Honduras]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[India]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Indonesia]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Iran]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Iraq]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Jamaica]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Jordan]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Kazakhstan]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Kenya]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Kiribati]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Laos]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Lebanon]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Lesotho]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Liberia]]|always|-|[[Libya]]|from infected areas to be immunized.other endemic zones|-**|[[VenezuelaMadagascar]] does not require visitors to be immunized.**|from other endemic zones|-|[[ColombiaMalawi]] recommends that visitors to ... be immunized.**|from other endemic zones|-|[[EcuadorMalaysia]] requires visitors |from infected areas to be immunized.other endemic zones|-**|[[PeruMaldives]] requires visitors |from infected areas to be immunized. Visitors to the jungle are recommended to be immunized.other endemic zones|-|[[Mali]]|always |-**|[[BoliviaMalta]] requires visitors |from infected areas to be immunized. Yellow fever is other endemic in...zones|-**|[[ChileMauritania]] does not require visitors to be immunized.|always**|-|[[ArgentinaMauritius]] does not require visitors to be immunized.**|from other endemic zones|-|[[ParaguayMontserrat]] requires visitors |from and to infected areas to be immunized.other endemic zones|-**|[[UruguayMozambique]] does not require visitors to be immunized.*|from other endemic zones|-|[[EuropeMyanmar]]*|from other endemic zones|-|[[AsiaNamibia]]*|from other endemic zones|-|[[AfricaNauru]]*|from other endemic zones|-|[[AustralasiaNepal]]**|from other endemic zones|-|[[AustraliaNetherlands Antilles]] requires all travellers |from infected areas to be immunizedother endemic zones|-**|[[New ZealandCaledonia]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Nicaragua]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Niger]]|always|-|[[Nigeria]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Niue]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Norfolk Island]] does not require visitors to be immunized**|from other endemic zones|-|[[Oman]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Pakistan]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Palau]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Papua New Guinea]] requires all travellers |from other endemic zones|-|[[Paraguay]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Peru]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Philippines]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Pitcairn Islands]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Portugal]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Reunion]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Rwanda]]|always|-|[[Saint Helena (island)]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Saint Kitts and Nevis]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Saint Lucia]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Saint Vincent and the Grenadines]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Samoa]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Sao Tome and Principe]]|always|-|[[Saudi Arabia]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Senegal]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Seychelles]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Sierra Leone]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Singapore]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Solomon Islands]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Somalia]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[South Africa]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Sri Lanka]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Sudan]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Suriname]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Swaziland]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Syria]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Taiwan]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Tanzania]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Thailand]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Togo]]|always|-|[[Trinidad and Tobago]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Tunisia]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Turks and Caicos Islands]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Uganda]]|from other endemic zones|-|[[Uruguay]]|from infected areas to be immunisedother endemic zones|-**|[[East TimorVietnam]] does not require visitors to be immunized**|from other endemic zones|-|[[IndonesiaYemen]] requires all travellers |from infected or other endemic areas to be immunizedzones|-External link: |[[httpZimbabwe]]|from other endemic zones|} *exception://www.not required for Mauritanian travelers arriving from non-endemic zones WHO]will stay less than 2 weeks {{usabletopic}}
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[[WikiPedia:Yellow fever]]

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