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Korean phrasebook

5,600 bytes added, 10:52, 3 February 2013
Written language
'''Korean''' (한국말 ''hangungmalhan-gook-mal'' or in South Korea, 조선말 ''chosŏnmal''in North Korea, or 우리말 ''urimal'' (our language) as a neutral denomination) is spoken in [[South Korea|South]] and [[North Korea]], as well as [[Yanbian|Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture]] in [[Jilin]], [[China]]. It may be distantly related to [[Japanese]], but is certainly entirely distinct from [[Chinese]], although it uses large amounts of imported Chinese vocabulary. Depending on which part of Korea you go to different dialects of Korean are spoken. The standard in [[South Korea]] is based on the Seoul dialect, which is spoken in [[Seoul]] and [[Gyeonggi]] province as well as the city of [[Kaesong]] in [[North Korea]], while the standard in [[North Korea]] is based on the Pyongan dialect, which is spoken in [[Pyongyang]] as well as [[North Pyongan|North]] and [[South Pyongan]] provinces. Other dialects include the Gyeongsang dialect spoken in [[Busan]], [[Daegu]], [[Ulsan]] and the provinces of [[North Gyeongsang|North]] and [[South Gyeongsang]], the Jeju dialect spoken on the island of [[Jeju]], and the Hamgyong dialect spoken in [[North Hamgyong|North]] and [[South Hamgyong]] provinces, as well as by most of the ethnic Korean minority in [[China]]. This guide is based on the standard in South Korea.
[[Image:Sign Hangul.JPG|thumb|240px|Handwritten ''hangeul'' in an advertisement]]
==Grammar==
Korean word order sentence structure is subject-object-verb: "I-subject him-object see-verbvery similar to that of [[Japanese phrasebook|Japanese]], so speakers of Japanese will find many aspects of Korean grammar familiar, and Korean speakers likewise with Japanese."Subjects (especially ''I'' But there are similar but slight differences to the standardized pronounciations, and ''you'') are often omitted if these are clear from the contextKorean language, even after its simplification in the past century, has a wider library of vowels and consonants than Japanese, hence Japanese speakers may find it difficult to pronounce various words, let alone transcribe them.
There Korean word order is subject-object-verb: "I-subject him-object see-verb." Subjects (especially ''I'' and ''you'') are no articlesoften omitted if these are clear from the context. This may seem awkward from an English perspective, gendersbut English too has colloquial 1st-person/2nd-person subject omissions, such as "[Are you] Done yet?" or declensions"[I'm] Done. " It has extensive verb conjugations indicating tense and honorific level. There is a plural formmatter of whether sentences are common enough that such lack of subjects doesn't confuse the listener. In turn, but it is very often omittedsome English colloquial sentences without subjects may be confusing from a Korean standpoint.
Korean There are no articles, genders, or declensions. It has postpositions instead of prepositions: ''hanguk-e''extensive verb conjugations indicating tense and honorific level. There is a handy, universal plural form, "Korea-in" instead of "in Koreabut it is very often omitted."
Koreans refer to each other rather in terms like elder brother, elder sister, younger sibling, uncle, aunt, grandmother, grandfather, manager, teacher etc. than by using the word Korean has postpositions instead of prepositions: ''youjip mite''. It's not uncommon to refer to yourself by using such an expression. You can also call somebody an aunt, uncle or brother if this person is actually not. Most Korean girls call even their boyfriend "oppahouse below" instead of " (''older brother'')below the house."
Koreans refer to each other rather in terms like elder brother, elder sister, younger sibling, uncle, aunt, grandmother, grandfather, manager, teacher etc. (like Nepalese or Chinese) than by using the word ''you''. Additionally, it's not uncommon to refer to yourself by using such an expression ( example: "[I] Father will cook you a nice dinner." Which feels like saying "''This'' father will..."). You can also call somebody an aunt, uncle or brother even if this person is actually not. Many Korean girls call even their boyfriend "oppa" (''older brother''). Depending on the relation to the person you have conversation with, it's necessary to find the correct level of formality and politeness. If the person is considered to be higher in the hierarchy, a very polite and formal form has to be used, while this person will use a less polite more "vernacular" form to address you as a lower person. Koreans often ask very personal questions (about your age, occupation, income, family status etc.) in order to find out in which form they should use when talking to you. This phrasebook assumes the highest speech formality level in most cases. Not only are words conjugated according to 6 existing levels of formality (but 2 are becoming unused), but a few words will also be replaced with different words altogether. Extremely formal places will often use some Chinese postal words as well.
