South Tyrol (Italian: Alto Adige or Sudtirolo, German: Südtirol, Ladin: Sudtirol)  is the northernmost region in Italy, bordering Austria to the north and northeast, Switzerland to the northwest, and the rest of Italy to the south. Together with Trentino, it composes the northernmost Italian autonomous administrative region of Trentino-South Tyrol. This is also the only region in Italy where the majority of the population speaks German as their mother tongue (with the exception of the areas surrounding Bolzano/Bozen and Merano/Meran). Therefore, South Tyrol is officially bi-lingual, including all road signs, menus and media, and moreover even trilingual in the scenic eastern Ladin speaking valleys.
This Alpine region can offer a lot of cultural highlights, both large cities and small picturesque storybook villages - and huge areas of wild nature, including the most important Italian national park, and many more regional parks, lakes, valleys and mountains. Here one finds the famous Dolomites and large important ski resorts near the Austrian border.
South Tyrol is administratively divided in the following 8 districts:
The tourist areas coincide more or less with the districts - unless they cover larger tourist districts.
It is known that people have lived here since the stone age - like Ötzi the Iceman, and the region was part of the Roman Empire from 59 BC until the Migration Period. From the 6th to the 9th century, the region was settled by the Bavarii together with the Langobards and the romanised natives. As part of France and later the Holy Roman Empire, the region had a strategic importance as a bridgehead to Italy. Large parts of the province was donated to the Bishops of Trent and Brixen. After their caretakers, the earls of Tyrol (like Meinhard II of Gorizia-Tyrol) had gathered the province under their command, the region together with the valleys to the north was known as Tyrol.
In 1342, the earldom went over to the Bavarian dukes again when Emperor Louis IV voided the first marriage of Countess Margarete Maultasch. But already in 1363, the Wittelsbach released the country for Habsburg.
Habsburg ruled the region almost continuously until 1918. It was only in 1805 when Austria was defeated by Napoleon and lost Tyrol to Bavaria in the Peace of Pressburg (Bavaria allied itself with Napoleon in the war). Tyroleans, lead by Andreas Hofer, rose in rebellion against Bavarian rule. In 1814, Tyrol is transferred again from Bavaria to Austria at the Congress of Vienna.
In 1919, after the First World War, South Tyrol was annexed by Italy as a war prize. Government officials, soldiers and other settlers brought in by the Italian state, especially the Fascist regime, from all over Italy and reached a third of the total population by the early 1950s. Their official efforts attempted to erase the German cultural element of the area's history. Their descendants now make up about a quarter of the population.
As a result of the pact between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, the German and Ladin speakers in the region were given the option to relocate to Germany. Only few accepted, and most of them returned to their homeland after the war, anyway. During the end of the war, northern Italy was briefly annexed to the Third Reich
After WWII, the region was returned to (remained part of) Italy as a province, but with administrative and legislative autonomy, which finally took effect in the 1970's and 80's. Since the 1970's there have been repeated calls for full independence or reunification with Austria but this secessionist movement has yet to be embraced by any major German-speaking political parties preferring to embrace the contemporary system of power sharing.
South Tyrol is geographically the northernmost region of Italy and because of its history and location in the middle of the Alps it's still considered a Central European region although Italy is in Mediterranean (or Southern) Europe - it's also true that all regions in North-Eastern Italy consider themselves as Central European (actually they have more geographic similarities with Slovenia - which is considered fully Central European and located on the southern part of the Alps - than with the rest of Italy). The region is totally composed by high mountains and their valleys. The best known part of South Tyrolean Alps are the Dolomites with the Schlern (2,662 mt) or the Rosengarten (3,002 mt). The Dolomites are located in eastern South Tyrol while the highest mountains are in western South Tyrol with the Ortler Alps (highest peak - 3.902 mt). The Dolomites offer some of the most dramatic mountain scenery on the planet with their striking appearance, which has evolved over many millennia as erosion and weathering shaped what were originally under-sea coral reefs. They take their name from Deodat de Dolomieu, the French geologist who first described them. The most important river is the Adige/Etsch which flows into the Adriatic Sea while the Eisack and Rienz are the two most important of the Adige's/Etsch's affluents in South Tyrol. The Adige trench runs north - south, dividing the western (known as the Brenta) and eastern Dolomites. The only river which doesn't flow into the Adriatic Sea is the Drava which passes through most of the Central European countries and enters the Black Sea.
There are a lot of different and strange climates inside South Tyrol - normally South Tyrolean climate is sunny and dry and warmer than on the northern part of the Alps. That doesn't mean that the climate has to be Mediterranean - as local tourist guides say. The climate is of continental type (hot summers and cold winters with ambiguous springs and autumns) influenced by Alpine characteristics - for examples summer is the year's most rainy season. On the mountains and in upper valleys the climate is strongly alpine (very cold winters and fresh summers). During the winter and the springs in the valleys blows often the föhn - a strong wind which is normally warm in the winter and cold in the spring. Summers in the lower valleys (Bolzano and Merano surroundings) can be very sultry. Annual average temperature in Bolzano is 11.6°C and the extreme records there go from -17 to +40°C. On the upper valleys the temperature is considerably lower (annual average from 3 to 5°C). Winter is the better season for skiing, spring and autumn for hiking and visiting places and summer for hiking in the woods - pay attention to the weather conditions!
