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Rome

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By train
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 [[Image:Colosseum, Rome.JPG|thumb|300pxupright=1.3|The Colosseum]]
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[http://www.turismoroma.it/?lang=en '''Rome''' ] (Italian: ''Roma''), the ''Eternal City'', is the capital and largest city of [[Italy]] and of the [[Lazio]] (Latium) region. It's the famed city of the Roman Empire, the Seven Hills, ''La Dolce Vita'' (the sweet life), the [[Rome/Vatican|Vatican City]] and ''Three Coins in the Fountain''. Rome, as a millenium-long centre of power, culture and religion, having been the centre of one of the globe's greatest civilizations ever, has exerted a huge influence over the world in its circa c. 2500 years of existence.  The Historic Center of the city is a [[UNESCO World Heritage List|UNESCO World Heritage Site]]. With wonderful palaces, millenium-old churches and basilicas, grand romantic ruins, opulent monuments, ornate statues and graceful fountains, Rome has an immensely rich historical heritage and cosmopolitan atmosphere, making it one of Europe's and the world's most visited, famous, influential and beautiful capitals. Today, Rome has a growing nightlife scene and is also seen as a shopping heaven, being regarded as one of the fashion capitals of the world (some of Italy's oldest jewellery and clothing establishments were founded in the city). With so many sights and things to do, Rome can truly be classified a "global city".
The Historic Centre of the city is a [[UNESCO World Heritage List|UNESCO World Heritage Site]]. With wonderful palaces, millenium-old churches and basilicas, grand romantic ruins, opulent monuments, ornate statues and graceful fountains, Rome has an immensely rich historical heritage and cosmopolitan atmosphere, making it one of Europe's and the world's most visited, famous, influential and beautiful capitals. Today, Rome has a growing nightlife scene and is also seen as a shopping heaven, being regarded as one of the fashion capitals of the world (some of Italy's oldest jewellery and clothing establishments were founded in the city). With so many sights and things to do, Rome can truly be classified a "global city".
<div id=Districts></div><!-- provides anchor for the districtify link to #Districts -->
==Districts==
 
===Central Rome===
Rome can be divided into several districts. The so-called historical center centre (''centro storico'') is quite small, only around 4% of the city's area. This is mainly made up of the area inside the Roman walls. Districts are explained below:
{{Regionlist
| regionmap=Rome districts map.png
| region2color=#e57373
| region2items=
| region2description=The center of the Roman Renaissance period, with beautiful squares, cathedrals, the Pantheon, and plenty of laid-back dining; includes the Navona, Campo de' Fiori, and the Jewish Ghetto neighborhoodsneighbourhoods.
| region3name=[[Rome/Vatican|Vatican]]
| region3color=#9a4de5
| region3items=
| region3description=The Papal City State and its endless treasure troves of sights, relics, and museums, as well as the surrounding Italian neighborhoodneighbourhood.
| region4name=[[Rome/Colosseo|Colosseo]]
| region4color=#4de5e5
| region4items=
| region4description=The heart of ancient Rome, the Colosseum, the Roman Forum, the Forum of Augustus, the Forum and Markets of Trajan, the Capitoline and its museums.
| region5name=[[Rome/North Center|North CenterCentre]]
| region5color=#4de54d
| region5items=
| region5description=Situated in the north part of Rome, home to the Villa Borghese, the Spanish Steps, and the elegant neighborhoods neighbourhoods of Parioli and Salario.
| region6name=[[Rome/Trastevere|Trastevere]]
| region6color=#e5e571
| region7color=#e5e54d
| region7items=
| region7description=Off-the-beaten-path neighborhoods neighbourhoods of Rome with plenty of surprises waiting for interested travelers, as well as some truly great food.
| region8name=[[Rome/Esquilino-San Giovanni|Esquilino-San Giovanni]]
| region8color=#c0854d
| region9color=#c04d4d
| region9items=
| region9description=Municipio III, the neighborhoods neighbourhoods "behind" the train station. Vibrant night life in San Lorenzo.
}}
| region1color=#c1c1c1
| region1items=
| region1description=the vast suburban neighborhoods areas to the north of the center centre (Municipi 4, 15-20)
| region2name=[[Rome/South|South]]
| region2color=#c1c1c1
== Understand==
[[Image:Rom Pantheon mit Obelisk.jpg|thumb|right|250px|The Pantheon]]Situated on the River Tiber, between the Apennine Mountains and the Tyrrhenian Sea, the "Eternal City" was once the administrative center centre of the mighty Roman Empire, governing a vast region that stretched all the way from [[Britain]] to Mesopotamia. Today it remains the seat of the Italian government and home to numerous ministerial offices. Rome has 2.8 million inhabitants while the metropolitan area is home to around 5 million.
Architecturally and culturally, Rome has some contrasts - you have areas with pompously huge majestic palaces, avenues and basilicas, which are then surrounded by tiny alleyways, little churches and old houses. The centre of Rome is mainly ancient, and modern buildings are usually concentrated in the suburbs, unlike [[Milan]] (where new and old architecture is combined both in the centre and the outskirts). You may also find yourself walking from a grand palace and tree-lined elegant boulevard, into a small and cramped Medieval-like street.
The abbreviation "S.P.Q.R" is ubiquitous in Rome, short for the old Latin democratic motto "''Senatus Populusque Romanus" Romani'' (Latin), i.e. "The Senate and People of Rome". A humourous humorous variation is "Sono pazzi questi Romani" (these Romans are crazy).
For two weeks in August, many of Rome's inhabitants shut up shop (literally) and go on their own vacations; many stores, restaurants and other amenities will be '''closed''' during this time. The temperature in the city centre at this time of year is not particularly pleasant. If you do travel to Rome at this time, be prepared to see '''Chiuso per ferie''' (Closed for holidays) signs on many establishments. Even in these weeks the city is very beautiful and if you are looking for a less overcrowded vacation in Rome, this is not a bad time. You will always be able to find somewhere to eat.
===History===
[[Image:Roman Forum.JPG|thumb|right|250px|Roman Forum]][[Image:Neptune fountain.jpg|thumb|right|250px|The artsy Piazza Navona.]][[Image:Vittoriano Monument from Piazza Venezia.jpg|thumb|right|250px|The Vittorio Emanuele monument, considered a symbol of modern post-Risorgimento Rome.]][[Image:RomaPalazzoQuirinale.JPG|thumb|right|250px|The Quirinal Palace, the official residence of the President of Italy.]]Rome's history spans over two and half thousand years, which have seen its transformation from a small Latin village to the center centre of a vast empire, through the founding of Catholicism, and into the capital of today's Italy. Rome's history is long and complex. What follows is merely a quick summary.
Rome is traditionally thought to have been founded by the mythical twins Romulus and Remus, who were abandoned as infants in the Tiber River and raised by a mother wolf before being found by a shepherd who raised them as his own sons. Rome was founded as a small village sometime in the 8th century BC surrounding the Palatine Hill, including the area where the Roman Forum is found. Due to the village's position at a ford on the Tiber River, Rome became a crossroads of traffic and trade.
The settlement developed into the capital of the Roman Kingdom, led by a series of Etruscan kings, before becoming the seat of the Roman Republic at around 500 BC, and then the center centre of the Roman Empire from 27 BC on. For almost a thousand years, Rome was the largest, wealthiest, most powerful city in the Western World, with dominance over most of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. Even after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Rome maintained considerable importance and wealth.
Beginning with the reign of Constantine I, the Bishop of Rome (later known as the Pope) gained political and religious importance, establishing Rome as the center of the Catholic Church. During the Early Middle Ages, the city declined in population but gained a new importance as the capital of the newly formed Papal States. Throughout the Middle Ages, Rome was a major pilgrimage site and the focus of struggles between the Holy Roman Empire and the Papacy.
[[Image:Santa Maria in Trastevere front.jpg|thumb|right|250px|The Santa Maria in Trastevere church, a symbol of early medieval Rome.]]
With the Italian Renaissance fully under way in the 15th century, Rome changed dramatically. Extravagant churches, bridges, and public spaces, including a new Saint Peter's Basilica and the Sistine Chapel, were constructed by the Papacy so that Rome would equal the grandeur of other Italian cities of the period.
===Background reading===
At last count there were close to 1700 novels set in Rome in days gone by. [http://intraweb.stockton.edu/eyos/page.cfm?siteID=78&pageID=1] Most easily available in bookshops are those by [http://lindseydavis.co.uk/ Lindsey Davis] and [http://stevensaylor.com/ Steven Saylor]. Both are good storytellers and excellent at portraying life in Ancient Rome. Particularly interesting if you are visiting Rome may be Saylor’s “''Roma: The Novel of Ancient Rome''”, which traces the first thousand years or so of Rome’s history by following the fictional fortunes of two families. Each chapter begins with a map showing the state of Rome’s development at the time of the chapter.
At last count there were close to 1700 novels set in Rome in days gone by. [http://intraweb.stockton.edu/eyos/page.cfm?siteID=78&pageID=1] Most easily available in bookshops are those by Lindsey Davis [http://lindseydavis.co.uk/] and Steven Saylor [http://stevensaylor.com/]. Both are good storytellers and excellent at portraying life in Ancient Rome. Particularly interesting if you are visiting Rome may be Saylor’s “''Roma: The Novel of Ancient Rome''”, which traces the first thousand years or so of Rome’s history by following the fictional fortunes of two families. Each chapter begins with a map showing the state of Rome’s development at the time of the chapter. The classic work on Ancient Rome remains Edward Gibbon’s “''History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire''”. This was written in 1782 but is still being reprinted. A marvelous marvellous book that covers Rome’s fortunes from Romulus and Remus to the 1970s is “''Rome: The Biography of a City''” by Christopher Hibbert (Penguin). An excellent guide book, too, although perhaps a bit too heavy to carry around.
English-language bookshops in Rome are:
==Get in==
 
