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| image=[[Image:Patan1.jpg|noframe|250px|center|caption=Patan City, Kathmandu, city of Patan]]| location=[[Image:LocationNepalNepal in its region.png|noframe|250px]]svg| flag=[[Image:Np-flagFlag of Nepal.png]]svg
| capital=[[Kathmandu]]
| government=Republic. Monarchy was dissolved by Constituent Assembly on 28 May 2008.
| area=''total:'' 147,181 km<sup>2</sup><br />''water:'' 3,830 km<sup>2</sup><br />''land:'' 143,351 km<sup>2</sup>
| population=27,676,547 (July 2006 est.)
| language=Nepali (official; spoken by 90% of the population), about a dozen other languages and about 30 major dialects; note - many in government and business also speak English (1995)
| religion=Hinduism 76.3%, Buddhism 18.1%, Islam 3.6%, other 2.1%
| electricity=
| timezone=UTC+5:45
| emergencies==dial '''100''' for police<br />
&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; '''101''' for fire<br />
&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; '''102''' for medical
'''Nepal''' ['''Nepal'''] is a landlocked country in [[South Asia|Southern]] [[Asia]], between the [[Tibet]] autonomous region of [[China]] and [[India]]. It contains eight of the world's 10 highest peaks, including [[Mount Everest]] - the world's tallest - on the border with [[Tibet]], and [[Lumbini]], the birth place of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. Nepal recently was declared a republic and has abolished the monarchy.
Nepal has the elevation of 8848 meters, which is Mt. Everest, and regions which has elevation of 60 meters squeezed into 500 kilometers making it culturally, geographically and naturally diverse.
====Elevation Zones====
* '''Middle Hills''' - Valleys north of the Mahabharat Range and hills up to about 2,000 m (6,500 ft). are mainly inhabited by Hindus of the '''Bahun''' (priestly brahmin) and '''Chhetri''' (warriors and rulers) castes who speak Nepali as their first language. Higher where it becomes too cold to grow rice, populations are largely '''Magar''', '''Gurung''', '''Tamang''', '''Rai''' or '''Limbu''', the '''hill tribes''' from which the British recruited '''Gurkha''' soldiers while the soldiers' families grew crops suited to temperate climates. Men in these ethnic groups also work as porters or may be herders moving their flocks into the high mountains in summer and the lower valleys in winter. Trekking through the hills is unremittingly scenic with streams and terraced fields, picturesque villages, a variety of ethnic groups with distinctive costumes, and views of the high himalayas from high points.
* '''Valleys''' - '''[[Kathmandu]]''' and to the west '''[[Pokhara]]''' occupy large valleys in the hills The Kathmandu Valley was urbanized long before the first europeans reached the scene and has historic neighborhoodsneighbourhoods, temple complexes, pagodas, buddhist stupas, palaces and bazaars. Its natives are predominantly '''Newar''' farmers, traders, craftsmen and civil servants. Newar culture is an interesting synthesis of Hindu and Buddhist elements. Unfortunately a range of hills north of this valley limit views of the himalaya. Pokhara has fewer urban points of interest but outstanding views of the nearby '''[[Annapurna]] Himalaya'''. Pokhara's Newar population is confined to bazaars. Elsewhere upper caste Hindus dominate, whose ancestors probably were '''Khas''' peoples from far western Nepal. Both valleys offer excellent opportunities to experience Nepal without strenuous trekking. Narrower valleys along streams and rivers are important rice-growing centers centres in the hills. There is a limited amount of this land and most of it is owned by upper caste Hindus.
* '''Lekhs''' - Snow occasionally falls and lasts days or weeks in the winter above 3,000 m (10,000 ft), but melts away in summer below about 5,500 m (18,000 ft). Treeline is about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). This zone is used for summer pasturage but not year-round habitation.
====River Basins====
 River basins are also important geographic divisions. The '''Mahabharat Range''' is a major hydrologic barrier in Nepal and other parts of the Himalaya. South-flowing rivers converge in '''candelabra''' shapes to break through this range in a few narrow gorges. Travel is usually easier within these candelabra drainage systems than between them, so high divides between river systems became historically important political, linguistic and cultural boundaries.