People & Culture
South Tyrol is a region of multiple identities - South Tyrolean can differently feel themselves as Tyroleans, Austrians, of German ethnicity, Italians, Ladins or simply South Tyrolean - or "Altoatesini". Normally German-speaking people feel specifically South Tyroleans and Tyroleans on an historical level while Italian-speaking people feel mainly Italians or Italian-speaking South Tyroleans (or eventually "Altoatesini" - people from Upper Adige). Ladin-speaking people consider themselves as Ladins but historically as Tyrolean Ladins. Ethnic tension has been a major problem in the past but it is not the main topic in South Tyrol anymore and nowadays ethnic tensions play themselves out more inside political parties. It is true that history and politics are strictly connected here. For the most part and particular within the younger generations all three groups coexist in relative peace and harmony with the Ladins playing the role of a kind of middle-man peace broker in the past. The success of multi-cultural South Tyrol is largely due in part to the cultural and political autonomy that the region has been granted by Rome with the seal of approval from Vienna.
For the descendants of native Tyroleans the national hero is Andreas Hofer who fought against the Revolutionary French in order to save their homeland's freedom. Other famous South Tyroleans are Walther von der Vogelweide - the most celebrated of the Middle High German lyrics poet who was supposed to have been born near Bolzano - and the Medieval poet Oswald von Wolkenstein.
German-speaking (but often without ethnic distinction) South Tyroleans have stereotypes in common with Bavarians - from the Italian point of view: Lederhosen (leather pants), sausages and a lot of beer. From Germany they are seen as Mediterranean, singers and wine drinkers. Alcohol is though a problem in South Tyrol's society for all ethnic groups - especially among the young.
South Tyrol has two unofficial anthems: one is the Tyrolean anthem - which is officially recognized in Austrian Tyrol - and the other is a famous song (known as "Bozner Bergsteigerlied" or "Südtirollied") which begins with the words "Wohl ist die Welt so groß und weit..." (Surely is the world so big and wide...). Ladins have also their own anthems (Gherdëina Gherdëina for the Gardena Valley and a general anthem of Ladins). South Tyrol participate every year to the Gran Prix der Volksmusik which is broadcast in Eurovision - its first participation has been in 2001 and has won every year since then. The most known folk group are probably the Kastelruther Spatzen. Pop and rock are the preferred styles by the young.
South Tyroleans are almost all Catholics and quite conservative - but it depends on the areas. In the most touristy developed regions and in cities or bigger towns german speaking people are more open. It's said that there is no big differences in behavior of Germans or Italians - forming a nice inter-ethnic regional identity, some tourists affirm that local Italians are a bit closer and different from other Italians.
Today the region is famous for its sporty people such as Isolde and Carolina Kostner, Armin Zöggeler (sled's world champion) or Ylenia Scapin. Other famous people include the former journalist and European parliamentary Lilli Gruber. Italian atheletes from South Tyrol often represent Italy in the winter olympics and won many times. This draws an interesting parallel to the Quebecois of Canada. Often South Tyroleans just hold do their own people.
The majority of the South Tyrolean population is German-speaking (using a distinct dialect) and in Martell it's the totality. The Italian-speaking population lives mainly in the Bolzano/Bozen urban area and other larger towns like Laives. Ladin-speaking people live in the Gardena and Badia Valleys. Keep in mind that all South Tyroleans are taught Italian, that most German-speakers speak Standard German in addition to their native dialect and that almost all Ladins speak German. Italians tend to monolingual depending upon where they live. All the road signs have to be bi-lingual (tri-lingual where Ladin is spoken) and normally the first name identifies the majority language in the area. Please consider most italian names are a fascist invention from Ettore Tolomei.
In South Tyrol there is a trilingual media panorama and international newspapers are easy to find (especially from Germany). There are no local newspapers in English but the most popular dailies are the Dolomiten (conservative) in German and the Alto Adige (conservative/nationalist) in Italian. Other dailies are the Neue Südtiroler Tageszeitung (liberal) and the Corriere dell'Alto Adige (independent) - the local edition of the Italian Corriere della Sera. The most popular edition of Alto Adige is on Sunday - Dolomiten isn't published on Sunday and at its place there is the Sunday tabloid Zett. The most important weekly is the ff (liberal) in German.
The Italian public broadcaster RAI has a broadcasting centre in Bolzano (called Sender Bozen in German, Sede di Bolzano in Italian and Radio TV Ladina in Ladin) which produces a trilingual program daily. The local radio of RAI (FM4) transmits in German, Ladin and Italian (news in Italian are transmitted on Radio 2). News in German every hour and news in Ladin two times a day. Many private radio broadcasters transmit in Italian, German or Ladin - a radio from Bolzano (Radio Tandem) transmits also for the immigrant population (Albanian, Spanish, Urdu, Arabic, Ukrainian, etc...).