===By boat===
Most [[cruise ships]] dock in [[Civitavecchia]], some to begin or end a cruise, some to stay a full day to allow passengers to "day-trip" to Rome.
 
'''For "day-trippers"''', many ships arrange shuttle buses to and from the pedestrian port entrance. From there you can walk 10-15 minutes along the shore to the Civitavecchia train station. A B.I.R.G. round trip train ticket for Rome costs approximately €9 (as of Spring 2011), and also entitles you to unlimited use of Rome's Metro/underground and city bus lines. Trains for commuters leave every hour or so, more often during rush hours, and take about 80 minutes. For Rome, you can get off near St. Peters (Trastevere station), or continue to the Termini station right downtown, where countless buses and the Metro await.
 
'''If starting or ending a cruise''' using the train, you'll likely want to take a taxi between the ship and the train station. Because some train platforms can only be reached by underground walkway/stairs, plan ahead for transferring your luggage. At certain times of day, there may be porters to help. See also "About luggage" in "By train" above.
 
It is now possible for modest- to large-sized yachts to dock in the new Porto di Roma, [[Ostia]] marina, located 20&nbsp;km from Rome and linked by train and metro. Their stations are not within practical walking distance of the marina or riverside boat facilities.
 
====Ferry services====
* [http://www.grimaldi-ferries.com Grimaldi Lines]. Provides ferry service to/from [[Barcelona]], [[Tunis]], [[Toulon]] (France), [[Porto-Vecchio]] ([[Corsica]]). Many ferries run as much as 4&nbsp;hr late causing problems with onward connections such as the train to Rome. The last one leaves Civitavecchia at midnight and can leave you stranded overnight.
* [http://www.moby.it/ Moby]. Provides service to/from [[Olbia]], [[Sardinia]].
 
===By car===
Driving to Rome is quite easy; as they say, all roads lead to Rome. The city is ringed by a motorway, the Grande Raccordo Anulare or GRA. If you are going to the very centre of the city any road leading off the GRA will get you there. If you are going anywhere else, however, a GPS or a good map is essential. Signs on the GRA indicate the name of the road leading to the centre (e.g. Via Appia Nuova, Via Aurelia, Via Tiburtina) but this is useful only for Romans who know where these roads pass.
 
===By train===
Rome's main railway station is ''Termini Station'' which is located between 00:30 and 04:30. Most long-distance trains passing through Rome between these times will stop at Tiburtina station instead. See also "By boat" below.
 