==Pronunciation guide==
The good news is unlike [[Chinese phrasebook|Chinese]], Korean is not tonal, so you don't need to worry about singing changing your syllables pitch to get the pitch meaning right. The bad news is that Korean has a few too many vowels for comfort and nigglesome small distinctions between many consonants, so pronouncing things exactly right is still a bit of a challenge.
This phrasebook uses the '''Revised Romanization of Korean''', which is overwhelmingly the most popular system in [[South Korea]]. The '''McCune-Reischauer romanization''', used in North Korea and older South Korean texts, is noted in parentheses when different.
===Vowels===
Korean vowels can be short or long, but this is not indicated in writing and the distinction rarely if ever affects meaning.(example: 밤 bam, pronounced short means "night", pronounced long means "chestnut")
; a ㅏ : like 'a' in "f'''a'''ther"
; o ㅗ : like 'o' in "t'''o'''ne"
; eo (ŏ) ㅓ : like 'aw' the "uh" in "l'''aw'''yerlust"; u ㅜ : like 'A low sound of "oo' " as in "h'''hoop". "woo" (Korean does not distinguish between "oo'''p"and "woo").; eu (ŭ) ㅡ : like 'i' in "cous'''i'''n", "dozen". Like the Turkish "ı". Kind of similar to the french "eu", but as a clearer, purer vowel sound.; i ㅣ : like the 'i' in "sh'''i'''p" (short) OR the 'ee' in "sh'''ee'''p" (long); e ㅔ : Similar to the beginning of "ai" in "main"; ae ㅐ : like the 'e' in "b'''e'''d"; ae ㅐ : similar to the "a" in "hand", "valve", "gas", and "can" *note: ㅐ ae is now virtually identically pronounced as ㅔ e. Only rare words are unconsciously pronounced differently like they were half a century ago ("애", or "child" is one such remnant).
===Common diphthongs===
Korean has two standalone diphthongs:
; oe ㅚ : like 'whewe' in "when" or say 'ewest' in "hey"(it used to be a different sound, but with rounded lipsnow prounounced the same as ㅞ shown below); ui ㅢ : like 'ŭ' + 'i'; often reduces to 'i' when preceded by a consonant (eg. 희 ''hui'', pronounced "hee")
In addition, most vowels can be modified by prefixing them with 'y' or 'w':
; wa ㅘ : like 'wa' sound in "s'''waua'''tchve"; wae ㅙ : like 'wa' in "'''wa'''gon". Some would argue there is virtually no difference anymore to ㅞ.; wo ㅝ : like 'wawuh' sound in "'''wawo'''snder"
; wi ㅟ : like "'''we'''" or 'e' in "sh'''e'''" with rounded lips
; we ㅞ : like 'we' in "'''we'''st"
; ya ㅑ : like 'ya' in "'''ya'''rd"
; yo ㅛ : like 'yo' in "'''hey! yo~'''semite"or "New '''Yo'''rk". '''Not''' like "'''yaw'''" or "'''yo'''ke".
; yeo (yŏ) ㅕ : like 'you' in "'''you'''ng"
; yu ㅠ : like "'''you'''"
; ye ㅖ : like 'ye' in "'''ye'''s"
; yae ㅒ : like 'ye' in "'''ye'''s", not ; its virtually assimiliated to be the same as 'ㅖ' * to summarize the assimiliated vowel diphthongs mentioned above, but itㅙ = ㅚ = ㅞ = 'we' in "'''we'''st"ㅖ = ㅒ = 'ye' in "'''ye'''s a very similar sound"
===Consonants===
; p (p', ph) ㅍ : like 'p' in "pig" (aspirated)
; pp ㅃ : tensed 'p', like 'p' in "petit" in French
; m ㅁ : like 'm' in "mother"; d (t) ㄷ: like 't' in "stab"(unaspirated); t (t', th) ㅌ : like 't' in "top"(aspirated)
; tt ㄸ : tensed 't'
; n ㄴ : like 'n' in "nice"; j (ch) ㅈ : like 'g' in "gin"; jj ㅉ : tensed 'j'; ch (ch') ㅊ : like 'ch' in "chin"
; g (k) ㄱ : like 'k' in "skate" (unaspirated)
; k (k', k) ㅋ : like 'c' in "cat" (aspirated)
; kk ㄲ : tensed 'k'
 ; ng ㅇ j (ch) ㅈ : like 'ngg' in "singgin"(unaspirated); ch (ch') ㅊ : like 'ch' in "chin" (aspirated). Usually pronounced as a light aspiratd 't' as a final consonant; jj ㅉ : tensed 'j' ; s ㅅ : like 's' in "soon", 'sh' before ''i''or any "y" dipthong. Usually pronounced as a very light 't' as a final consonant; ss ㅆ : tensed 's', 's' in 'sea', never 'sh' Standalone consonants:; n ㄴ : like 'n' in "nice"; m ㅁ : like 'm' in "mother"
; l ㄹ : somewhere between 'l', 'r' and 'n', original sound is 'r' or 'l'. and 'n' sound occurs through initial consonant mutation.