Also television broadcasts in the three regional languages with five newscasts every day. News in Italian (Telegiornale Regionale) are broadcast in both Bolzano and Trento and cover Trentino and South Tyrol and are on air at 2:00pm, 7:35pm and at night with news only for South Tyrol. News in German (Tagesschau) at 8:00pm and 10:10pm and news in Ladin (TRAIL) at 7:55pm. German general programmes are broadcast every evening, on Thursday evening in Ladin and on Sunday morning in Italian. RAI Bolzano transmits on the regional frequency of the Italian State-run RAI3. Two private television broadcasters (Videobolzano 33 and TCA) transmit only in Italian (evening news at 7:30pm on Videobolzano 33 and at 7:00pm on TCA).
In South Tyrol is DVB-T common, broadcated by the RAS. List of available channels:
South Tyrol Marketing Pfarrplatz, 11 (+39 0471 999999, [email protected]) - Contacting the South Tyrol Tourist Board you can get information about the region and single areas and ask for catalogs and brochures.
The best-loved holiday in South Tyrol is probably Christmas. The Christmas atmosphere begins the first Advent Sunday and the first Christmas-related unofficial holiday is on 6th December when the Nikolaus (St Nicholas) brings sweeties and small gifts to the children. In all South Tyrol there are ceremonies and the arrival of the Krampus - violent devils (be careful, they could hit if drunk). South Tyroleans celebrate Christmas on the eve night. Between Christmas and 6th January children dressed as the Three Kings (the Sternsänger, cantors of the star) go home to home to sing and collect money for charities. Differently as in other parts of Italy and commonly as in Catholic German-speaking countries, in South Tyrol the Whit Monday is a regional festivity. During Carnival (Fasching in German) there are a lot of events. Here a list of official festivities (shops and offices are closed):
Italian foreign ministry has a page  available also in English for entry documents required to foreign nationals. Being Italy signatory to the Schengen treaty you don't have problems if you come with an Austrian or Swiss visa, being this two states member of Schengen too - although Switzerland is not a member of the European Union.
There are no fixed border controls between Schengen Agreement nations - so also the last controls at the border to Switzerland have dissolved.
The nearest major hubs are in Munich, Germany and Milan while other airports near South Tyrol are located in Innsbruck, Austria and Verona. Low-cost flights only to/from Verona, Treviso or Bergamo. Airport transfers are available. Normally Inghams offers direct flights from England in winter.
South Tyrol is well connected, you'll most likely be comming from the rest of Italy via Verona or from the North via Innsbruck(Austria) and through the Brenner Pass.
The main connection from the North is over the Brenner Pass from Innsbruck (Austria). There are good connections via Innsbruck from Vienna, Salzburg, Munich, Zurich and the rest of North/Central Europe through these cities.
Passengers comming from Graz, or South-Central Europe (Zagreb, Maribor) may find the connection via Lienz in East Tyrol and into the Puster Valley (Bruneck, Franzenfeste) useful. Its also possible to get in from Vienna this way, but connections are much less frequent.
It is often cheaper or even necessary to buy two seperate train tickets if comming from abroad (Austria, Germany, etc.) and then changing to a local train. The Northern most station in South Tyrol is Brenner and is right at the border. If you change trains here, you can buy local transportation tickets and the 'Value Card' at vending machines.
See 'Getting Around' getting around for more details.
South Tyrol is very well connected by bus mainly with Germany and Eastern Central Europe. Traveling by bus is cheaper than by train and it could be a good solution if you find what you are looking for. The local travel agency Gross  organizes up to 12 bus connections every month between Bolzano and Munich (one-way ticket for EUR 20). Almost every major city in Poland is connected with Bolzano through international bus connections - normally arrival is in Genoa. The Polish travel agency Wikel  is the most known for this cheap connections. If you are coming from Romania your reference could be the Romanian CentroTrans  travel agency which has also offices in England. Coaches from Romania stops in Bolzano but also in Brixen. In the Romanian website about bus stations  you can find arrivals and departures from Romania/to South Tyrol at the Bolzano bus station. Connections with Slovakia from/to Bratislava are operated by the Eurolines  agency in Bratislava. Connections with the Czech Republic are operated by the Tourbus  agency (web site also in English available) with buses from Prague or Brno and other places. Prices are cheap - a return ticket from Brno to Bolzano costs EUR 94. Tourist connections are also available from Southern Germany, Austria and Switzerland - this connections are operated by the German travel agency Südtirol Tours  or by the Swiss Südtirol Express . In winter bus transfers between low cost airports in Northern Italy and tourist destinations are available - for this check on the official tourism board web site.
