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Turkey

277 bytes added, 23:11, 22 March 2013
Undo breach of xl policy revision 2011028 by 72.173.160.50 (talk)
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| image=[[Image:BlueMosqueIstanbul.jpg|noframe|250px]]| location=[[Image:LocationTurkey.png|250px]]| flag=[[Image:tu-flag.png]]
| capital=[[Ankara]]
| government=Parliamentary Republic
| tld=.tr
| timezone=UTC +2
|emergencies=dial '''155''' for police<br />
&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; '''110''' for fire<br />
&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; '''112''' for medical
}}
{{otheruses}}
[http://www.goturkey.com/ '''Turkey''' ] ([[Turkish phrasebook|Turkish]]: ''Türkiye'') [http://www.goturkey.com/] is on the Mediterranean, in the Anatolian region of West [[Asia]], with a small section in Southeastern [[Europe]] separated by the Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, and Dardanelles). With the Black Sea to the north and the Aegean Sea in the west and Mediterranean Sea to the southwest, Turkey is surrounded by [[Bulgaria]] and [[Greece]] to the west, [[Armenia]], [[Azerbaijan]] and [[Georgia (country)|Georgia]] to the northeast, [[Syria]], [[Iraq]] and [[Iran]] to the southeast.
==Understand==
 There is evidence that the bed of the Black Sea was once an inhabited plain, before it was flooded in prehistoric times by rising sea levels. Mount Ararat (''Ağrı Dağı''), at 5,165 meters, &nbsp;m is the country's highest point and legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, lies in the mountains on the far eastern edge of the country.
Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the Ottoman Empire. Soon thereafter the country instituted secular laws to replace traditional religious fiats. In 1945 Turkey joined the UN, and in 1952 it became a member of NATO.
===Geography===
 Turkey occupies a landmass slightly larger than [[Texas]], at just over 750,000 square kilometres, and is more than three times the size of the [[United Kingdom]]. In terms of the variety of terrain and particularly the diversity of its plant life, however, Turkey exhibits the characteristics of a small continent. There are, for example, some 10,000 plant species in the country (compared with some 13,000 in all of [[Europe]]) — one in three of which is endemic to Turkey. Indeed, there are more species in [[Istanbul Province]] (2,000) than in the whole of the United Kingdom. While many people know of Turkey's rich archaeological heritage, it possesses an equally valuable array of ecosystems — peat bogs, heathlands, steppes, and coastal plains. Turkey possesses much forest (about a quarter of the land) but, as importantly, some half of the country is semi-natural landscape that has not been entirely remodeled remodelled by man.
===Culture===
===Holidays===
 The savvy traveler traveller should remember that when traveling travelling into, in or around Turkey there are several holidays to keep in mind as they can cause delays in travel, traffic congestion, booked up accommodations and crowded venues. Banks, offices and businesses are closed during official holidays and traffic intensifies during all of the following holidays so do your research before you visit. Do not be put off by these holidays, it is not that difficult and often quite interesting to travel during Turkish holidays, simply plan ahead as much as possible.
====Official holidays====
* 1 Jan: New Year's Day (''Yılbaşı'')
* 23 Apr: National Sovereignty and Children's Day (''Ulusal Egemenlik ve Çocuk Bayramı'') &mdash; anniversary of the establishment of the Turkish Grand National Assembly
* 1 May: Labour and Solidarity Day (''Emek ve Dayanışma Günü'', also unofficially known as ''İşçi Bayramı'', i.e. Worker's Day) was long banned as a holiday for almost 40 years and only restarted as a national holiday in 2009 because in years past it usually degenerated into violence. The wary traveller would be advised to not get caught in the middle of a May Day parade or gathering.
* 19 May: Atatürk Commemoration and Youth & Sports Holiday (''Atatürk'ü Anma Gençlik ve Spor Bayramı'') &mdash; the arrival of Atatürk in [[Samsun]], and the beginning of the War of Independence
* 30 Aug: Victory Day (''Zafer Bayramı'') &mdash; Celebration of the end of the war for Turkish Independence over invasion forces. A big Armed Forces day and display of military might by huge military parades.
* 29 Oct: Republic Day (''Cumhuriyet Bayramı'' or ''Ekim Yirmidokuz'') is anniversary of the declaration of Turkish Republic. If it falls on a Thursday for example, Friday and the weekend should be considered in your travel plans. October 29 is the official end of the tourist season in many resorts in [[Mediterranean Turkey]] and usually there is a huge celebration at the town squares.