; h ㅎ : like 'h' in "help"
 
; ng ㅇ : like 'ng' in "sing". Unpronounced (placeholder) when at the start of a syllable.
While the rules above are usually correct for the first consonant, those in the middle of a word are usually (but not always) '''voiced''', which means that ㅂㄷㅈㄱ turn into English "b", "d", "j" and "k". The best rule of thumb is to concentrate on remembering that the first consonant is "special" and the rest are more or less as in English: ''bibimbap'' (비빔밥) is pronounced "''pee''-bim-bap", not "''bee''-bim-bap" or "''p'ee''-bim-bap".
(ㅅ ''s'' → ㅆ ''ss'') and ''y''-vowel diphthongs have an extra dash tacked on (ㅏ ''a'' → ㅑ ''ya''). And that's pretty much it!
Many Korean words can also be written using Chinese characters, known as '''hanja''' in Korean. These are still occasionally seen in newspapers, formal documents and official signs, but are in general rarely used and have even been completely abolished in North Korea. While they remain official in South Korea, their use is largely restricted to the elderly, and many youths are unable to recognize even anything more than their own names written in '''hanja'''. The few times when they still show up is in brackets next to the hangul to describe an unfamiliar term, to distinguish a term from another similar word or as a form of bold face when mentioning personal or place names. Hanja are also still used to mark Korean chess, or ''janggi'' pieces. It is worth noting that while Chinese characters are seldom written, many words themselves are Chinese words simply written as how they are pronounced -- not according to the Mandarin pronunciation, but according to the standardized Korean pronunciation of those same Chinese characters used in China. Like the position of Latin in English and French, Chinese words are often found in the more formal and less vernacular sciences, and even more so with 19th-century new Chinese words coined by the Japanese, and used in both Korea and China. Japanese, Vietnamese, and Chinese speakers may find some familiarity with some of these overlapping Chinese terms, although pronunciations are slightly different and Koreans only write out sounds and not the original Chinese characters. Although not nearly as much as Cantonese, Korean pronunciation of Chinese words retain more medieval Chinese pronunciations of the Tang dynasty some 1300 years ago, than the Manchurian-influenced modern Mandarin.
==Phrase list==
==Phrase list==
{{infobox|Common signs|
; 열린 열림 (''yeollim'') : Open; 닫힌 닫힘 (''dot-heem'') : Closed; 입구 (''ipgu'') : Entrance; 출구 (''chulgu'') : Exit; 미시오 (''mishio'') : Push; 당기시오 (''dangishio'') : Pull; 화장실 (''hwajangshil'') : Toilet; 남 (''nam'') : Men; 여 (''yeo'') : Women; 금지 (''geumji'') : Forbidden}}
===Basics===
; Hello. (''formal'') : 안녕 하십니까. (''annyeong hasimnikka'') Common in North Korea, provincial South Korea.
<nowiki>; Hello. (''very formal'') : 안녕합니다. (''annyeonghamnida'') Rarely used,, extremely polite.</nowiki> [['''<- there is no phrase like this in korea. ''annyeonghamnida'' is not used. it's so weird expression in korean. actually it's like a joke. the right answer after ''annyeong hasimnikka'' is the exactly the same as ''annyeong hasimnikka''.''']]; Hello. (''formal'') :안녕하세요. (''annyeonghaseyo'') Common in South Korea. to older people or to the people to you meet first
; Hello. (''informal'') : 안녕. (''annyeong'') to your friend or younger people
; Hello. (''on the phone'') : 여보세요. (''yeoboseyo'') when you answer the phone.