South Tyrol is a forced route if you want to travel from Italy to Germany - so it's simply to get in by car. Through South Tyrol passes the motorway A22  (known also as the Brenner Motorway) that split the region into two side - west and east. In Austria the Brenner motorway is coded as A13 and while identification road signs in Italy are green in Austria they are blue (also in Germany). In South Tyrol there are 8 motorway exits (two of them only in Bolzano) while tool booths are only in 6 exits - in Sterzing you will pay for the remaining itinerary. For a car which goes from Neumarkt-Auer to Brenner you will pay EUR 5.40 and from Bolzano South and Bolzano North EUR 0.60 (March 2007). On the web site of the A22 society you can check the fare you might have to pay. The motorway charges a fee except in case of strikes involving the staff at the booths. For driving on Austrian motorways you have to buy the Vignette (available for a 10-days, 2-months and 1-year-validity) - for a car a 10-days-validity vignette costs EUR 7.60 (2007). An exception is on the route between Innsbruck South and Brenner - here you have to pay EUR 8.00 for the whole itinerary at the booths. German motorways are for free.
On the same side of the A22 motorway there is also the Statal Road 12 (known also as Abetone-Brenner) which is for free. If you come from East Tyrol (nearest regions: Carinthia, Slovenia) you will pass the border at Winnebach and the the route is for free, so it's also coming from Switzerland with the border at Taufers im Münstertal and from other mountain passes through South Tyrol like Reschenpass. You could have to pay a fee for passing the Jaufenpass on the Austrian side.
Almost all places are very well connected by train or by bus (SII ) and roads are considered to be the best well-kept in Italy and road signs are not ambiguous.
If you want to travel inside South Tyrol and up to Innsbruck or Trento by bus or by train, you can buy a "Value Card" ("Wertkarte" or "Carta valore") for EUR 5.00, 10.00 or 25.00 and you will pay less with this card which is valid only in South Tyrol - in other parts of Italy you have to buy individual tickets at the train station. In major cities and their metropolitan areas this tickets can be bought also in general shops like bakeries, bars, restaurants, supermarkets, other retail stores and in tourist offices. Those places are usually marked. In smaller places you can find them at bus stations. For more information check on the web site of the regional transport system web site .
All main valleys are crossed by trains and the two regional main hubs are Bolzano and Franzensfeste, while the main international train route goes from North to South and vice versa. Bolzano is the major hub in the region and also serves between Southern and Central Europe. Throughout the province transfers are usually well timed and even regional service is frequent (hourly). From Bolzano you can catch a train which arrives up to Mals in the Vinschgau valley and from Franzensfeste there are the trains that bring you to Lienz in the East Tyrol, Austria and passes through the Puster Valley. Travelling by train is relatively cheap if compared to Austria or Germany, though they are often less reliable and many trains are quite old and unpleasant.
Railway Streches: There are four railway streches in South Tyrol:
Tickets: Its important to note that train service is now split between a 'privatized' operation and the Italian state company Trenitalia. This is rather new and even confuses locals, hopefully the situation will change again soon, but for now its best to be careful which tickets you have for which train. There are three main types of tickets:
Travelling across South Tyrol from Mals (West) to Innichen (East) will cost about €14 and it's a travel of 4:20 hours. The Value Card fare from Bolzano Central Station to Mals is €6.43 and it's a travel of about 2 hours - while from Bolzano to Innichen costs €8.22 and it's also travel of 2 hours. Between Bolzano and Mals or Innichen there are also direct connections during the day but travel time doesn't change. Reaching Innsbruck costs €12.78 and the travel lasts 2 hours. (All prices using the Value Card.)
Operators: The operating companies and train-types:
The local public transportation website has all the detials, and the only understanable trip-planner for the region.
Buses reach places that trains can't. South Tyrol has excellent bus connections inside the country with a very efficient transport system. Traveling by bus is not expensive and permits to go up to the most isolated village on the mountains. The major regional hub is at Bolzano bus station. From Bolzano buses depart to places in the surrounding districts (metropolitan area and mountain villages) and to the most important distant towns. From the major local hubs (Meran, Brixen, Sterzing, Bruneck and Schlanders) depart buses to the nearest surrounding areas. On regional buses you can buy your ticket on board too - drivers sell also value cards.
Also the smallest and most isolated mountain village is well connected through well-kept road. In South Tyrol there are three kind of roads: local roads, provincial roads(SP/LS meaning Strada Provinciale/Landesstraße) and statal roads (SS meaning Strada Statale/Staatsstraße) - however both provincial and statal roads are run by the regional government of South Tyrol. Highway A22 is a toll road and paying is compulsory. In South Tyrol police seems to be much less tolerant than in other parts of Italy, so pay attention and keep to the rules.
Traffic signs are always very precise and the usage of pictographs is more common than in other parts of Europe since in South Tyrol two or three languages have to be used. In most parts of South Tyrol signs are written in the German/Italian order, while in Bolzano and other smaller Italian-speaking areas in Italian/German. Also complimentary information is bilingual. In the Ladin-speaking valleys road signs are trilingual - Ladin/German/Italian.
Speed limits are:
Italian laws allow a 5% tolerance on local speed limit and fines are generally very expensive.
Motorbikes should drive always with the headlights on, for other vehicles that applies only outside cities. In mountain roads there are a lot of accidents involving bikers - so pay attention.