The '''Karnali''' system in the far west is the birthplace of Pahari ('hill') culture. It was settled by people called '''Khas''' speaking an '''indo-european''' language called '''Khaskura''' ('Khas talk') that was related to other north indian languages, all claiming descent from classical '''Sanskrit'''.
=====Rapti''' and '''Gandaki=====
The Rapti river system east of the Karnali-Bheri had few lowlands suitable for growing rice and extensive highlands that were not attractive for Khas settlement but were a barrier to migration. However the Rapti's upper tributaries rose somewhat south of the Himalaya. Between these tributaries and the Dhaulagiri range of the Himalaya, a large east-west valley called '''Dhorpatan''' branching off the upper Bheri provided a detour eastward, over an easy pass called Jaljala into the '''Gandaki''' river system further east. The Gandaki is said to have seven major tributaries, most rising in or beyond the high Himalaya. They merge to cut through the Mahabharat and Siwalik ranges. In this basin elevations were generally lower and rainfall was higher compared to the Karnali-Bheri and Rapti basins. There was great potential for rice cultivation, the agricultural base of the Khas way of life. A collection of small principalities called the '''Chaubisi''' developed. Chaubisi literally means '24', as these kingdoms were counted. Not all were Khas kindoms. Some were Magar -- a large indigenous hill tribe people related to the Kham. Other kingdoms were Gurung and Tamang. Several Gandaki tributaries rose in the transhimalayan region where inhabitants and rulers became increasingly Tibetanized to the north.
Prithvi Narayan's heirs Pratap Singh, Rana Bahadur and Girvan Yuddha continued expansion of their kingdom into the '''Koshi''' river basin east of the Bagmati system. Like the Gandaki, the Koshi traditionally has seven major tributaries descending from the Himalaya before joining forces to break through the Mahabharat and Siwalik ranges. Ranges drained by Koshi tributaries include Mount [[Everest]] and its neighboring neighbouring peaks, as well as the western side of the Kangchenjunga massif. Kangchenjunga and a high ridge to the south are the watershed between the Koshi and Tista basins as well as the border between Nepal and the former kingdom [[Sikkim]] that India annexed it in 1975.
=====Containment by British=====
The census of 2001 has listed 8 religions—Hindu, Buddhist, Islam, Kiranti, Christian, Jain, Sikh and Bahai. In addition, are animism or Bon are still practiced. Hindu comprises 80.6% and other religions are 19.4%.
*Heavy monsoonal rains from '''June to September''' - the rains are generally lighter high in the Himalayas than in Kathmandu, though the mountain peaks are often not visible due to clouds. In the Kathmandu Valley & Pokhara - monsoon rains typically consist of an hour or two of rain every two or three days. The rains clean the air, streets, & cool the air. If you come, bring an umbrella, expect lower lodging prices & fewer tourists.
*Clear and cool weather from '''October to December''' - after the monsoon, there is little dust in the air so this is the best season to visit the hilly and mountainous regions.
*Cold from '''January to March''', with the temperature in Kathmandu often dropping as low as 0°C (32°F) at night, with extreme cold at high elevations. It is possible to trek in places like the [[Everest]] region during the winter, but it is extremely cold and snow fall may prevent going above 4,000 - 4,500 meters metres (13,000 - 15,000 feet). The Jomosom trek is a reasonable alternative, staying below 3,000 meters metres (10,000 feet) with expected minimum temperatures about -10°C (14°F) (and much better chances of avoiding heavy snow.)*Dry and warm weather from '''April to June''' - there is an abundance of blooming flowers in the Himalayas at this time, with rhododendrons, in particular, adding a splash of color colour to the landscape. Terai temperatures may reach or exceed 40°C (104°F) while Kathmandu temperatures are about 30°C (86°F). This is the best time to undertake mountain expeditions.