; How are you? : 어떻게 지내십니까? (''eotteoke jinaesimnikka?'')
; Fine, thank you. : 잘 지냅니다, 감사합니다. (''jal jinaemnida, gamsahamnida'')
; What is your name? : 성함이 어떻게 되세요? (''seonghami eotteoke doeseyo?'')
; My name is ______ . : 제 이름은 ______입니다. (''je ireumeun ____ imnida'')
; I am _____. (''my name is'') : 저는 _____입니다 (''jeoneun _____imnida'')
; Nice to meet you. : 만나서 반갑습니다. (''mannaseo bangapseumnida'')
; Please. : 부탁합니다. (''butakamnida'')
; Excuse me. (''getting attention'') : 실례합니다. (''shill(y)e hamnida'')
; I'm sorry. : 죄송합니다. (''joesonghamnida'')
; Goodbye . (''to person leaving'') : 안녕히 가세요. (''annyeonhi gaseyo); Goodbye (''to person staying'') : 안녕히 가십시오/계십시오계세요. (''annyeonghi gasipsio/gyesipsiogyeseyo'')
; Goodbye (''informal'') : 안녕. (''annyeong'')
; Is there someone here who speaks English? : 여기에 영어를 하시는 분 계십니까? (''yeogie yeong-eoreul hasineun bun gyesimnikka?'')
:; Chinese : 중국어 (''junggugeo'')
:; Japanese : 일본어 (''ilboneo'')
; Yes, a little. : 네, 조금만조금만요. (''ne, jogeummanjogeummanyo'')
; Help! : 도와주십시오! (''dowajusipsio!'')
; Look out! : 조심하십시오! (''josimhasipsio!'')
; Good night (''to sleep'') : 안녕히 주무십시오. (''annyeonghi jumusipsio'')
; I don't understand. : 이해가 안갑니다. (''ihaega ankamnida'')
; I don't understand. (''more common'') : 모르겠습니다 (''moreugesseumnida'')
; I understand. : 알겠습니다 (''algesseumnida'')
; Where is the toilet? : 화장실이 어디에 있습니까? (''hwajangsiri odi-e isseumnikka?'')
; What? : 무엇? (''mu-eot?'')
; What? (''shortened, more common'') : 뭐? (''mwo?'')
; Where? : 어디? (''eodi?'')
; Who? : 누구? (''nugu?'')
; 1,000,000 (one million) : 백만 (baengman)
; 10,000,000 : 천만 (cheonman)
; 100,000,000 : 억 (oekeok) ; 1,000,000,000 (one billion) : 십억 (siboeksibeok); 10,000,000,000 : 백억 (baegoekbaegeok); 100,000,000,000 : 천억 (choenoekcheoneok)
; 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) : 조 (jo)
; 10,000,000,000,000 : 십조 (sipjo)
Native Korean numbers are used for '''hours''' and with '''counting words'''.
{{infobox|Counting words|When counting objects, Korean uses special '''counter''' words. For example, "two beers" is ''maekju dubyeong'' (맥주 2병), where ''du'' is "two" and ''-byeong'' means "bottles". There are many counters, but the most useful ones are ''myeong'' (명) for people, ''jang'' (장) for papers including tickets, and ''gae'' (개) for pretty much anything else (which is not always strictly correct, but will usually be understoodand is growing in colloquial usage).
; objects (apples, sweets) : 개 ''-gae''
; people : 명 ''-myeong'', 분 ''-bun'' (polite)
; A bottle, please. : 한 병 부탁합니다. (''han byeong butakamnida'')
; _____ (''hard liquor'') and _____ (''mixer''), please. : ... (''..'')
; whiskey : 위스키 (''wisukiwiseuki'')
; vodka : 보드카 (''bodeuka'')
; rum : 럼 (''reom'')
; One more, please. : 한 개 더 부탁합니다. (''han gae deo butakamnida'')
; Another round, please. : ... (''..'')
; When is closing time? : 언제 닫습니까? (''eonje dassumnikkadasseumnikka?'')
===Shopping===
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