Other main stations include Ostiense, Trastevere, Tuscolana, Tiburtina.
 
About luggage: When travelling between major cities or to/from another country, trains will be designed for passengers and luggage. Most others (e.g., between nearby towns and cities) are often designed to serve commuters.
* For enroute stations, they stop for only 1-2 minutes.
* Most cars have a middle platform close to the station's boarding level, but with a significant gap. Seating areas may be at levels different from the middle platform, with narrow/clumsy steps for moving large luggage and little space to store them. Large pieces must often be left on the middle platform; have someone guard them...thieves try to grab them just before the doors close.
===By plane===
 
Rome ({{IATA|ROM}} for [[Metropolitan Area Airport Codes|all airports]]) has two main international airports:
*'''Leonardo da Vinci/Fiumicino International Airport''' [http://adr.it/portal/portal/adr/Fiumicino/Leonardo_da_vinci'''Leonardo da Vinci/Fiumicino International Airport'''] (Rome [[Fiumicino]], {{IATA|FCO}}, tel.: 65631) - Rome's main airport is modern, large, rather efficient, and well connected to the center of the city by public transportation. However, late-night arrivals may limit you to an irregular bus into town unless you can afford a taxi.*'''Ciampino International Airport''' [http://adr.it/portal/portal/adr/Ciampino/GB_Pastine] (Rome Ciampino, {{IATA|CIA}}, tel.:0794941) - Located to the southeast of the capital, this is the city's low-cost airline airport, serving Easyjet, Ryanair and Wizzair flights, among others (see [[Discount airlines in Europe]]). This small airport is closer to the city center centre than Fiumicino but has no direct train connection. There are plans to move the low-cost airport much further out of Rome, but this is unlikely for some years. Note that at Ciampino '''cash machines''' are available only in the departures area. This is a relatively small airport and it closes overnight. You will be locked out of the airport until it opens again for the first check-in around 404:30 or 5AM05:00. Flying into Ciampino try to sit on the right of the plane, which will fly just to the east of the centre of the city. Reaching Rome you first see the River Tiber and then the Olympic Stadium, Castel Sant' Angelo, St Peter's and the Vatican and the Colosseum. Before touchdown you fly parallel with the old Appian Way, the tree-lined road on a slight incline about 1km to the right of the flightpath.
====Public Airport Transportationtransport to/from Airports====
=====By train=====
From Leonardo da Vinci/Fiumicino airport, there are two '''train lines''' to get you into Rome:
*'''Leonardo Express trains''' leave every 30 minutes &nbsp;min to the central train station '''Roma Termini''' (35 minute &nbspmin trip). Beware that these trains arrive at Platform 25, which is a 400m 400&nbsp;m walk from the main station. Tickets cost €14 and are available (within 7 days of departure) on line at [http://www.trenitalia.com/cms/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=f12f3bf7c819a110VgnVCM1000003f16f90aRCRD on line]. Tickets sold at the departure platform are €15. So if there are three of you it is cheaper to take a taxi and you get delivered to your door. You can't buy a ticket for a specific train; it's just a general ticket for a specific route (Termini), but it's good for any time. Get your ticket stamped in a yellow validation machine just before using it. The ticket will expire 90 minutes after validation.
*The '''Metropolitan train''' does not stop at Termini. Get off at '''Tiburtina Station''' or, before that, at '''Ostiense Station''' where you can connect to Line B of the Rome Metro, or get off at '''Trastevere Station''' and from there take the '8' tram (direction 'Argentina') to go to Largo Argentina and Campo de' Fiori. Tickets are €8, plus €1,50 for a metro/tram ticket. The extra cost of the Leonardo Express is for the convenience of a direct ride to Termini. If you are going somewhere else close to a Metro station, Tiburtina and Ostiense stations are as convenient. Get your ticket stamped in a yellow validation machine just before using it.
'''Terravision''' =====By bus=====[http://www.terravision.eu/rome_fiumicino.html'''Terravision'''] is probably the easiest and cheapest connection between Fiumicino airport and Rome city centercentre, but the journey takes 55 minutes&nbsp;min. You can either book online (€4 one way) or buy the tickets there (€5 €6 one way, €11 round trip). It departs near Terminal 3 of the airport and arrives in Termini station (and the same applies for the reverse route). '''COTRAL/Schiaffini''' [http://www.schiaffini.com/AlPercorrenze1.asp?Loc=28&p=0] operates '''There are other buses''' from both airports that go to Termini station there, and during the city. Don't forget to mark off-season, you can hedge your ticket after getting on the busbets and see which one leaves earlier. The timetables for its services can be found here: [http://www.cotralspa.it/Collegamenti_Aeroporti_area1.asp]
[http://www.schiaffini.com/AlPercorrenze1.asp?Loc=28&p=0 '''COTRAL/Schiaffini'''Taxis] operates ''' should charge buses''' from both airports to the fixed price of €48 city. Don't forget to mark your ticket after getting on the bus. The timetables for the ride into town at nighttime, but they often try to charge moreits services can be found here: [http://www.cotralspa.it/Collegamenti_Aeroporti_area1. asp]
======Fiumicino-Rome buses======
From Leonardo da Vinci/Fiumicino, the bus stop is located outdoors at ground level, at the bottom of the Terminal 1 (Domestic Arrivals). You can buy tickets at the tobacco shop in the Terminal 1 baggage area, with the blue sign (Tabaccheria). Lines from Leonardo da Vinci/Fiumicino are:
::from Fiumicino: 1:15, 2:15, 3:30, 5:00, 10:55, 12:00, 15:30
::from Rome Tiburtina station: 00.30, 1.15,2.30,03.45, 09.45,10.30,12.35,17.30
 