The recording of temperatures and rainfall of the major locations across Nepal was started in 1962 and their averages [] provides a reference point for analyzing the climate trend.
region3color=#b6b65 |
region3items= |
region3description=The Hill Region (''Pahar'' in Nepali) is mostly between 700 and 4,000 meters metres altitude. This region is split from the Terai Range by the Mahabharat Lekh (Lesser Himalaya) and forms a geographic midlands between the Terai and the Himalayas. It includes the scenic [[Pokhara]] valley, a popular base for activities in the area.|
region4name=[[Western Tarai]] |
* [[Kathmandu]] {{-}} capital & cultural center centre of Nepal, with the stupas at [[Boudhanath]] and [[Swayambhu]]* [[Bhaktapur]] {{-}} well-preserved historical city, center centre of Nepali pottery making, no motorized vehicles allowed!
* [[Biratnagar]] {{-}} this city is in eastern Nepal near Dharan and famous for political reason
* [[Birgunj]] {{-}} business gateway between India and Nepal. It is in mid-southern Nepal
* [[Parping]] {{-}} the site of several sacred caves associated with Padmasambhava, the founder of Tibetan Buddhism
* [[Tangting]]{{-}} a beautiful and undiscovered traditional Gurung village with a stunning view of the Annapurna range
''See also: [[Sacred sites of the Indian sub-continent]].''
'''Tourist visa''' can be granted for a maximum of 150 days in a visa year.
You can pay this on arrival also other convertible currencies like Euro, Pound Sterling, Australian Dollar. Although USD is always preferred and some smaller entry points (like Birgunj) may only except accept USD.
All tourist Visa's are currently "multiple entry" type visa and permit multiple entries and extist exits during the period of validity.
Be aware that without permission '''voluntary services''' while on a tourist visa is '''strictly prohibited'''. It will be a punishable offenceoffense.
Detailed intormations you can read There is detailed information on the official website of the '''Nepal Immigration''' at [], where you can download the tourist visa form.
On arrival, beside the Visa form, the Disembarkation disembarkation form and the payment, you have to produce a recent passport size photo to attach on the visa form. There is a kiosk at Kathmandu Airport before the visa issuing table where you can take photos for 5 US$.
To extend your tourist visa, visit the Nepal Immigration Office in Kathmandu with your passport and another photo, and pay USD$2 for every day past your visa you want to stay, up to the maximum of 150 days per year.
The point of entry and exit for tourist:
1.# Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu2.# Kakarvitta, Jhapa (Eastern Nepal)3.ImmiBirganj# Birganj, Parsa (Central Nepal)4.# Kodari, Sindhupalchowk (Northern Border)5.# Belahia, Bhairahawa (Rupandehi, Western Nepal)6.# Jamunaha, Nepalgunj (Banke, Mid Western Nepal)7.# Mohana, Dhangadhi (Kailali, Far Western Nepal)8.# Gaddachauki, Mahendranagar (Kanchanpur, Far Western Nepal)
===By plane===
The ceasefire signed by the Maoists has seen the opening up of routes with new airlines in the country. There are direct flights from Kathmandu to Bangkok with Thai Airways [] and the flag carrier Nepal Airlines. Currently Nepal Airlines doesn't offer yet an online booking system. You can make reservations through agencies []. One-way tickets from Kathmandu to Bangkok cost USD 220 (including all taxes), Singapore [], Hong Kong with Dragon Air/Cathay Pacific []. ArkeFly [] flies direct to Europe (Amsterdam, Netherlands). Many European destinations can be reached via Doha with Qatar Airways [], Abu Dhabi with Etihad [], Dubai with Emirates [] or the low cost carrier FlyDubai [], Bahrain with Gulf Air []. Flights are also available via Delhi on Jet Airways and UAE on Air Arabia. Turkish Airlines is beginning 4x/week service from Istanbul starting 1 September, 2013 [].
Nepal's '''Tribhuvan International Airport''' is located just outside of the Ring Road in [[Kathmandu]]. The terminal is a one-room brick building with a large wooden table serving as both '''customs''' and '''immigration'''. []Tourist visa of 15 days or more is available on arrival. '''Money''' can be changed to the local currency as well, but these services are only available directly after scheduled arrivals.
