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Persian phrasebook

889 bytes added, 17:01, 31 October 2012
Syllable
Today, Persian is mainly spoken in [[Iran]], [[Afghanistan]], [[Tajikistan]], [[Uzbekistan]] and [[Bahrain]]. It has official status in the first three countries but was once the official, court, or literary language of many more places ranging from Turkey through India. At this time, many Persian poets emerged from Indian subcontinent, [[Central Asia]] and the regions under the control of Ottoman Empire. It is still appreciated as a literary and prestigious language among the educated elite. Many people in Iran and neighboring countries know Persian fluently even though it's not their mother tongue. It's because Iran (formerly "Persia" until 1935) was historically much bigger before losing many territories, especially to its neighbor [[Russia]] (for more information, see [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Iran Wikipedia: Greater Iran]). After the 1979 revolution, many Iranians migrated to the West and as a result, there are numerous Persian-speaking communities throughout the world, particularly in USA. Persian is the second language of Islam so in many Islamic countries you can find someone knowing Persian.
The local name of the language is '''Farsi''' (officially, ''Fârsiyè Dari'' (Dari Persian), which means "Official/Court Persian"). The word ''Farsi'' has also entered English mainly because West-migrated Iranians didn't know about the native English name of their language (i.e. ''Persian'') and began to use ''Farsi'', which still prevails although somewhat decreased. Persian has three main dialects: Iranian Persian(Farsi), Afghanistani Afghan Persian (Dari) and Tajikistani Tajik Persian(Tajik). They are all mutually intelligible . The written form is the same for Farsi and Dari, both using the Arabic alphabet; Tajik is generally written language is literally with the sameCyrillc alphabet.
'''Note''' - The contents of this page are written in ''bookish Persian'' so that you can use them not only in Iran but also in Afghanistan, Tajikistan and other countries. Nevertheless, this page is centered on Iranian Persian; See [[Afghanistani_Persian_phrasebook | Afghanistani PersianDari phrasebook]] for Afghan Persian and [[Tajikistani_Persian_phrasebook | Tajikistani PersianTajik phrasebook]] should have their own pages for a closer coveragethat dialect.
==Pronunciation guide==
|a || æ || as '''a''' in '''a'''nt
|-
|â || ɒː || as '''oaw''' in hl'''oaw'''t
|-
|e || e || as '''e''' in '''e'''gg
|i || iː || as '''ea''' in '''ea'''gle
|-
|o || o || as '''o''' in fh'''o'''rtyt
|-
|u || uː || as '''u''' in fl'''u'''te
|-
|خ || x || x || as '''ch''' in Scottish lo'''ch''', German Bu'''ch'''
|-
|د || d || d || as in '''d'''ad
|-
|ذ || z || z || as in '''z'''oo
|-
|ر || r || r || similar to '''r''' in Spanish '''r'''eloj
|}
As you may note, there are characters that denote identical sounds e.g. ظ ,ض, ز are all pronounced '''z'''. It's because Persian has preserved the spelling of Arabic loanwords. Each of these characters has distinguished sounds in Arabic but they are all pronounced the same in Persian.
===Syllable===
|xiyâbân || xi.yâ.bân || street
|-
|otobus autobus || øo.to.bus || bus
|-
|metro || met.ro || subway
====Superlative====
The superlative form of an adjective is always made by adding the superlative suffix ''-in'' to the comparative: bad (bad), badtar (worse), badtarin (the worseworst). The superlative comes before the noun e.g. ''behtarin hotel'' (the best hotel), ''behtarin hotelè in šahr'' (the best hotel of this city)
===Demonstratives===
!2nd
|to
|thou, you (informal)
|tu
|šomâ
*raftan /rav/ (to go): beravam, beravi, beravad; beravim, beravid, beravand
In English we say "I want to go" but in Persian "to go" does not appear in "infinitive" but in present subjunctive: mixâham beravam. We can assume that there is a relative pronoun ''ke'' (that) after "I want" that causes the second verb to appear in the subjunctive (similar to French ''que'') i.e. mixâham [ke] beravam (French: je vuex veux qu'aille). In any case, this construction is used very much and you should learn it well. Another example: mitavânam bebinam (I can see).
====Wrapping up====
===Basics===
; Hello, Hi
: Salâm (سلامسَلام)
; How are you?
: Hâlè šomâ chetor ast? (حالِ شما چطور است), less formal: chetorid? (چطورید), xubid? (خوبید)
: xâheš mikonam (خواهش می‌کنم)
; Yes.
: bale (بله), areh (آره)
; No.
: na (نهنَه)
; Excuse me (getting attention or begging pardon)
: bebaxšid (ببخشید), maøzerat mixâham (معذرت می‌خواهم)
; I'm sorry.
: bebaxšid (ببخشیدبِبَخشید), maøzerat mixâham (معذرت می‌خواهم)
; Goodbye
: xodâhâfez (خداحافظ)
: formal: mibinametân (می‌بینمتان), informal: mibinamet (می‌بینمت)
; I can't speak Persian [well].
: Nemitavânam [xub] Fârsi harf bezanam (نمی‌توانم خوب انگلیسی فارسی حرف بزنم)
; Do you speak English?
: Mitavânid Engelisi harf bezanid? (می‌توانید انگلیسی حرف بزنیدبزنید؟)
; Is there someone here who speaks English?
: Injâ kasi Engelisi midânad? (اینجا کسی انگلیسی می‌داند)
; Help!
: komak! (کمککُمَک)
; Look out
: formal: Movâzeb bâšid (مواظب باشید), informal: Movâzeb bâš (مواظب باش)
===Numbers===
The Persian number system is very similar to that used in Arabic, exceptions being the symbols for four and five. Confusingly, the numerals used in Latin derived languages are called Arabic numerals and those used by in Arabic and Persian languages are called Indian numerals. Persian numerals are written from left to right unlike their alphabetic script.
 