* Jan 1: New Year's Day (''Yılbaşı'') * Apr 23: National Sovereignty and Children's Day (''Ulusal Egemenlik ve Çocuk Bayramı'') &mdash; anniversary of the establishment of the Turkish Grand National Assembly * May 1: Labour and Solidarity Day (''Emek ve Dayanışma Günü'', also unofficially known as ''İşçi Bayramı'', i.e. Worker's Day) was long banned as a holiday for almost 40 years and only restarted as a national holiday in 2009 because in years past it usually degenerated into violence. The wary traveler would be advised to not get caught in the middle of a May Day parade or gathering. * May 19: Atatürk Commemoration and Youth & Sports Holiday (''Atatürk'ü Anma Gençlik ve Spor Bayramı'') &mdash; the arrival of Atatürk in [[Samsun]], and the beginning of the War of Independence * Aug 30: Victory Day (''Zafer Bayramı'') &mdash; Celebration of the end of the war for Turkish Independence over invasion forces. A big Armed Forces day and display of military might by huge military parades. * Oct 29: Republic Day (''Cumhuriyet Bayramı'' or ''Ekim Yirmidokuz'') is anniversary of the declaration of Turkish Republic. If it falls on a Thursday for example, Friday and the weekend should be considered in your travel plans. October 29 is the official end of the tourist season in many resorts in [[Mediterranean Turkey]] and usually there is a huge celebration at the town squares. * 10 Nov 10, 909:05 AM &mdash; Traffic usually stops and sirens blare for two minutes starting at 909:05 AM, the time when Atatürk, founder of the Turkish Republic, died in [[Istanbul/Bosphorus|Dolmabahçe Palace]] in [[Istanbul]] in 1938. That moment in time is officially observed throughout the country but businesses and official places are not closed for the day. However, do not be surprised if you are on the street, you hear a loud boom and all of a sudden people and traffic stop on the sidewalks and streets for a moment of silence in observance of this event.
====Religious holidays====
* [[Ankara]] — the capital of Turkey and its second largest city
* [[Antalya]] — the fastest growing city, hub to an array of beach resorts
* [[Bodrum]] — a trendy coastal town in the Southern Aegean which turns into a crowded city in season when it serves as a playground for Turkish and international holidaymakers alike, featuring a citadel, Roman ruins, trendy clubs and a number of villages surrounding the peninsula each with a different character from classy to rustic
* [[Bursa]] — the first capital of the Ottoman Empire
* [[Edirne]] — the second capital of the Ottoman Empire
* [[Izmir]] — Turkey's third largest city
* [[Konya]] — a quite large city that is the heartland of mystic Sufi order, the site of Rumi's tomb, and with some elegant Seljuq architecture, all surrounded by vast steppes
* [[Trabzon]] — the wonderful Sumela Sümela Monastery is just outside the city and it is a great gateway to exploring the Turkish Northeast* [[Urfa]] — magical city with beautiful architecture and extremely friendly locals at the gates of Eastern World; where Turkish, Kurdish, Arabic, and Persian cultures mingle
==Other destinations==
* Metro Bus [http://www.metroturizm.com.tr/en/index.htm]
* Varan [http://www.varan.com.tr/]
* Otogar [http://www.otogar.com.tr www.otogar.com.tr] - Bus Companies Bus Ticket Search Engine
Bus travel is convenient in Turkey. Go to the Otogar (bus station) in any of the major cities and you can find a bus to almost any destination departing within half an hour, or a couple of hours at the most. Buses are staffed by drivers and a number of assistants. During the ride you will be offered free drinks, a bite or two, and stops will be made every two and a half hours or so at well-stocked road restaurants. The further east you travel, the less frequent buses will be, but even places as far as Dogubeyazit or Van will have regular services to many places hundreds of kilometers away. Only the smallest towns do not have a bus straight to Istanbul or Izmir at least once every two days.
===Desserts===
[[File:TurkishDelightDisplay.jpg|thumb|250px| Turkish delight for sale in [[Istanbul]] store window]][[Image:Lokum.JPG|thumb|250px|Turkish delight]]
Some Turkish desserts are modeled on the sweet and nutty Arabic kind: famous dishes include ''baklava'', a layered pastry of finely ground nuts and phyllo dough soaked in honey and spices, and Turkish Delight (''lokum''), a gummy confection of rosewater and sugar. There are also many more kinds of desserts prepared using milk predominantly, such as kazandibi, keşkül, muhallebi, sütlaç, tavuk göğsü, güllaç etc.
==Drink==
 
The legal age of drinking alcohol is 18 in Turkey.
''Ayran'' is a popular drink of water and yoghurt not unlike the Finnish/Russian ''buttermilk'' or Indian ''lassi'', but always served without sugar (and, in fact, typically with a little salt added). A version loved by the locals ''köpüklü ayran'' is a delicacy if you're travelling by bus over the Toros (Taurus) Mountains. Ask for ''yayık ayranı'' or ''köpüklü ayran''.
===Things to do===
Turks are a very friendly, polite and hospitable people, sometimes even to a fault.(except if your native to turkey and genocide or pograms is needed)
* When you are invited into a Turkish home, make sure to bring them a gift. Anything is fine from flowers to chocolate and indeed something representative from your country (but not wine and other alcoholic beverages if you are about to meet the host or if you do not know them well enough, as many Turks, for religious reasons or not, do not drink alcoholic beverages, and that is why it would be considered inappropriate as a gift). When you arrive at the house take off your shoes just outside or immediately inside the door, unless the owner explicitly allows you to keep them on. Even then, it might be more polite to remove your shoes. And if you really want their respect, thank your host for the invitation and compliment them. When inside the house, don't ask for anything for they will surely offer it. The host will make sure to make you feel at home, so don't take advantage of their kindness.
===Gay and lesbian travelers===
Turkey is considered to be quite safe for gay and lesbian travelers, and violence against homosexuals is quite rare. There are no laws against homosexuality in Turkey, but same-sex relationships are not recognized by the government and flaunting revealing your orientation openly is very likely to draw stares and whispers.
==Contact==
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