Outside the airport, all 'representatives' of the tourist industry are required to remain 10 meters metres (about 30 feet) from the front door. This does not prevent them from waving large signs and yelling in an attempt to encourage you to choose them as your guide/taxi/hotel/luggage carrier. Make your choice '''before''' crossing the line, or better yet, arrange your first night's accommodation before you arrive and ask the hotel to send someone to meet you. Many hotel and guest houses offer complimentary pick up and delivery from the airport. Fixed price'''Taxis''' are also available before you exit the building but you may get a cheaper fare if you are willing to haggle. As always, negotiate the price beforehand with the driver. A taxi ride to Thamel or Boudha should be around 300 NRS. Otherwise, order a taxi at the pre-paid booth inside the airport, which costs 400+NRs (and rising). This is more than the normal taxi rate, but it saves the hassle of long negotiations. You can also walk a few hundred meters metres to the Ring Road and grab a city bus or taxi there.
===By car or motorcycle===
It is quite easy to rent a car with a driver in Nepal, however you would need to haggle to get a reasonable price. If you come in summer, better take a car with ACair-con. Car rental without a driver in Nepal is almost unheard of, as is renting a car in [[India]] and taking it across the border.
Many travellers drive from India on Royal Enfield motorcycles. Technically, foreigners have to pay customs at the borders but most don't bother. Selling the bike in Nepal is easy as other travelers are looking for bikes to ride back to India.
===By bus===
There are Five border crossings open to tourists. The '''Sunauli-Bhairawa''' border crossing is the closest to Varanasi, the '''Raxaul-Birganj''' crossing to Patna, Kolkata, and '''Siliguri-Kakarbhitta''' is to Darjeeling. The '''Banbassa-Mahendrenagar''' border crossing in the extreme west of Nepal, is the closest to Delhi. The bahraich'''Bahraich-Nepalganj ''' border is the one closest to Lucknow which is the easiest destination by air or train from Delhi.
The crossing between Nepal and Tibet via '''Kodari''' is open to independent travelers entering Nepal, but only to organised groups entering Tibet.
===By train===
Cargo and passanger trains operate between [[Sirsiya]] in southern Nepal, and the Indian town of Raxaul. However, except for Indians, foreigners are not allowed to cross border with it. Internal train network is limited to few kilometers kilometres of train network in [[Janakpur]].
==Get around==
*'''===Domestic Flights''' ===There are now many airlines, offering frequent flights to several destinations include companies with beautiful names like Yeti air, Buddha Air and Cosmic Air. Destinations to and from [[Kathmandu]] include places like such as Pokhara, Biratnagar, Nepalganj, Lukla, [[Pokhara]], Simikot, Jomsom, Janakpur and [[Bharatpur]].  For bookings from outside Nepal, there are only two internet agents, NepalFlightCentre (like [ NepalAirFlight] and air viva , [http://www.air-vivanepalflightcentre.comNepalFlightCentre], ) who can make bookings, take payment (credit/debit cards/Paypal) and then send e-tickets. Other than this agentthese agents, tickets can only be bought on arrival in Nepal so if you are flying at short notice it is necessary to be flexible on flight times/dates as the planes often get fully booked in advance. Note that cancellations and delays due to severe weather conditions do occur. If you have time, just board the next plane. *'''===Micro Bus''' ===has become very popular lately. They are 10-12 seater with very fast service. It has almost replaced local bus service given its fast service. However, apart from previous few routes, Micro Bus has come up with many other alternate routes and now has got good coverage. The fare is more expensive than the local bus. Tourists should be aware though that microbuses are often driven with great speed and very little care and have unfortunately been the cause of a large percentage of the road accidents in Nepal! Use microbuses with caution!
*'''Local Bus''' - Although the system can be confusing they are cheap. They can be crowded at times both with people and domestic animals such as goats, ducks etc. Some buses will not depart until full to a certain quota.
*'''Tourist Bus''' - Book a few days ahead at a [[Kathmandu]] or [[Pokhara]] travel agent (or your hotel will book for you). A few steps above local buses (no goats, everyone gets a seat) but not much safer. "Greenline" is the most reliable company and has trips between Kathmndu, Chitwan, Lumbini and Pokhara.