The tolerated limit of alcohol is 0.50g/L in blood, being above this limit is thus illegal and can entitle you an expensive fine and license withdraw and maybe also a night in jail. Also driving after having taking drugs is illegal. All passengers are required to wear their seat belt and children under 10 must use the back seat. Italian Road Code requires children to be secured in an appropriate car seat up until 12 years of age. Children who reach 1.5 meters (approximately 4 feet, 9 inches) in height before the age of 12, can be secured in a vehicle using only a seat belt. All car seats used in Europe must conform to ECE R44.
South Tyrol has one of the most developed bike trail systems in Italy and especially in the valleys you can reach most of the towns in the region and also in the surrounding regions. Along bike trails there are a lot of lay over points. The majority of bike trails begin in Bolzano/Bozen. On the web site of the regional government you can find the maps of the bike trail systems in South Tyrol divided by districts or Bezirke.(German and Italian). In this region are different shops for the rental of bicycles, if you want come or extend your tour from the Veneto Region is recommended Venetian shop in Mira that can arrange with a small fee : deliver pick-up,drop off and customized logistics support for move of your luggages/bike.
The official languages in South Tyrol are German and Italian. Most German-speaking people also know Italian more or less. One could say that most Ladin people speak German as well but only a few Italian South Tyroleans can speak German depending on where they live. If they live in big cities they are unlikely to speak German. All road signs and services to the public have to be provided in both languages. In the regional parliament deputies can speak their mother tongue and laws have to be published bilingual. In addition to German and Italian in South Tyrol there is a third semi-officially recognized language - Ladin. This ancient language originated after the invasion of the Ancient Romans in the Alpine region is spoken in the Gardena and Badia valleys - and also in the Fassa Valley in Trentino and Cortina d'Ampezzo area in Veneto. Ladin has a fully official status in the valleys in which it's spoken and also in the capital is common to see trilingual signs - but not road signs. It is a sister language of Romansh still spoken in eastern Switzerland and Fruili spoken in north-eastern Italy.
Every 10 years during the census South Tyrolean have to declare their ethnic affiliation in order to decide the percentage which has to be given at working places to German-, Italian- or Ladin-speakers. In the last census 69.15% declared to be German-speaking, 27.65% is Italian-speaking and 4.37% is Ladin-speaking.
Italian-speaking South Tyroleans live mostly in Bolzano - about 55% of the whole Italian-speaking population, and they are a majority in 4 other municipalities: its metropolitan area - the three metropolitan municipalities of Laives, Bronzolo and Vadena, and in the village of Salorno which borders Italian-speaking Trentino to the south. Other big Italian-speaking communities are located in the most important towns such as Meran, Brixen, Sterzing and generally in the Wipp Valley. Ladin-speaking people are a majority in 8 municipalities and there are small minorities in Bolzano (0.71%), Brixen and Bruneck. German-speaking South Tyrolean are the dominant group in 103 of 116 municipalities - the most German-speaking village is Martell, where all of the population is German-speaking.
German-speaking South Tyroleans use various Southern Austro-Bavarian dialects natively, which are largely mutually unintelligible with Standard German. However, Standard German is taught in school along with Italian and spoken by most aside from rural elders. Some loan words have been taken from Italian - especially bad words, though! In the area of Laives in the Bolzano metropolitan area - many Italian-speakers speak the Trentino language, commonly seen as an Italian dialect, possibly mixed with the local German dialect (this mixture is commonly called Laivesòt). In local Italian speech, there is a regional substrate from the Venetian language as well as Austro-Bavarian influences. Ladin has no officially recognized literary standard - but it exists - and Ladins speak in South Tyrol two different dialects: Gherdeina and Badiot.
So, if you're going to rural South Tyrol it would be better to know German instead of Italian - in some valleys some locals could have problems understanding foreigners speaking Italian, which is for them a foreign language in most cases.
English is spreading fast and most younger people can speak it. English is a compulsory subject in South Tyrolean schools. In major cities and tourist places, English is well known. In rural places it would be better if you know some words of German or Italian (preferably the former). French, Spanish and Russian are not thatpopular but especially in Bolzano and other towns some young people can speak a little but of one those languages.
The official currency is the Euro. The best rates for changing money are offered by banks. Nobody will accept foreign money - at the time of national currencies German Mark and Austrian Schillings were quite accepted.
The prices are a bit higher than the Italian average but it depends on the area - and for example they are in any case cheaper than in the United Kingdom. Most touristy developed areas are more expensive than the regional average. For example accommodations in the Bolzano metropolitan area town of Laives are cheaper. There is big differences also in prices between hotels of the same category - so a three star hotel could have similar prices to four but also two star hotels. Four and five stars hotels could ask more than EUR 100 for a night staying but two stars hotels ask less than EUR 40 (except in highly touristy developed areas). If you want to save money avoid to reserve a room in famous places and prefer near but less popular locations. Youth hostels are cheap if you see that the quality is much higher than European standards.
