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Pamukkale

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{{pagebanner|Pamukkale Banner.jpg}} [[Image:Pamukkale.jpg|thumb|250px350px|The travertine hot springs.]]
'''Pamukkale''' is in inland [[Southern Aegean|southeastern]] [[Aegean Turkey]].
==Understand==
'''Pamukkale''', which has been used as a spa since the second century BC, literally means "cotton castle" in Turkish.
The travertine features have their origins in the shifting of a fault in the valley of the Menderes river (between here and [[(Denizli]]). As the fault shifted, very hot springs with a very high mineral content (notably chalk) arose at this location. Apart from the slightly radioactive minerals, the calcium and hydrogen carbonate react to create calcium carbonate (also known as travertine) and limestone. This is what gives Pamukkale its whiteness and created the pools.
It can get quite hot in summer, a hat and especially sunglasses will certainly be very helpful against the sun and the reflecting sun rays from the chalky cascades. On the other hand, the cold winter climate could make the experience slightly uncomfortable. Climbing up the cascades barefoot, with cold water running downstream will be a tough task
===By plane===
*Closest airport is [[Denizli]] - Cardak Airport is 65 km or 1 hour away and there are 3 Turkish Airlines flights twice daily to and from [[Istanbul]]Atatürk Airport and one AnadoluJet flight daily to and from Sabiha Gökcen Airport. From the airport you can take a shuttle to Denizli or Pamukkale. Turkish Airlines offers the service to their customers for 10TL, and the company Baytur offers the service for 26TL.
*[[Izmir]] Adnan Menderes Airport is another alternative to the area. Pamukkale is 252 km from the airport, a drive of about 4 hours (4-1/2 to 5 hours by bus)or 6-7 hours by train. (Check TCDD [http://www.tcdd.gov.tr] for train schedule.)
===By bus===
Bus to Pamukkale/[[Denizli]] can be found from almost all the cities of Turkey. Bus services include water, hot drinks and a snack.
There are virtually ''no'' bus companies that take you directly to Pamukkale despite what the ticket sellers tell you. The bus will drop you in [[Denizli ]] and then you have to get on the free minibus to Pamukkale (about 20 km away). The minibus might not be free. Metroturizm offers bus service which takes you directly to Pamukkale from [[Goreme]]. So does Pamukkale bus service.
===By ''dolmuş''===
From Denizli bus station, take a '''''dolmuş''''', a type of cheap communal taxi that usually seats about 10 (but it's possible they'll squeeze in more), from nearby [[Denizli]]. Frequent mini-buses serve the village of Pamukkale in a 20 minute ride. It cost 3 YTL They leave from #75 in the bus terminal and it costs 4 TL per trip.It is also possible to make rezervation reservation the bus ticket from Pamukkale Village. And the bus company can arrange shuttle bus to bus station if there is enough number of people.
==Get around==
These are a set of bizarre calcium cliff bathing pools overlooking the town of Pamukkale. You can access them via a toll-booth, however tough pollution control regulations require removing your shoes in order to walk on them (so bring something to put your shoes in!), so the travertines stay white as ever. This job is made tougher in winters when the water flowing down the chalky cascades will be freezing cold. You can avoid the climb and take a taxi to the top of the hill and enter from the side of Hierapolis. But the real charm of the place lies in experiencing these travertines
These petrified waterfalls/travertine are a [[UNESCO World Heritage List|UNESCO World Heritage site]]. The admission costs 20 TL per entrancecost is 50TL (as of May 2019). This price includes addmission to nearby Roman city of Hierapolis as well. Lower parts of the travertine cascades are reported to have better views than the top.
Day tours are offered for around 45 Lira (as of January 2010) including English-speaking guide, entrance fee to Hierapolis and the travertines (this alone costs 20 Lira) and buffet lunch. Different companies seem to offer similar tours, ask around. Such tours leave from the Pamukkale bus company office on the main street opposite the travertines, and the Koray Hotel. There may be tours starting from other places around the town as well. For those who rather not visit the travertines under the scorching sun, there are also night tours as well, which start from small guesthouses.
[[Image:Pamukkale_Theater_tr.jpg|thumb|300px|Roman theater]]
Other than the travertines, places worth a look around Pamukkale are:
* The great (12,000-seat) '''Roman amphitheater of Hierapolis''' should not be missed, and lies just above the travertines.
* Swim with roman ruins in a large natural swimming pool located just past the topmost travertines. (50TL admission to the pools, free admission to visit. 5TL for lockers)* Another lesser known site, but one that holds a considerable significance Biblically is '''Laodikya''', just 10 km (10 minutes on a local ''dolmuş'') from Pamukkale on the Denizli road. It's mentioned in the Bible as one of the 7 Churches of the Revelations Revelation and even though it hasn't been reconstructed as much as the more famous sites like [[Ephesus]], is a great place to experience the Roman history without the crowds. A peaceful way to spend a day looking at ruins but also the beautiful scenery there as well.