*'''Tram''' - The old-fashioned street cable-car that ran from [[Kathmandu]] (near the stadium) to [[Bhaktapur]] is currently closed due to 'non-existing maintenance' and the fact that none of the drivers paid for the power.
*'''Custom or classic motorcycle''' - Run by a European couple, Hearts and Tears in Pokhara offer lessons, guided tours and rental of 350cc and 500cc Royal Enfield bikes. In Kathmandu, Himalayan Enfields (behind the Israeli Embassy on Lazimpat)sells/rents good bikes and does repairs. The official Enfield dealer in Nepal is in Balaju Industrial Estate off the Ring Road.
*'''Local motorcycle''' - Another choice is to rent a small motorcycle. And it can be rented in the Thamel area. Again with the petrol crisis, motorcycle rental has become a costly choice, depending on availabily availability 1 litre of petrol will cost you 120-250 NRs on top of the rental fee (300-800NRs).
*'''On Foot''' - although motor roads are penetrating further into the hinterlands, many destinations can only be reached by foot (or helicopter). See the section on trekking, below.
* Tamur
* Marshyangdi
Many companies are now also offering Learn to Kayak Clinics on the Trisuli river an and Lower Seti rivers, which are ideal spot spots to take your first steps into the world of whitewater . GRG's ( is one of and RAPIDRUNNER EXPEDITIONS [] are the only highest recommended companies to specialise in kayaking in Kathmanduand Pokhara. Nepal is one of the best places in the world for whitewater adventures.
===Mountain Biking===
There are banks in [[Kathmandu]], [[Pokhara]] and in several other major cities that will allow you to retrieve cash from ATM or credit cards. You may be charged a service fee, depending on your bank. There are quite a number of ATMs now in those cities that are open round the clock. Although Indian currency is valid in Nepal (at an official exchange rate of 1.60 Nepalese rupees to 1 Indian rupee), the Rs. 500 and Rs. 1000 currency notes are not acceptable. Carrying 500- and 1000-Indian rupee notes is a punishable offence in Nepal.
Be sure to keep all currency exchange and ATM receipts as they are required at the airport bank to convert back to your original currency. If you don't have them, they will refuse to convert your currency but they will suggest going to the Duty Free shop upstairs, even though it isn't a licensed licenced money changer. Traveller's checks cheques may be useful outside of the major cities.
The Nepali national meal is '''daal bhaat tarkaari'''. It is essentially spiced lentils poured over boiled rice, and served with tarkari: vegetables such as mustard greens, daikon radish, potatoes, green beans, tomatoes, cauliflower, cabbage, squash etc, cooked with spices. This is served in most Nepalese homes and teahouses, two meals a day at about 10 AM and 7 or 8 PM. If rice is scarce the grain part may be cornmeal mush called Ato, barley, or chapatis (whole wheat 'tortillas'). The meal may be accompanied by '''dahi''' (yogurt) and a small helping of ultra-spicy fresh '''chutney''' or '''achar''' (pickle). Traditionally this meal is eaten with the right hand. Curried meat -- goat or chicken -- is an occasional luxury, and freshwater fish is often available near near lakes and rivers. Because Hindus hold cattle to be sacred, beef is forbidden but still can be obtained for a high price in some expensive restaurants (the price is high mainly because it is imported from India). Buffalo and yak are eaten by some but considered too cow-like by others. Pork is eaten by some tribes, but not by upper-caste Hindus. And like in India, some communities and tribes are vegetarians and do not eat meat of any sort.
Outside the main morning and evening meals, a variety of snacks may be available. Tea, made with milk and sugar is certainly a pick-me-up. Corn may be heated and partially popped, although it really isn't popcorn. This is called "kha-ja", meaning "eat and run!" Rice may be heated and crushed into "chiura" resembling uncooked oatmeal that can be eaten with yogurt, hot milk and sugar, or other flavorings. Fritters called 'pakora' and turnovers called "samosa" can sometimes be found, as can sweets made from sugar, milk, fried batter, sugar cane juice, etc. Be sure such delicacies are either freshly cooked or have been protected from flies. Otherwise flies land in the human waste that is everywhere in the streets, then on your food, and so you become a walking medical textbook of gastrological conditions.