In South Tyrol tipping is not so common - however in tourist areas it's quite normal and accepted. If you also were satisfied of the service you could round up the bill.
South Tyrol is the souvenir paradise: loden, traditional hand-crafts and regional delicatessen. Especially if you want to buy some delicatessen like speck (a kind of smoked ham), dairy products, confectionary, apples, bread, honey or wine, grappa and apple juice you can find them also in supermarkets where they are far cheaper than in tourist shops - but they have a greater choice. All typical products from South Tyrol have a distinction mark within is written "Südtirol". It's to note that also typical meals are to be found frozen in supermarkets like e.g. spätzele, knödel and schlutzkrapfen. A local company called Nägele produces a lot of popular juices but also local coke and spetzi (coke mixed with lemonade). You can find the South Tyrolean coke in glass bottles in some supermarkets and in their store in Algund near Meran. The most famous South Tyrolean biscuits are probably the wafers of Loacker: in Bolzano there is an official store which sells all kind of Loacker biscuits.
ATMs in South Tyrol are called Bancomat. They are wide-spread and you will find them even in smaller, rural villages. The majority of shops, restaurants and hotels accept ATM cards and credit cards.
Bargaining is absolutely not common and considered strange - only with the immigrant pitchmen is possible to bargain.
Opening hours can be different in tourist destinations and in towns. In tourist places during high season shops are open also on Sunday for example. Seasonal sales begin first in the valleys and after in tourist places. Normally in Bolzano winter sales begin around 7th January and summer sales after the 15th August. On Sunday shops are closed - sometimes hypermarkets in Bolzano are open.
South Tyrolean cuisine is typically Austrian (Tyrolean) with Mediterranean influences but today also Italian stereotyped specialties like pizza and pasta with Bolognese sauce are offered as local dishes in Tyrolean-style restaurants - however portions are big and flavor sometimes better than in other parts of Italy. Chives and carraway seeds are widely used.
Typical South Tyrolean products include Speck (a kind of smoked bacon), a lot of sorts of bread, strudel, apples and a lot of pastries. During Christmas typical cakes are Zelten and Christstollen.
The national dish are Knödel, because they are bread balls with speck or other ingredients - so it was a complete meal in the past. There are also sweet knödels which are made with apricots (Marillenknödel), with plums (Zwetschgenknödel), with chestnuts (Kastanienknödel).
Other known entries include specialties such as Herrengröstl (potatoes, beef, onions, speck), Kaiserschmarrn (omelette with raisin and sugar), Gulaschsuppe (typical dish in all Central Europe), Schlutzkrapfen (a kind of dumpling with spinach or other ingredients), Spätzle (a kind of spinach dumpling), pork roast or sausages with sauerkrauts.
In pubs and cafés snacks are offered - among them there is a local invention called Bauerntoast (farmer's toast), which is toasted local rye-bread stuffed with speck and cheese (sometimes also with salami or small tomatoes) and dished with ketchup and mayonnaise.
Bread is very important and there are a lot of local bakery chains. In the Bozen area there are e.g. Lemayr, Eisenstecken, Franziskaner, Hackhofer. In bakeries, it is possible to buy cheap sandwiches and pastries. Bakeries operate also in supermarkets - here prices are even lower.
Restaurants in small places close very early (around 9:00pm), while in major centers and tourist areas the kitchen closes around 10:00/11:00pm.
In Bolzano and major towns there are a lot of different kinds of restaurants including ethnic specialties. In the most conservative parts of South Tyrol the only choice is the Gasthof, the typical Austrian-style restaurant with local dishes. The most traditional are quite cheap, but there are some Gasthof which was transformed into a luxury local restaurant. A meal could cost between EUR 8/12. Menus are written in German and Italian, sometimes also in English. In all restaurant in South Tyrol menus are at least bilingual, while in the more expensive restaurants menus are normally also written in English and in some places also in Dutch. It's common to split up the bill in a group, except in very expensive restaurants.
'Imbiss' means fast food, and is what you will see on the sign of stands that sell primarily sausage (Wurst) and fries (Pommes Frites). Sausages will include Bratwurst, which is fried and usually a boiled pork sausage. In South Tyrol is very popular the variant known as Currywurst: sausage chopped up and covered in spiced ketchup, dusted with curry powder. Imbisse are located in major centres and on the roads. They are cheap. Beer and often harder liquor are available in most. 'Döner Kebab' is lamb or chicken with Turkish origins stuffed into bread, similar to Greek Gyros and Arab Schawarma. In Bolzano, it's very popular and was imported from Austria and Germany by Montenegrin immigrants years ago - Bolzano is maybe the first city in Italy where a kebab stand was opened. Currently, there are a dozen of kebab stands in the capital. In other towns kebab is more difficult to be found. Bolzano is the first city in Italy where a McDonald's was opened, 2 are located in Bolzano and one in Merano. In Bolzano there are also 2 SubWays and a KFC.
Vegetarianism is not common but many restaurants offer dishes which don't contain meat. A lot of hotels and restaurants offer a vegetarian menu for their guests but only in Bolzano there is more choice with restaurants for vegetarian only.
