Between 1805 and 1808, Rome was occupied by Napoleonic troops.
In '''1849''', the people of Rome - aided by patriots such as '''Giuseppe Garibaldi''' and '''Giuseppe Mazzini''' - revolted against the Papal government (which was perceived as being dispotic and obscurantist) and a new Roman Republic was proclaimed. The Pope fled the city and requested the help of the French emperor, Napoleon III, who promptly sent an expeditionary force
. Despite some initial setbacks, the French troops overcame the revolutionary forces which, after a bloody siege, attempted a desperate last stand at the Janiculum hill. In the ensuing bloodbath, the Italian patriots - along with their foreign allies - were crushed; Goffredo Mameli, composer of the current Italian anthem, was among the fallen. In '''1860''' Rome became again the focus of a power struggle with the rise of the '''Kingdom of Italy''', which seeked to '''unificate''' the Peninsula; after a series of battles, the Papal States were stripped of all their Italian possessions except for Rome, which remained under French protection. However, with the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, French troops were forced to abandon Rome, leaving it clear for the Kingdom of Italy to '''capture''' (September 20, 1870). Rome became the '''capital of Italy''', and has remained such ever since; the new Italian government started a huge campaign of public works; [[Rome/Modern Center|new neighbourhoods]] (such as Prati, or the Esquilino), monuments (the Vittoriano) and public buildings were built, while countless Medieval and Renaissance buildings were torn down to make way for the new street layout and the Tiber river was enclosed within its current embankments. Following World War I, with the rise of '''Fascism''' in '''1922''' Rome's face changed again: new districts (the EUR), avenues (via della Conciliazione, via dei Fori Imperiali) and other public buildings were built and ancient sites (such as the Fora or the Circus Maximus) were feverishily excavated; in doing so, entire Medieval neighbourhoods were bulldozed. Population grew; this trend was stopped by World War II, which dealt (relatively minor) damage to Rome. With the dismantlement of the monarchy and the creation of the '''Italian Republic''' in '''1946''', Rome again began to grow in population and became a modern city. Today's Rome is a modern, contemporary, bustling metropolis with an ancient core that reflects the many periods of its long history - the ancient times, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Modern Era - standing today as the capital of Italy and as one of the world's major tourist destinations.