Although not as internationally famous as Indian brands, Nepal does in fact have a large organic tea industry. Most plantations are located in the east of the country and the type of tea grown is very similar to that produced in neighboring neighbouring [[Darjeeling]]. Well known varieties are Dhankuta, Illam, Jhapa, Terathhum and Panchthar (all named after their growing regions). Unfortunately over 70% of Nepal's tea is exported and the tea you see for sale in Thamel, while they serve as token mementos, are merely the scrapings from the bottom of the barrel.
*''Milk Tea''' is boiled milk with added tea, with or without sugar.
*'''Chay''' is a tea drink with added milk and also sometimes containing ginger and spices such as cardamom.
Problematic due to lack of sanitary facilities and sewage treatment. It is safest to assume that water is unsafe for drinking without being chemically treated or boiled, which is one reason to stick to tea or bottled water. In the Nepali neighborhoodsneighbourhoods, a five gallon clear container of filtered/clean water sells for 55rps. In some areas stores let people fill water bottles with clean/filtered water for 10rps. per liter.
Budget accommodation in Nepal ranges from around 250 NPR to around 750 NPR for a double. The prices you are told at first are not fixed so you should haggle. Especially if you want to stay for a longer period, you can get a large discount. Cheaper rooms usually do not have sheets, blankets, towels, or anything else besides a bed and a door. Most budget hotels and guesthouses have a wide range of rooms, so be sure to see what you are getting, even if you have stayed there before. Usual price for three-star equivalent hotel (ACair-con, bathroom, Internet access and satelite TV in the room) is around 20 USD (1,500 NPR) for a double, a bit more in Kathmandu. Accommodations might easily be the cheapest part of your budget in Nepal.
However, if you prefer luxurious accomodation, the best hotels equal approximately to four star hotels in western countries (unlimited access to swimming pool or whirlpool, no power outages, room service, very good restaurant and buffet breakfests). Expect the price being much higher (circa 50 USD for a double or 100 USD for an appartment, even more in Kathmandu). In these hotels, all prices are usually fixed. In Kathmandu, some luxurious hotels require going through security check when entering.
Unfortunately, '''volunteer tourism has mostly become more profitable than real tourism'''. Foreign operators and Nepali agents have found an inexhaustible supply of '''well-meaning but naive people''' who will pay sometimes even big amounts to "volunteer" in Thamel, Lakeside and Chitwan.
'''Teaching English''' is a popular project for volunteers and is often combined with courses in computer literacy or health and physical education. The Nepali school system, which many children only attend for a few years, requires English fluency so there is always a demand for native English speakers of all ages, races, and nationalities. There are mostly by the organisations organizations no any prerequisites for teaching beyond English fluency set. '''Be aware''' that many schools, especially private ones, charge families higher fees for "foreign teachers present" and often '''local alvailable english available English teachers may not find work''' due to foreign (mostly illegally engaged) foreign volunteers.
If you want to teach, a '''school may request and obtain a non tourist visa''' so you can teach eventually legally.
There are many options for finding volunteer opportunities. Several international '''volunteer organizations''' , INGO and local NGO's (International Non Governemnt Government Organization, Non Governemnt Government Organization) will find you a project, room, and boarding - either at the school or with a local family - '''for a fee'''. This "fee" can range from 500 USD to 2000 USD depending on the type and length of program. Often '''only little of the money''' will go to the school and host family, often they are too poor even to support a volunteer, the bulk often goes however to the agency.
Some organisations organizations will provide language and culture lessons as well as general teaching supplies and support. Once you make a deposit on a particular program there may be limited options for change. Programs can last from two weeks to five months if made in tourist visa, but keep in mind a regular, legal work and a longer stay may be more rewarding for both you and the school, as it can take several weeks to get into the swing of things. '''Above all, examine carefully how your money is spend spent and who really benefits'''.