The night Fiumicino timetable is not kept very well. The bus may be half an hour late or not arrive at all. Perch on the bus stop, do not give up, it will probably come,eventually.
An inexpensive choice from Fiumicino is to take the bus (COTRAL) to EUR Magliana (stops directly at the metro station, which belongs to line B) and then take the Metro. It's the '''cheapest way''' to get to the centre (€2.50 bus + €1 metro). The sign on this bus reads "Fiumicino-Porto-Magliana".
======Ciampino-Rome buses======
From '''Ciampino''' airport, you can take the bus from the stop located outside the terminal building to Metro Line A ''Anagnina'' station (ticket: €1.20). A metro ticket to central Rome costs another €1,50. This bus stops also at Ciampino local train station (price is also 1,20€); from there there is a train (app. 3 connections per hour) to Rome Termini station (ticket: €1,50). The buses operate roughly every hour or 30 minutes during the Italian work day (8-12 and 16-20), and you should count on at least 45 minutes travel time for either route. The Metro can get very crowded. Timetable booklets are available in some information booths. It's not possible to walk the 4 km distance to the local train station as there are no footpath on the way.
There are a few '''direct bus''' services from Ciampino, all of which go to the Termini in Downtown Rome:
* '''Sit bus shuttle''' [http://www.sitbusshuttle.it/Sit bus shuttle] runs a line that costs €6 one-way or 10€ with return (approx. 40 min, with about 25 services a day).* '''Terravision''' [http://www.terravision.eu/rome_ciampino.htmlTerravision]. Please note that this is a dedicated airport-city transfer only for the major low cost airlines. The price is €6 one-way or €12 return when booked online on-line (approx. 40 &nbsp;min, with a service every 30 &nbsp;min). It is advised that passengers on the return trip from Termini to board the bus 3 hours before their flight's departure time.
On most Ryanair flights and at the counter at the airport, you can buy a ticket for 4€.
* '''COTRAL's''' direct line costs €5 one-way (approx. 40 &nbsp;min), but has far fewer departures than Terravision. These buses are not mentioned on the airport website yet, but you can find them on Schiaffini's own site. This bus may be useful if you arrive at a time when the Metro is closed.
A shared =====By taxi====='''airport shuttleTaxis''' can be hired should charge the fixed price of €48 for around €15 per person to take you from Ciampino airport. However, since the shuttle is sharedride into town at night time, it may take longer but they often try to reach your destination if other customers are dropped off before you arecharge more.
====Private airport transportation===='''Taxis''' in Rome are white. There is a fixed fare of €48 from Fiumicino Airport to downtown (within the city's ancient Aurelian Walls) and vice versa. Occasionally taxis in the queue at the airport are not from Rome but from the town of Fiumicino. These are not bound by the fixed fare rule and are best avoided. Ciampino Airport to the City center centre and vice-versa costs €30. Between the two airports is €50. For most other destinations fares are not fixed and are based on the meter. In the main Rome taxi drivers are hard-working honest people. But there is a hard core of crooks, and these tend to work the airports and the main station. Do NOT negotiate the price for the city center centre and be sure your driver activates the meter (all regular taxis have a meter) when he/she starts driving to any destination not covered by a fixed fare. Drivers at the airport may try to talk you into paying more than the fixed fare, saying that your destination is 'inside the wall' or 'hard to get to'. If they try to overcharge you at your destination ask them to call a policeman. They will probably back down. Licensed limousine drivers may approach you at the airports, particularly Fiumicino where there are several companies (mainly cooperatives) with booths close to the exit. A drive with them to the center centre could reach as high as €80 but if you are in a group a large limousine or "van" could be cheaper than two taxis. Be aware as well of unlicensed "taxi" drivers. Go directly to the taxi stand and ignore touts.
At Ciampino there is supposed to be an organized taxi queue but the drivers will often negotiate amongst themselves if you are going somewhere the cab at the front doesn't want to go to. There are reports that late at night licensed cab drivers in the rank at Ciampino are asking €100 to take you into town, so try to avoid late flights or take the bus that connects with the flight. If you have to take a cab just pay the legal fare at your destination. If you have no stomach for the resulting argument then you can phone a cab from one of the numbers listed under Get Around.
Another option, is to book a '''Rental cars'licensed limousine'' in advance on-line. The prices are available from all major companies often cheaper than a taxi especially for minivans and in Fiumicino even for sedans. One disadvantage however is that you normally need to book at both airportsleast 24 hours in advance so you need to plan ahead.* [https://easyprivatetaxi. Providers can be reached easily in the Arrivals Halls com Easy Private Taxi] has Fiumicino/Ciampino Airport to Rome at both €45 for a sedan, €55 for a minivan * [http://holidaytaxis.com Holiday Taxis] has Fiumicino and CiampinoAirport to Rome at £57.11 for a sedan, £95.13 for a minivan
===By train===RomeA shared ''s main railway station is 'airport shuttle'Termini Station'' which can be hired for around €15 per person to take you from Ciampino airport. However, since the shuttle is locked between 00:30 and 04:30. Most long-distance trains passing through Rome between these times will stop at Tiburtina station instead. See also "By boat" belowshared, it may take longer to reach your destination if other customers are dropped off before you are.
Other main stations include Ostiense, Trastevere, Tuscolana, Tiburtina'''Rental cars''' are available from all major companies at both airports. Providers can be reached easily in the Arrivals Halls at both Fiumicino and Ciampino.
[[About luggage]]: When traveling between major cities or to/from another country, trains will be designed for passengers and luggage. Most others (e.g., between nearby towns and cities) are often designed to serve commuters.* For enroute stations, they stop for only 1-2 minutes.* Most cars have a middle platform close to the station's boarding level, but with a significant gap. Seating areas may be at levels different from the middle platform, with narrow/clumsy steps for moving large luggage and little space to store them. Large pieces must often be left on the middle platform; have someone guard them...thieves try to grab them just before the doors close.==Get around==
===By car===Get a map from your hotel or go inside a hotel to ask for directions to a place. Every accommodation seems to have a stack of these sponsored by a variety of businesses. The roads can be confusing and directions can be hard to follow without a map to reference.
Driving to Rome is quite easy; as they say, all roads lead to Rome. The city is ringed by a motorway, the Grande Raccordo Anulare or GRA. If you are going to the very centre of the city any road leading off the GRA will get you there. If you are going anywhere else, however, a GPS or a good map is essential. Signs on the GRA indicate the name of the road leading to the centre (e.g. Via Appia Nuova, Via Aurelia, Via Tiburtina) but this is useful only for Romans who know where these roads pass. ===By boatRoma Pass=== Most [[cruise ships]] dock If you'll be staying in [[Civitavecchia]], some to begin or end a cruise, some to stay a full day to allow passengers to "day-trip" to Rome. '''For "day-trippers"'''for at least 3 days, many ships arrange shuttle buses to and from consider purchasing the pedestrian port entranceRoma Pass [http://www. From there you can walk 10-15 minutes along the shore to the Civitavecchia train stationromapass. A Bit].I.R.G. round trip train ticket for Rome costs approximately €9 (as of Spring 2011), The cost is €30 and also entitles you holders to free admission to unlimited use of Rome's Metrothe first two museums and/underground and city bus lines. Trains for commuters leave every hour or soarchaeological sites visited, more often during rush hoursfull access to the public transport system, reduced tickets and take about 80 minutes. For Romediscounts for any other following museums and sites visited, you can get off near St. Peters (Trastevere station)as well as exhibitions, or continue to the Termini station right downtownmusic events, where countless buses theatrical and the Metro await. '''If starting or ending a cruise''' using the train, you'll likely want to take a taxi between the ship dance performances and the train stationall other tourist services. Because some train platforms can only be reached by underground walkway<br /stairs, plan ahead for transferring your luggage. At certain times of day, there may be porters to help. See also "About luggage" in "By train" above. >
'''International Charter Group''' - [http://luxuryonlineyachts.com] - Yacht charter and sailing, one of the worlds largest acht charter companies, can take care of all charter requirements, from bareboat to crewed in Rome. Operating from nine offices worldwide (USA, Spain, UK, Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Switzerland, Caribbean, Honk Kong and Dubai).  It is now possible for modest- to large-sized yachts to dock in the new Porto di Roma, [[Ostia]] marina, located 20 kilometers from Rome and linked by train and metro. Their stations are not within practical walking distance of the marina or riverside boat facilities. ====Ferry services==== In Civitavecchia:* '''Grimaldi Lines''' [http://www.grimaldi-ferriesconciergerie.com]. Provides ferry service to/from [[Barcelona]], [[Tunis]], [[Toulon]] (France), [[Porto-Vecchio]] ([[Corsica]]).* '''Moby''' [http:/rome/www.moby.itpass/]. Provides service to/from [[Olbia]], [[Sardinia]]rome-combo-pass==Get around== ===Roma Pass===If you'll be staying in php Rome for at least 3 days, consider purchasing the Roma Pass [http://www.romapass.itComboPass®]. The cost is €30 and entitles holders to free admission to the first two museums and/or archaeological sites visited, full access to the public transport system, reduced tickets and discounts for any other following museums and sites visited, as well also available as exhibitions, music events, theatrical and dance performances and all other tourist services.Please make sure to check the expiration date at the back of a combo pass deal that includes the Roma Pass card. Some cards' validity are expired and they do not work in metro's gate hop on/off bus and ticket's gate; you have to ask officer to open the gate for you. In other words it gets you into troubleboat.
===By car===
 