Legal drinking age in South Tyrol is 16, but alcohol can only be sold to adults (18 and over). Local alcoholic drinks include both wine and beer. Nightlife can be found mainly in Bolzano - other towns are a bit more sleepy, but you can find discos, disco pubs and pubs in major centres and in tourist areas - however the most popular one are located in the Bolzano metropolitan area. Pubs are open until 1 or 2 in the morning and begin to be full of people after 8:30-9pm on Saturday. Discos are open until 6am and people go there around midnight.
Beer in South Tyrol is a very popular drink among all ages. The local brewing company Forst  is the leader in South Tyrol. Forst produces six kinds of beer and the Premium is the most known and drunk. In South Tyrol there are also small brewhouses - pubs that produces their own beer. In Bolzano the Bozner Bier  is very popular and can be found only in the pub in which it's made and in a restaurant.
In pubs and restaurants you could have a big choice of beers, the majority of which is imported - especially from Germany. In some hypermarkets in Bolzano there is a big choice of local and export beers also from Australia, Japan and Mexico. Normally there is no price difference between local or export beers in pubs or restaurant - however Guinness could be a bit more expensive. Irish pubs are spreading in all South Tyrol and especially in the capital.
South Tyrol is a renowned wine producer - the three most known local types are Lagrein and Magdalener both from Bolzano and Gewürztraminer from Tramin. Especially in the south of South Tyrol there are a lot of cellar in which you can taste the wine from producer. Other sorts of wine include pinot blanc or vernatsch. Despite the fact that South Tyrol has one of the smallest vineyard surfaces in Italy it's considered to be in the top 5 regions in quality.
South Tyrol is the ideal place for people who love coffee. Here you can find typical Italian espresso and Viennese cappuccino, or Irish coffee and American coffee. Normally small bars offer only Italian-style coffee and in some cases German coffee, though. The best American coffee can be found at McDonald's in Bolzano (ask for take away if you want to have the paper glass) for only EUR 0.90 - here you can drink the cheapest coffee in South Tyrol. Coffee in South Tyrol is the most expensive in Italy with an average of EUR 1.00 for an espresso (in the Bolzano city centre or in exclusive bars also EUR 1.20) but it's far less expensive than in neighboring Austria or in Germany.
If you are visiting South Tyrol in winter you can drink the very popular Glühwein (mulled wine), a spiced wine served very hot to comfort you in the cold of winter. You can find it especially in the Christmas markets or in ski resorts' après ski.
In South Tyrol there is a big production of grappa which is very good quality. However in South Tyrol you can find all kind of spirits.
Cocktails and aperitifs
The most popular local cocktail is the Flieger which is Red Bull and vodka and it can be red (with strawberry vodka), black (with raspberry vodka) or white (with normal vodka). The aperitif time begins at 5pm but a lot of people drink an aperitif also in the night. The most popular drink are Veneziano which is white wine and Aperol, and Hugo, which consists of elderflower syrup, prosecco and mint leaves.
In South Tyrol you can find all kinds of soft drinks but the most popular soft drinks are Spezi (pronounce: "sh-peh-tzi") which is a cola-lemonade mix and Spuma which is an aromatic soda, very similar to Austrian Almdudler (which sometimes also can be found).
South Tyrol is a tourist region and all options for accommodation are provided. You can find without problems hotels, B&Bs, youth hostels, campings and farm holidays. Tourist offices can help you in finding your ideal accommodation. During the Christmas market period accommodations are full in fast all the region - advanced reservation is required.
International hotel chains like Best Western, Sheraton and Steigenberger have franchises in South Tyrol, most of them especially in Bolzano. In South Tyrol there is a local international chain for wellness hotels which has locations also in Austria, Croatia and in the Czech Republic and it's called Falkensteiner. Among hotels are included e.g. luxury, international, typical, big, small, and cheap hotels. There are a lot of pensions (small familiar hotels) and gasthofs (restaurant with rooms for guests). Quality is very high also in small 1-star pensions, so price are not the cheapest in Europe. Category is given in stars (from 1 to 5 where the 5-stars are the most expensive).
B&Bs, Garni and Residence
B&Bs are more common as Garnis which are very closed but they are more similar to small hotels. Residence are small apartment houses which offer most times also breakfast.
In South Tyrol there are six youth hostels (Jugendherbergen in German, Ostello della Gioventù in Italian) which are budget accommodations but have high standards. They are good places in order to know other travellers. Of this six hostels there are four international youth hostels and two independent hostels.
Hostels are located in Bolzano, Meran, Brixen, Toblach, Salorno and Neumarkt.
In South Tyrol there are a lot of campings with a lot of services - so they could be a bit more expensive than in other parts of Europe.
One other possibility in South Tyrol is the holiday in a farm (Ferien am Bauernhof). Here the farm is a small familiar company and it's simple to find farmers which made a guest house in their farm. Farms with bed can be found also in city or town outskirts.