An alternative to paid placement is to find a local, '''grassroots program''', or to contact schools directly in Kathmandu when you arrive. Local hostels and restaurants usually have bulletin boards full of often '''doubtful requests''' for volunteers. More and more local groups are placing ads on the web as well. These programs are more likely to '''charge only for room & board''', but you will need to do some research to find out the specifics of each group and what, if any, support you will receive. Waiting until you arrive also lets you get to know the areas you can volunteer in and allows you to shop around for a situation that best suits you. These placements tend to be longer term (3-5 months), but this is always negotiable with a specific school or project.
Always '''''check if your engagement does not take away work of other people''''' and that '''your volunteer work is done legally''' and that the community profits most of the deal. Report to police or other serious NGO/INGO any kind of misuse. Always demand wirtten reciepts written receipts with complete organisation adressorganization address, stamp and signatures. This helps to prevend prevent syphoning off of precious developement development funds, which generally tend to not reach the intended beneficaries beneficiaries most of time (estimates go from 85-95% wasted money for "logistics", "office expenses", "allowances", vehicles and so forth!!
==Stay safe==
** Look for freshly-cooked food and avoid anything that has been cooked and then left sitting around without refridgeration (which can expose you to a buildup of bacterial toxins), or without protection from flies (which can transfer disease organisms and parasite eggs to the food).
** Also see the '''[[Travellers' diarrhea]]''' article.
* '''Get vaccinated and consider prophylactic treatment.''' You may be exposed to typhoid, cholera, hepatitis , malaria, and possibly even rabies. Read the article on '''[[Tropical diseases]]''' and review travel plans with your health care provider.
*'''Practice safe sex''' or do without. Nepali women are sought after in India and the Middle East and so there is human trafficking. Victims may be allowed to return home when health issues become a liability, then continue 'working' as long as possible. The incidence of STDs is rising and the government has not always been proactive about treatment and promoting awareness. Unless your Nepali is extremely fluent, your chances of finding out about a prospective partner's sexual history are slim.
*'''[[Altitude sickness]]''' Permanent snow lines are between 5,500 m and 5,800 m (18,000 ft and 19,000 ft), so base camps and passes in the Himalaya are usually higher than Mount Blanc or Mount Whitney. This puts even experienced mountain climbers at risk of altitude-related medical conditions that can be life-threatening. Risks can be minimized by choosing routes that don't go high, such as Pokhara-Jomosom, or routes and trekking companies where gamow bags or other treatment are available, and by sleeping not more than 300 m (1,000 ft) higher per day. According to the "climb high, sleep low" mantra, it is good to take daytime conditioning hikes that push acclimation, then to return to a more reasonable elevation at night.
* '''Hypothermia''' is a risk, especially if you are trekking in spring, autumn or winter to avoid heat at low elevations. When it is a comfortable 30°C (85°F) in the Terai, it is likely to be in the teens Fahrenheit or -10°C (14°F) at that base camp or high pass. Either be prepared to hike ''and'' sleep in these temperatures (and make sure your comrades, guides and porters are equally prepared), or choose a trek that doesn't go high. For example, at 3,000 m (10,000 ft) expect daytime temperatures in the 40s Fahrenheit or 5 to 10°C.
* '''Rabies''' - Dogs are not vaccinated and catch this fatal disease from other dogs or wild animals with some regularity. All mammals are potentially vulnerable. Dogs are considered ritually polluting and are widely abused, so it can be impossible to know whether a dog bit you because it is paranoid about people or because it is rabid. You should be vaccinated against rabies before going to Nepal, but this is not absolute protection. Be on the lookout for mammals acting disoriented or hostile and stay as far away as possible. Do not pet dogs, cats or pigs no matter how cute. Keep a distance from monkeys, especially in places like the Monkey Temple in Kathmandu. If bitten or exposed to saliva, seek medical attention. You may need an extended series of injections that provides a higher level of protection than routine vaccination.