'''Note''' - There are two ways to express "and" in Persian. One is with the enclitic '''ò''' (or '''yò''' after vowels) and the other is with the word '''va'''. The enclitic '''ò''' is the common way (and the sole way in spoken Persian).
 
{|class="wikitable" border="2" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="4"
! scope="row" | Persian
|-
! scope="row" | Latin
|0
|1
|2
|3
|4
|5
|6
|7
|8
|9
|}
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4"
! #|
! Persian
! #
! Persian
! #
! Persian
! #
! Persian
|-
|-
| 3
| se (سه)
| 18
| hejdah (هجده)
; Saturday : šanbe (شنبه)
'''Tip''' - In Iran, weeks being begin with "Saturday" and end with "Friday". So, the holiday is "Friday" and the weekend starts from "Thursday".
====Months====
===Lodging===
; Do you have any rooms available? : otâqè xâli dârid? (اتاق اُتاقِ خالی دارید); How much is a room for one person/two people? : otâq barâye yek/do nafar chand ast? (اتاق برای یکاُتاق برایِ یِک/دو نفر چند نَفَر چَند است)
; Does the room come with ~ : otâq ~ dârad? (اتاق ~ دارد)
; ~ bedsheets? : malâfe (ملافهمَلافه); ~ a bathroom? : hammâm (حمامحَمام); ~ a telephone? : telefon (تلفنتِلِفُن); ~ a TV? : televizyun (تلویزیونتِلِویزیون); May I see the room first? : mišavad avval otâq râ bebinam? (می‌شود می‌شَوَد اول اتاق را ببینم)
; Do you have anything quieter? : jâyè ârâmtarì dârid? (جای آرامتری دارید)
; ~ bigger? : bozorgtar (بزرگتر)
; ~ cleaner? : tamiztar (تمیزترتمیزتَر); ~ cheaper? : arzântar (ارزانترارزانتَر); OK, I'll take it. : bâše, hamin râ migiram. (باشه، همین را می‌گیرممی‌گیرَم)
; I will stay for ~ night(s). : ~ šab mimânam (~ شب می‌مانم)
; Can you suggest another hotel? : mišavad hotelè digarì râ pišnahâd konid? (می‌شود هتل دیگری را پیشنهاد کنید)
; ~ lockers? : komodè qofldâr? (کمد قفلدار)
; Is breakfast/supper included? : hazine šâmelè sobhâne/šâm ham mišavad? (هزینه شامل صبحانه/شام هم می‌شود)
; What time is breakfast/supper? : sobhâne/šâm che sâatì ast? (صبحانه/شام چه ساعتی است)
; Please clean my room. : lotfan otâqam râ tamiz konid (لطفا اتاقم را تمیز کنید)
; Can you wake me at ~? : mišavad marâ sâatè ~ bidâr konid? (می‌شود مرا ساعت ~ بیدار کنید)
; Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard) : mišavad kamcharbaš konid? (می‌شود کم‌چربش کنید)
; fixed-price meal : qazâ bâ qeymatè sâbet (غذا با قیمت ثابت)
; à la carte : qazâ bâ qeymatè jodâ jodâ (غذا با قیمت جدا جداجُدا جُدا); breakfast : sobhâne (صبحانهصُبحانه)
; lunch : nâhâr (ناهار)
; tea (meal) : asrâne (عصرانه)
; I'm finished. : xordanam tamâm šod. (خوردنم تمام شد)
; It was delicious. : xošmazze bud. (خوشمزه بود)
; Please clear the plates. : lotfan, bošqâbhâ râ tamiz konid. (لطفا بشقابها لُطفاً بُشقابها را تمیز کنیدکُنید); The check, please. : surat-hesâb, lotfan. (صورت‌حساب لطفاًصورَت‌َحِساب لُطفا)
===Bars===
'''Remember that the possession, sale and service of alcohol in Iran is illegal.'''
; Do you serve alcohol? : mašrub serv mikonid? (مشروب سرو می‌کنید)
; Is there table service? : lavâzemè miz (kârd, qâšoq, changâl, etc.) ham vojud dârad? (لوازم میز هم وجود دارد)
: šahrvandè Âmrikâ/Ostorâliyâ/Engelis/Kânâdâ hastam. (شهروند آمریکا/استرالیا/انگلیس/کانادا هستم)
; I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate.
: mixâham mikhâham bâ sefâratè/konsulgariyè Âmrikâ/Ostorâliyâ/Engelis/Kânâdâ tamâs begiram. (می‌خواهم با سفارت/کنسولگری آمریکا/استرالیا/انگلیس/کانادا تماس بگیرم)
; I want to talk to a lawyer. : mixâham bâ yek vakil harf bezanam. (می‌خواهم با یک وکیل حرف بزنم)
; Can I just pay a fine now? : mišavad jarime râ naqdan pardâxt konam? (می‌شود جریمه را نقدا پرداخت کنم)
 
 
[[fr:Guide linguistique persan]]
[[ja:ペルシア語会話集]]
 
{{guidephrasebook}}
{{phrasebookguide}}
 
== Learning more ==
* [http://wikiotics.org/en/Persian_lessons Persian lessons at Wikiotics]
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