'''In a nutshell: Don't do it.''' Well, some people actually enjoy it. Roman traffic is chaotic, but it is possible to drive there. However, the roads are not logical and the signs are few. It will take a few weeks to understand where to drive, to get where you want to go. When driving in Rome it is important to accept that Italians drive in a very pragmatic way. Taking turns and letting people go in front of you is rare. There is little patience so if the light is green when you go into the intersection and you are too slow they will let you know. A green light turning to amber is a reason to accelerate, not brake, in part because the lights usually stay amber for several seconds. If you brake immediately when the light changes you are likely to get rear-ended. Parking is scarce. Rome is plagued with people who demand money to direct you to a space, even on the rare occasions when there are many places available. While in Rome, it is far better to travel by bus or metro, or (''in extremis'') take a taxi.
===By public transport (ATAC)===
 
Tickets must be bought (from a 'Tabacchi' - look for the big 'T' sign, these shops are plentiful, or from a kiosk selling newspapers), before you board the bus, Metro, or tram. Metro stations have automated ticket kiosks, and major Metro stations have clerked ticket windows. Some of the rare trams have single ticket machines as well. Tickets for regular ATAC buses, Metro, and trams are the same fares and are compatible with each other. Options as of March 2010 were the following:
* a single ticket ride ('Biglietto') - €1.50 - you can change buses or into and out of the metro on one journey (valid for 100 minutes)
====Bus====
 
Roman buses are reliable but crowded. They are the best way to get around the city (except walking). Free maps of the bus system are available. Others can be purchased (€3.5 at Termini). Signs at the bus stop list the stops for each route. Ask for assistance. (In Rome, there is always somebody nearby who speaks English — or tries his best with some self-explanatory gesticulations).
====Hop on / Hop off Buses====
A popular alternative to city and pre-planned tour buses are the hop-on/hop-off (Ho-Ho) buses...open-top double-decker. In the last few years there has been a veritable explosion in the number of such buses, and at the last count there were seven different companies. An all-day ticket runs about €18-20, can be purchased as you board at any stop, and provides unlimited access to available seats (the open-air upper deck highly preferable in good weather) and earbud headphones to plug into outlets for running commentary on approaching sights. Commentary is offered in nearly every European language. Most companies follow more or less the same route, starting in sight of Termini station but there are also two different tours of "Christian Rome" and the Archeobus, which will take you to the catacombs and along the Appian Way.
A popular alternative to city and pre-planned tour buses are the hop-on/hop-off (Ho-Ho) buses...open-top double-decker. In the last few years there has been a veritable explosion in the number of such buses, and at the last count there were seven different companies. An all-day ticket runs about €18-20, can be purchased as you board at any stop, and provides unlimited access to available seats (the open-air upper deck highly preferable in good weather) and earbud headphones to plug into outlets for running commentary on approaching sights. Commentary is offered in nearly every European language. Most companies follow more or less the same route, starting is sight of Termini station but there are also two different tours of "Christian Rome" and the Archeobus, which will take you to the catacombs and along the Appian Way. One good tactic for first-time visitors is to ride a complete Ho-Ho loop, making notes of what interests you. Then stay on until you arrive at each point/area you wish to visit, do so, then hop back on another bus (for that bus line) for the next point/area of interest. Even with a prompt morning start, seeing/doing all that's available with some thoroughness can easily consume the whole day. If you're there more than one day and like the approach, on subsequent days look for different bus lines that take different routes, e.g., most of the same points/areas but in different order.
Taking pictures from the upper-deck while in-motion is tricky but doable (but not recommended by the bus lines) by those with good balance who can also recognize approaching limits on camera and lighting angles. An early start will also help choice of seat location to help camera angles. Watch out for the sales guys hanging outside of the big train station Termini who have leaflets for all the companies, they often actually work for just one and drag you to a ticket office which is a waste of time as you can just get a ticket on a bus.
====Tram====
[[Image:Metroroma02.png|thumb|300pxupright=1.7|Rome's metro network]]
The Tram routes mostly skirt the historic center, but there are stops convenient for the Vatican, the Colosseum, and the Trastevere area. The number 8 does run into the center to Largo Argentina, not far from the Pantheon. If you want to catch a soccer game at one of the stadiums in the north of the city, catch the tram (2) just north of the Piazza del Popolo. Number 19 links the Vatican with Villa Borghese.
====Metro====
 