* '''Karahayit''', the red spring is also 5 minutes from Pamukkale, not even nearly as big as the calcium outcrop, but worth a look or if you want to try their mud baths. Springs and mud bath located at the northern edge of the town.
* '''Kaklik caves''' are like a small version of Pamukkale, but in a cave, underground and are about 30 minutes from Pamukkale.
==Do==
* You can walk down barefooted in the waterfalls from the village. The place is crowded when the tour-buses arrive. No shoes are allowed on the travertines. If you don't want to walk back to top, you can use the buses dropping off people back to top, which depart from near lower end of the travertines. You should wear a swimming suit. A lot of people bath bathe in the baths here.
* It is also worth making the effort to get to the remains of the ancient city of [[Aphrodisias]]—one of the best preserved Roman sites in [[Southern Aegean|southeastern Aegean]]. You can rent a van from [[Denizli]] to get there. Local bus companies will arrange bussing for 30-40 TL.
* Bathe in the mineral hot springs. This is an enclosed pool, with an additional entrance fee of 25 50 TL as of July 2011May 2019, above waterfalls.
* Of moderate interest might be visiting [[Denizli]]. It's a bit dull but there's a lively market.
*<eat name="Lamuko's Lokanta" alt="" address="Main Street Pamukkale" directions="" phone="0090 542 390 8175" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="">Japanese and Korean food in the centre of Pamukkale, next to Pamukkale Bus Company office. Delicious!</eat>
*<eat name="Kale Hotel" alt="" address=" Atatürk Cad. 16 " directions="(on the main street in the centre of town)" phone="+90 258 272-26-07" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="">This place has great Chinese, Korean, and Japanese food at an excellent deal. It's also got Turkish food, but is a great change if you'd like something other than gözleme, pide or kebabs. Entrees are around 10 TL and it has beer and wine.</eat>
*<eat name=" Traverten Pide" alt="" address="Traverten Sokak, No 3/A, Pamukkale, Turkey" directions="" phone="90 532 304 0285" url="" hours="" price="" lat="" long="">Doesn't look much from the outside but it is a lovely little place serving turkish foods, pide, kebab, kebap, the normal stuff. Prices good, cheap eats, however food freshly prepared and meals of generous size. Pide 7tl upwards, big iskander 20tl, worth a visit.</eat>
There are small family-run pensions at the village south of the travertines. Most have swimming-pools filled with the warm greenish milky water from the travertines. They also offer very delicious Turkish food.
* <sleep name="Artemis Yoruk Hotel" alt="" address="Atatürk Cad. 48/A" directions="" phone="+90 258 272-26-74" email="[email protected]" fax="+90 258 272-26-75" url="http://www.artemisyorukhotel.com/" checkin="" checkout="" price="€ 12/€ 20 single/double rooms, including breakfast. They advertise € 9 pp dorms with breakfast but may refuse to take less than 25TL if you just show up. Walk a little bit further up the road and you'll find cheaper accommodation.">Hotel just opposite the bus stop with a pool and a nice garden, and a rooftop restaurant which serves traditional Turkish food. Rooms with en-suite, TV, and air-con. Owners can speak English.</sleep>
* <sleep name="Hotel Dört Mevsim" alt="they also go by the name Four Seasons though neither affiliated nor has any similarity to the hotel chain" address="" directions="" phone="+90 258 272-20-09" email="[email protected]" fax="+90 258 272-26-32" url="http://www.hoteldortmevsim.com/" checkin="7:30AM-11:30PM" checkout="11:30AM" price="€ 14/€ 17 sinlge/double rooms, € 10 pp dorms, all including breakfast. Visa, Euro/Mastercard are accepted">Hotel with free wi-fi, swimming pool, free car park, babysitting service, and air-con. They allow pets at no extra cost. They also have a campground on their yard.</sleep>
*<sleep name="Kale Hotel" alt="" address="Kale Mah. Atatürk Cad. 16" directions="on the main street in the centre of town" phone="+90 258 272-26-07" url="http://www.otelkale.com" fax="+90 258 272-26-07" email="[email protected]" checkin="" checkout="11AM" price="€ 12" lat="37.9175536" long="29.1211402">A family-run guesthouse. Rooms with satellite TV. There is a hostel dorm. Roof-top terrace, swimming pool, free wi-fi, Ottoman Corner, restaurant, day trips and excursions.</sleep>
*<sleep name="Koray Hotel" alt="" address="Pamuk Mah. Fevzi Çakmak Cad. 29" directions="" phone="+90 258 272-22-22" email="[email protected]" fax="+90 258 272-20-95" url="http://www.hotelkoray.com" checkin="" checkout="" price="" lat="" long="">Friendly and family-run, with garden bar and restaurant and a large swimming pool. Rooms with satellite TV. The hotel can organize day tours, express bus tickets, plane tickets, and offers a transfer service.</sleep>
[[ja:パムッカレ]]
[[nl:Pamukkale]]
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