In South Tyrol there is an international and trilingual (English, German, Italian) university - the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano  which exists since 1997. In Bolzano there are a lot of students from all over the world. The university has also a location in Brixen (Faculty of Education) and Bruneck (Major in Tourism Management). The university has a very important library.
In Brixen there is also the High School of Theological Studies , while in Bolzano there are also other high schools like the Academy of Music and the College for Health-Care Professions.
There are also Italian and German courses provided by the University in Bolzano.
In South Tyrol unemployment rate is less than 2.5% and there are a lot of job possibilities if both German and Italian are known. It's more simple to find a seasonal job during winter or summer. School of languages and institutions could look for qualified people. The regional government provides a job finder on the web  (only German and Italian).
EU-citizens can work without visas but people from other countries have to ask for a visa and a permission to the Italian authorities.
South Tyrol is one of the safest regions in Italy and in Europe. There are practically no violent crimes. The only things you have to pay attention are pickpockets in places full of people.
Racism can be problem and the increasing of neonazi/neofascist groups in both Italian and German ethnicities is a problem also for local politicians, but no violent episodes against tourist have been attested.
However South Tyrol is a very safe region and the small local problems involve hardly even the South Tyroleans.
The only place in which you have really to pay attention is on the mountains. If you are not an expert hiker, don't go without an expert alpine guide. There is an high number of injuries and deaths every year. Skiing and snowboarding can also be dangerous if you don't pay attention.
If you need the police, call 112.
South Tyrolean hospitals and health service are among the top ranked in Italy and for emergencies call 112. There are no dangers for your health.
Tap water is of exceptional quality and safe to drink in 100% all over South Tyrol.
Most of South Tyrol is mainly German-speaking and some tourists may have problems understanding the diversity of this region. Guests interested in the (recent) history of South Tyrol are appreciated but try to stay neutral when discussing the topic and avoid asking German-speaking people for an explanation as to why German is official language in an Italian region by affirming to them 'But this is Italy!' Also, better not to ask people you don't know very well what he/she feels or identifies most as (Italian, South Tyrolean, German, Austrian, European etc). If you are speaking with German-speakers don't use Italian place names - the same goes for Italian-speakers, better to use the Italian and not the German names. Especially when speaking about the Fascist and the Nazi period you should be very careful: don't ever show any swastikas or other symbols of the Nazism or Fascism, such as shouting "Heil Hitler" or showing the "Roman salute/Nazi salute" in public, even if it is only meant as a joke. If you are showing the "Roman salute" to a German-speaking he could think you are a neo-fascist, while an Italian-speaking a neo-nazi. Furthermore it's illegal to make the Nazi Salute, not the Roman. Also making jokes about Adolf Hitler can be considered vulgar and in very poor taste.
In South Tyrol there is an Austrian-style mixed with Italian etiquette: for example when entering and leaving public places South Tyrolean always say Grüß Gott or Buongiorno when arriving Auf Wiederschauen or Arrivederci when leaving. Don't say ciao or hallo to people you don't know. It's very impolite. Don't raise your voice or shout in public, especially on public transportation, it's considered extremely impolite and aggressive. Eye contact is very important if introduced to someone or toasting just like in Austria. When toasting say prost in German, vives in Ladin or cin cin in Italian - normally also Italian-speakers use both.
Complete nudity is forbidden in public especially if there are children, but it's common to see topless women in beaches and recreational areas.
When eating pay attention if you are eating knödels: they should be tender and if you use a knife for eating them you are saying to the cook that the knödels he/she cooked are not good.
If you are walking in the mountains it is common to greet the people you meet with "Grüß Gott" (greet god).
Calling South Tyrol
International code for Italy is +39 while the code for South Tyrol is 047. The final number is 1 for the Bolzano area (0471), 2 for the Brixen area (0472), 3 for the Meran area (0473) and 4 for the Bruneck area (0474). Also calling from abroad you have to put the 0 of the local code.
Public phones are available in the offices of telecom. Phone boxes are to be found on street and from phone boxes you can also send SMSs. Phone boxes usually operate with prepaid cards which can be obtained from kiosks and tobacco/newspaper stores (German:Trafik, Italian and local German dialect: Tabacchino).
Phone numbers have an area code followed by the phone number itself. Mobile phone numbers use the prefix prefix without 0 and the first two digits being 32..., 33.., 34.., 38... Toll-free numbers are denoted by 800, numbers starting with 166 or 899 are usually expensive lines.
In the tabacchini you can buy also prepaid cards for calling outside Italy. Expecially in Bolzano there are a lot of phone centers run by immigrants where you can phone.
South Tyrol has a perfect GSM and 3G (UMTS) network coverage of nearly 100% in the valleys, in remote mountainous areas you might have problems.
In Italy there are not so much cell network providers which are only four: TIM, Vodafone, Wind and Tre (3G). There is no big difference between them and they are all expensive related to other European countries. In Italy there was a fee for prepaid cards - after a consumer fight this was declared outlaw.
You can find internet cafes mainly in Bolzano. Hotels in cities do normally have internet terminals, more expensive hotels provide internet access in the rooms itself.