There are two (or two-and-a-half) lines, crossing at Termini station. Line A (red line) runs northwest past the Vatican, and southeast. Line B (Blue Line) runs southwest past the Colosseum and northeast in one direction, but also splits at the "Bologna" station to go due north until Conca d'Oro. On the weekdays line A and B last trains start running from the end stations at 11:30PM. On Fridays and Saturdays the last trains of Line B leave from the end stations at 1:30AM and the line closes at 2AM to re-open at 5.00. The Metro is the most punctual form of public transportation in Rome, but it can get extremely crowded during rush hour. See safety warning in the [[#Stay safe|Stay Safe section]].
===By commuter rail===
 
There is a network of suburban rail lines that mostly connect to smaller towns and conurbations of Rome. Tourists are unlikely to use these, except when arriving from Fiumicino, but they can be very convenient if you fancy a day-trip out of Rome (see [[Rome#Get Out|Get Out]])
===On a moped===
 There is the possibility to hire motor bikes or scooters. Many Romans prefer this way of transportation, even in winter you can see them driving scooters equipped with raincoats, blankets, and rain boots.
Motorbikes are not particularly safe in Rome and most accidents seem to involve one (or two!). Nevertheless, Roman traffic is chaotic and a scooter provides excellent mobility within the city. Scooter rental costs between €30 and €70 per day depending on scooter size and rental company. The traffic can be intimidating and the experience exciting but a bit insane.
===On a bicycle===
 
There is the possibility to hire any kind of bike in Rome: from tandem, road bikes, children bikes to trekking bikes. Some shops are even specialized only on high quality ones while street stands will hire you cheaper and heavy ones. Bicycling alone can be stressful because of the traffic. The best way is to discover first how to move around and avoid traffic and stress with a guide thanks to one of the tours offered by almost all rental shops. There are different itineraries offered from the basic city center, panoramic Rome tour to the Ancient Parks (from €29 for 4h). The experience is well worth it and you would reduce also your impact on the city environment and on the traffic.
[[Image:ViaAppiaAnticaAbicicleta.png|thumb|300px|The Appian Way as seen from two wheels]]
Even moderately experienced cyclists, however, may find that cycling through Rome's streets offers an unparalleled way to learn the city intimately and get around very cheaply and efficiently. While the Roman traffic is certainly chaotic to someone from a country with more regimented and enforced rules of the road, Roman drivers are, generally speaking, used to seeing bicycles, as well as scooters and motorcycles, and one may move throughout the city relatively easily. If you are in a car's way, they will generally let you know with a quick beep of the horn and wait for you to move.
*'''Bikesharing.''' Rome's public transport company, ATAC, operates a bike sharing scheme. The bicycles, which are green, are available at numerous locations in the downtown area and further afield. Tickets cost €10, which includes a €5 inscription fee. In the downtown area electronic cards can be obtained at the Metro ticket offices of Termini, Lepanto and Spagna. The rental cost is €1 an hour. The application procedure is a bit cumbersome and you have to give credit card details but this is a good system if you want to move around Rome quickly and with minimal exhaustion.
 
===By Segway Pt===
 
It is now possible to rent a Segway in Rome. It is a fast, convenient, and eco-friendly way to get around in the city center. In Rome, a person on a Segway is considered a pedestrian, not a motorist, so Segways are only allowed on the sidewalks, not in the streets with vehicles. Segway rental costs between €25 and €50 per hour, or between €70 and €100 for an accompanied tour of 2-4 hours.
==See==
[[Image:Campidoglio_Rome.jpg|thumb|300px|Campidoglio Rome]] 
Italians are very fond of their landmarks; in order to make them accessible to everyone one week a year there is no charge for admittance to all publicly owned landmarks and historical sites. This week, known as "''La settimana dei beni culturali''", typically occurs in mid-May and for those 7 to 10 days every landmark, archaeological site and museum belonging to government agencies (including the Quirinale presidential palace and gardens, the Colosseum and all of the ancient Forum) is accessible and free of charge. For more information and for specific dates see [http://cityzeum.com/en/guide/roma/] or [http://beniculturali.it/].
In general, Rome's main attractions are free - for example, it doesn't cost anything to enter the Pantheon or St. Peter's at the Vatican, although you'll have to pay to visit the museums and so forth.
You are able to buy full day passes for €12 or a 3-day pass for €23(not up to date)€30. This pass gets you in to the Colosseum (Colosseo), Palatine Hill (Palatino Hill), the Baths of Caracalla (Terme di Caracalla), and the catacombs as well as the Terme di Diocleziano, Palazza Massimo alle Terme, Crypta Balbi, Palazzo Altemps, Villa dei Quintili, and the Tomb of Cecilia Metella.
===Ancient Rome===
[[Image:Pantheon2.jpg|thumb|right|Coffers and Oculus of the Pantheon]] 
The main area for exploring the ruins of ancient Rome is in [[Rome/Colosseo]] either side of Via dei Fori Imperiali, which connects the Colosseum and Piazza Venezia. Constructed between 1931 and 1933, at the time of Mussolini, this road destroyed a large area of Renaissance and medieval buildings constructed on top of ruins of the ancient forums and ended forever plans for an archeological park stretching all the way to the Appian Way. Heading towards the Colosseum from Piazza Venezia, you see the Roman Forum on your right and Trajan's Forum and Market on the left. To the right of the Colosseum is the Arch of Constantine and the beginning of the Palatine Hill, which will eventually lead you to ruins of the Flavian Palace and a view of the Circus Maximus (see [[Rome/Aventino-Testaccio]]). To the left, after the Colosseum is a wide, tree-lined path that climbs through the Colle Oppio park. Underneath this park is the Golden House of Nero (Domus Aurea), an enormous and spectacular underground complex restored and then closed again due to damage caused by heavy rain. Further to the left on the Esquiline Hill are ruins of Trajan's baths.
=== Catholic Rome ===
[[Image:Vatican-WH1.jpg|thumb|right|300px|The Renaissance/Baroque opulent exterior of St. Peter's Basilica]] 
There are more than 900 churches in Rome. Probably one third would be well worth a visit!
Take a look inside a few churches. You'll find the richness and range of decor astonishing, from fine classical art to tacky electric candles. Starting with several good examples of early Christian churches, including [[Rome/Colosseo|San Clemente]] and [[Rome/Nomentano|Santa Costanza]], there are churches built over a period of 1700 years or so, including modern churches constructed to serve Rome's new suburbs.
Some churches in Rome deny admission to people who are dressed inappropriately. You will find "fashion police" at the most visited churches. ("Knees and shoulders" are the main problem - especially female ones.) Bare shoulders, short skirts, and shorts are officially not allowed, but long shorts and skirts reaching just above the knee should generally be no problem. However, it's always safer to wear longer pants or skirts that go below the knee; St. Peter's in particular is known for rejecting tourists for uncovered knees, shoulders, midriffs, etc. (You also generally won't be told until right before you enter the church, so you will have made the trek to the Vatican and stood in a long security line for nothing.) The stricter churches usually have vendors just outside selling inexpensive scarves and sometimes plastic pants. But relatively few churches enforce dress codes and you can wander into most wearing shorts, sleeveless shirts, or pretty much anything without problems. It is, however, good to keep one's dress conservative, as these are still churches and houses of prayer for many people. (Older Romans might comment on your attire and perhaps harass you if it is particularly revealing.)
===The Seven Hills of Rome===
===Museums===
 