* '''Snakebite''' - The risk is greatest in warm weather and at elevations below 1,500 m (5,000 ft). Poisonous Venomous snakes are fairly common and cause thousands of deaths annually. Local people may be able to differentiate poisonous venomous and non-poisonous venomous species. Cobras raise their bodies in the air and spread their hoods when annoyed; itinerant snake charmers are likely to have specimens for your edification. Vipers have triangular heads and may have thick bodies like venomous snakes in North America. Kraits may be the most dangerous due to innocuous appearance and extremely potent neurotoxin venom. Kraits are strangely passive in daylight but become active at night, especially around dwellings where they hunt rodents. Krait bites may be initially painless, causing only numbness. However without proper antivenin numbness can progress to deadly paralysis, even with bites from small, seemingly harmless specimens. Wearing proper shoes and pants rather than sandals and shorts provides some protection. Watch where you put your feet and hands, and use a flashlight when walking outside at night. Sleeping on elevated beds and on second stories helps protect against nocturnal kraits.
The use of email is growing, although its avaliability is most widespread in [[Kathmandu]] (especially in Thamel and around the Boudha Stupa in Boudhanath) or [[Pokhara]]. However, '''Namche''', in the the [[Everest]] region, has several internet cafes that use satellite connections, but the cost is more that US$2/min(140 NRs) compared to 30NRs in Kathmandu. '''Mail''' can be received at many guesthouses or at Everest Postal Care, opposite Fire & Ice on Tri Devi MAag. Phone calls are best made from any of the international phone offices in [[Kathmandu]]-- Voice over Internet (VOI) is usually 1-2 NRs/min. '''Wi-Fi in Hotels''' This are fantastically free from any cafes and hotels if u tune in and ask for password or host a hub in your cell. Whatsapp is obviously most reliable way to stay in touch with those out of country and to hotel operators who use the main mobile number as password to connect the inhouse wi-fi.
===Mobile phones===
Ncell SIM's - can be bought from many stores, but are best bought from official stores in Birgunj or Kathmandu (they can also cut it to micro SIM for free if you need). Ncell offers two different SIM cards. The first is a usual SIM card that allows you to make calls to any phone (local calls are about 2.5Nrs/min), and you can also buy mobile data to use. The second is a data only SIM card, and can not be used for making or receiving calls. The advantage to the second sim being the rates for data are significantly cheaper than a call and data SIM. Note that on Ncell SIM cards, tethering is not enabled by default. However their data works where you just switch between 2g and 3g depending on what reception is available (there is no cheaper prices for only 2g). You can get coverage maps on their site, although they famously now have 3G reception at the Mt Everest base camp (although not on the trek to the base camp).
NTC SIM's SIMs - NTC SIM's SIMs can usually only be bought from their official offices. They often have a shortage of SIM cards, and you may have to wait up to 10 days to receive one. They also do not publish their coverage maps. However they do have superior remote coverage to Ncell, particularly on the Anapurna Circuit trek.
The standard Nepalese electrical outlet is a three-pronged triangle, but some have been retrofitted to accept US and European plugs. Simple adapters can be purchased inexpensively, around 80NRs, in Kathmandu to change the shape of the plug (but not the voltage of the electricity!); some have fuses built in. Try shopping in Kumari Arcade at Mahaboudha near Bir Hospital of Kathmandu for cheap electrical alternative. Be sure to decrease the price by about 25-30% before buying.
Electricity on treks outside of major cities can become scaresscarce. Expect to pay 100 - 800Nrs per hour to charge goods on many tea-house treks, including the Everest base camp trek. One alternative is to buy a bayonet light to electricity power plug converter, however these only work while voltage remains high (they often won't work on low power solar systems you find right up in the mountains).
==Get out==
*[[Mount Kailash]] - Actually in Tibet, a short distance beyond the NW corner of Nepal. Hindu and Buddhist cosmology describes the cosmos as a central mountain, Mount Meru, surrounded by the earth's continents and seas, then by the rest of the universe. Cambodia's [[Angkor Wat]] temple complex is actually an architectural representation of this schema. As geographical knowledge developed, Mount Kailash was proclaimed the physical manifestation of Mount Meru. Factually it It is the hydrologic hub of the subcontinent. The Karnali, Sutlej Indus and Brahmaputra rivers all begin near this mountain. Hindus and Buddhists gain religious merit by circumambulating the mountain.
{{isPartOf|South_AsiaSouth Asia}}

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