If you are in Rome for the '''Arts''' there are several world-class museums in the city. The natural starting point is a visit to the area of '''Villa Borghese''' in [[Rome/North Center#Villa_Borghese|Campo Marzio]], where there is a cluster of art museums. '''Galleria Borghese''' houses a previously private art collection of the Borghese family, '''Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia''' is home of the world's largest Etruscan art collection, and '''Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna''' houses many Italian masterpieces as well as a few pieces by artists such as Cézanne, Degas, Monet and Van Gogh. The '''Capitoline Museums''' in the [[Rome/Colosseo#Museums_and_galleries|Colosseo district]] opens their doors to the city's most important collection of antique Roman and Greek art and sculptures. Visit the '''Galleria d'Arte Antica''', housed in the Barberini palace in the [[Rome/Modern_Center#Palazzo_Barberini|Modern center]], for Italian Renaissance and Baroque art.
Moving back to the [[Rome/Modern Center|Modern Center]] you have to see the '''Trevi Fountain''', surely a part of everyone's Roman holiday. Visitors are always amazed that such a big and famous fountain is tucked away in a small piazza in the middle of side streets. Take extra-special care of your possessions here. Further up the Via del Tritone you will come to '''Piazza Barberini''', now full of traffic but the lovely Bernini fountain is not to be missed.
=== Overlooked Places ===The '''Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana''' is an example of [[Fascist Architecture]] in Rome. It contains a building often referred to as "the Square Colosseum." It was designed by Benito Mussolini to honor honour the historic Colosseum but also show his taste in cleaner architecture. This would be an interesting place to visit after seeing the Colosseum itself to compare their differences and similarities.
===Viewpoints===
[[Image:Popolo.jpg|thumb|right|220px|On the Pincio above ''Piazza del Popolo is '''s a good viewpoint.]]With no tall buildings in One of the best views is at the top of the [http://wikitravel.org/en/File:Vittoriano_Monument_from_Piazza_Venezia.jpg Il Vittoriano]. This can be reached by climbing to the mid level terraces of the building and then paying €7 to ride the lift up to the very top of the building. This gives breathtaking views over the entirety of Rome, views with informative diagrams to help you understand just what it is that you can see. Views of the city can also come from climbing the many hills, either the original "seven hills " of Rome , or others that surround them. The two most popular views of Rome are from the '''Janiculum''' hill overlooking [[Rome/Trastevere|Trastevere]] and the '''Pincio''' at the edge of the [[Rome/North Center|Borghese Gardens]]. The former, best reached by car, has sweeping views of the center of Rome, as long as the authorities remember to prune the trees on the hillside in front of the viewpoint. Cross over the piazza for an excellent view of the dome of '''St Peter's'''. The [[Rome/Vatican|Vatican]] is the main sight from the Pincio (metro Line A, Piazza del Popolo, and then a good climb). Less popular, but just as nice, is the orange grove at Parco Savello on the [[Rome/Aventino-Testaccio|Aventine Hill]].
===Rome for kids===
 
If you are planning some serious sightseeing then leave the kids with their grandparents! They don’t take kindly to being dragged from ruin to ruin and church to church. A common sight in Rome is miserable looking kids traipsing after their parents. Also, push chairs/buggies are difficult to use because of the cobbled streets. If you are a family, do not try to do too much. It will be a big strain on kids and in the end everyone will be tired.
Apart from the major attractions Rome has relatively little to entertain kids. If you noticed a big Ferris wheel on your way in from Fiumicino Airport, think again. Lunapark at [[Rome/South|EUR]] was closed down in 2008. A few of the other ways to bribe your kids, however, are:
*[http://mdbr.it/inglese/ '''Children's Museum''']. Via Flaminia 82. Just north of Piazza del Popolo. Controlled entrance at 10.:00, 12,:00, 15.:00 and 17.:00 for visits lasting 1 hour 45 minutes. Closed Mondays and for much of August. Best to check the web site for up-to-date info and to book in advance.[http://mdbr.it/inglese/] Hands-on science, mainly for pre-teens, housed in a former tram-car depot.
*<see name="3d-Rewind" alt="" address="Via Capo D'Africa 5" directions="just behind the Colosseum" phone="" url="http://3drewind.com/" hours="9.09:00-19.:00" price="€15 for adults and €8 for kids" lat="" long="" email="" fax="">provides a three-dimensional look at what the Colosseum and the Forum were like in the days of the Romans. Kids really like it but parents beware that you have to brave a large "merchandising" area after leaving the show, with overpriced souvenirs.</see>.
*[http://bioparco.it/ '''Bioparco''']. The renamed Rome Zoo. On the edge of the Borghese Gardens. From 09.:30 to 17.:00 or 18.:00 depending on the month. They try hard, but San Diego this isn't. If you are a regular zoo-goer you will be disappointed. *[http://bioparcotimeelevator.it/]*'''The Time Elevator''']. Via dei Santi Apostoli, 20 on a side street between Piazza Venezia and the Trevi Fountain. Daily 10.:30 to -19.:30. "Five-dimensional" shows on the Origins of Life and on the History of Rome, plus "The House of Horrors". Not for the faint-hearted: your seats move all over the place. Kids love it. [http://timeelevator.it/]
*'''Rome's Wax Museum'''. 67 Piazza di Santi Apostoli, next to Piazza Venezia. Few good reports about this museum. Comments invited.
*'''Planetarium''' at [[Rome/South|EUR]]. This also has an excellent astronomy museum and is conveniently next to the Museum of Rome's Civilization [http://planetarioroma.it].
*'''The Vatican''' is, by and large, not a great idea for kids although they often enjoy the Sistine Chapel and are impressed by the beauty and the fact that it was all done in just four years. However, the Sistine Chapel is very crowded and getting there through the corridors of the Vatican Museum is even worse. It is easy for families to get separated so determine a meeting point. The best part of St. Peter's Basilica is that kids can go to the top of the dome. It is 500 steps but you can take the elevator up to the third floor. From there there are another 323 exhausting steps. So it is fun for older kids who can both climb up all the stairs and walk down as there is a huge line for the elevator.
*[http://zoomarine.it/ '''Zoomarine''']. Dolphins, sea lions, exotic birds, splashy rides and swimming pools, some 20km 20&nbsp;km south of Rome near Pomezia. A good day out, but is this really why you came to Rome? Free transport from EUR and Pomezia railway station. Check web site for details. [http://zoomarine.it/]
==Do==
===Events===
* '''Estate Romana Festival''' (Roman Summer Festival) - from late June through early September offers various musical events of jazz, rock, and classical music, and film, sport, theatre and children’s fun.
* '''Estate Romana Festival''' (Roman Summer Festival) - from late June through early September offers various musical events of jazz, rock, and classical music, and film, sport, theater and children’s fun. * '''<do name="White Night (Nights" alt="Notte Bianca)''' [" address="" directions="" phone="" tollfree="" email="" fax="" url="http://lanottebianca.it/?pagina=homepage_en&Nascosto=&IdLingua=2] - in " hours="" price="" lat="" long="">In early to mid-September, various events until dawn, plus shops and restaurants, museums stay open while the Roman ''Notte Bianca '' stages music, dance and theater theatre events. Expect enormous crowds; buses and trams will be packed to the brim. </do>
*<do name="Opera at Caracalla" alt="" address="Baths of Caracalla (see Rome/Aventino-Testaccio)" directions="" phone="" tollfree="" email="" fax="" url="http://operaroma.it" hours="Performances start at 21:00" price="" lat="" long="">If you are in Rome during summertime don’t miss the chance to experience a lyric opera in the truly unique setting of the Caracalla Baths(see [[Rome/Aventino-Testaccio]]). The 2009 program Programs have included Tosca, Carmen and Midsummer Night’s Dream. Performances start at 21.00.</do>
* '''Primo Maggio''' - Primo Maggio (1 May 1) is a national holiday; Romans either leave town or attend a big rock concert in Piazza San Giovanni. On this "day of the worker" much will be closed, but you may find parades and festivals all over Italy. Expect big crowds in popular areas.
* '''Vatican guard swearing in''' - 6 May 6 - A is when new group groups of Swiss Guards are sworn in on May 6, marking the sack of Rome (A.D. in 1506). Guards are sworn in by the San Damaso courtyard, Vatican City. The public is not invited, but you may steal a glimpse if you book a private guided tour of the Vatican.
* '''<do name="Italian Open Tennis Tournament''' - " alt="" address="" directions="" phone="" tollfree="" email="" fax="" url="http://www.internazionalibnlditalia.it" hours="" price="" lat="" long="">For two weeks in May, Rome hosts one of the most important European clay-court tournaments, a warm-up for the French Open. [http:<//www.internazionalibnlditalia.it]do>
==Learn==
Look for a ''gelateria''. Remember that it usually costs extra to sit inside. You pay for your ice cream first...take your receipt and go fight your way through the throng to choose your flavors. You will be asked "''Panna?''" when it's almost made - this is the offer of whipped cream on top. If you've already paid, this is free. Some ''gelaterie'' require a small additional charge in order to get your cream — mostly half or one euro.
There are a few signs to keep in mind: "''Produzione Propria''" (homemade - our own production), "''Nostra Produzione''" (our production), "''Produzione Artigianale''" (production by craftsmen). If the colors seem dull and almost ugly it is probably natural, the bright colors being just a mix. Keep in mind, Italians usually won't queue, but if they are in line for gelato, get in line yourself: you may have hit the jackpot. Producers to try include '''Gelato di San Crispino''' [http://ilgelatodisancrispino.it]; '''Giolitti''' [http://www.giolitti.it], very famous, also Obama's family likes it [http://www.nbcnews.com/id/31803138/site/todayshow/ns/today-today_news/t/michelle-obama-tours-rome-her-daughters/]; '''La Palma''' [http://www.dellapalma.it] with a huge choice of tastes; '''Pompi''' bars [http://www.barpompi.it], famous for their wonderful ''Tiramisu'', a semi-frozen dessert made of mascarpone cheese, chocolate ans some secret ingredients; '''Fassi''' [http://palazzodelfreddo.it], the oldest gelateria located near Manzoni station with its great locationa wide variety of flavors for cheap.
===Vegetarians and Vegans===

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