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Central Asia

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Central Asia is most notable for being home to the 'stans': Rugged countries with limited arable land, historically coveted for their position between Europe and East Asia, rather than for their resources (although petroleum and natural gas reserves in the region are becoming more and more important). They are home to generally poor, primarily Muslim, historically nomadic, mostly Turkic-speaking peoples (the exception is Tajikistan). Except Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan, they have so far have retained authoritarian, secular governments.


Map of Central Asia
One-time backpacker Shangri-La, but after 30 years of bloody (and ongoing) war, famine, and nightmare politics, it holds considerably less touristic appeal today.
The world's largest landlocked nation is sparsely populated, dominated by archetypal Central Asian steppe, with deep reserves of fossil fuels, and pockets of beautiful wilderness for outdoors enthusiasts.
A truly beautiful country high in the mountains, and with the exception of the admittedly fascinating but unsafe Ferghana Valley, Central Asia's easiest and perhaps most pleasant place to visit.
Tajikistan, Central Asia's poorest backwater, is truly is off the beaten path, but with incredible landscapes and Persian culture, and the only post-Soviet state to suffer a civil war.
An amalgam of desert moonscapes and arid mountains, dotted with the ruins of great ancient civilizations, and ruled until recently by a post-Soviet lunatic cultivating one of the most bizarre cults of personality in history, this is off-the-beaten-path, difficult (courtesy of rotten officialdom), but potentially very rewarding travel.
With cities such as Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Tashkent, and other old Silk Road citadels, this country has way more than its fair share of culture and history. The people are warm and friendly and the country naturally is nothing short of beautiful. The government will go out of its way to complicate your trip, though.

Due to culture and history, Iran, Mongolia, Western China (Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, western Sichuan and northwestern Yunnan), parts of Russia (Buryatia, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Tuva, Altai, Khakassia) and Pakistan are often also included.


  • Almaty — Kazakhstan's beautiful and interesting former capital.
  • Ashgabat — Turkmenistan's capital, with weird dictator monuments galore and natural gas wealth ostentation.
  • Nursultan — Kazakhstan's cold northern capital, which is starting to grow and has quite the potential.
  • Bishkek — the leafy and drowsy capital of Kyrgyzstan.
  • Bukhara — a 2,500-year-old Silk Road city in Uzbekistan and UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Dushanbe — the sleepiest Central Asian capital by leagues in Tajikistan.
  • Kabul — Afghanistan's capital and hub for, well, anyone who has to go to Afghanistan.
  • Samarkand — another of Uzbekistan's world-famous 2,500-year-old Silk Road cities, and also another UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Tashkent — Uzbekistan's capital, whose ages-old history lies below Soviet-era construction, and by far the region's biggest city, at some 3 million.

Other destinations[edit]

  • Aral Sea — a post-apocalyptic ecological disaster area of a dead sea, filled with the empty husks of overturned rusting boats and seashells that once moved with life in this now dead region.
  • Band-e Amir — the breath-taking sight of five torquoise-blue lakes, connected by waterfalls, surrounded by barren wasteland in Afghanistan.
  • Chimbulak — Central Asia's most accessible ski resort (no helicopters needed), outside Almaty.
  • Darvaza Flaming Crater — aaaaannnd Central Asia's strangest attraction, the Gates of Hell, a vast flaming crater hundreds of miles from civilization in the middle of the inhospitable Karakarum Desert.
  • Issyk Kul — an absolutely gorgeous alpine lake, and perhaps Central Asia's most iconic natural wonder.
  • Merv — the most famous of Turkmenistan's many ruined medieval Silk Road cities.
  • Nissa — ruined Parthian fortresses comprising a UNESCO World Heritage site within easy striking distance of Ashgabat.
  • Zeravshan — a rugged and beautiful section of Tajikistan in the trekking and climbing-friendly Fan Mountains.


Flag of Union.

Central Asia is an area that was, until recently, inaccessible for independent travellers. That has all changed, although the traveller will still often come up against a wall of Soviet-style bureaucracy. Despite this, Central Asia is increasing in popularity amongst travellers who want to experience one of the world's last great frontier lands.

Historically and geographically diverse, Central Asia is a very interesting region. As a bridge between Europe and Asia, the region was the home of the Silk Road, the ancient trading route between the two continents in the first centuries of the common era. The following millennia saw much upheaval and conflict, from the expansion of Islam, the period of Mongol domination and the 'Great Game' between imperial Britain and imperial Russia in the 19th century.

After a traumatic break-up from the USSR, Some Central Asian countries are beginning to find their feet and offer good travelling options. There are parts of Central Asia that will have hardly seen a traveller before, and there are many wild and beautiful landscapes to be explored. That is not to say the region is bereft of problems, chiefly a lack of infrastructure and stifling bureaucracy.

Understand that self-identification is an especially touchy issue in Central Asia, more so than most of Europe. Parts of China (Notably Inner Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang) have a native population that has in many instances advocated for secession from China. Often they emphasise their Central Asian identity, something not well-understood by outsiders. For example, Mongolians and Buryats tend to emphasise their historical ties with the Turkic Muslims to the west (despite being Mongolic Buddhists of the Tibetan Rite) and are offended by being compared to the Chinese, and some even call themselves Europeans (by virtue of Russian influence).

This situation is not unique to Mongolic peoples; Tibetans are well known in the West for their disdain for China and any ties they may have to it. Many people in Tatarstan and Xinjiang, among other places, would emphasise their Turkicness over any connection to China or Russia.

The problem goes the other way as well. Many ethnic Chinese are quick to point out that the Manchu Empire included parts of Central Asia, including land no longer controlled by the Chinese.

All in all, Central Asian identity is greatly shaped by their nomadic nature. From Kyrgyz to Tibetans, a history of tribal politics have left Central Asia at once totally isolated from the outside world, and intimately connected to whoever conquered them.

Corruption is an issue in most Central Asian countries. Countries such as Kazakhstan are fighting corruption heavily.


Most of Central Asia (especially by the Soviet definition) speaks some Turkic language. The Turkic languages are a very broad group, and while some are mutually intelligible (depending on your level of proficiency), many are not. For those willing to take a stab at the language(s) of the great Turkic horde, a good place to start would be here.

Mongolic languages (while arguably related to Turkic ones) are not comprehensible to the speaker of any Turkic language. These are scattered across the continent, from Mongolia, to Inner Mongolia (in China), to Buryatia and Kalmykia (in Russia).

Iranic languages are thankfully related to English, albeit distantly. They are spoken in some parts of China, as well as by the majority in Tajikistan, Iran and Afghanistan, and by a large minority in Uzbekistan.

A working knowledge of Russian will be extremely useful in most regions described as Central Asian, since majority of this area was once part of the Soviet Union.

Get in[edit]

As mentioned above, the definition of "Central Asia" can be controversial. One reason why the one used on this page is useful, however, is visas.

All Central Asian countries except for Kyrgyzstan require visas for a lot of countries, and the difficulty of getting them may range from a minor hassle to virtually impossible if not on a tour or with a guide. Before issuing a visa, some countries will require a letter of invitation, often best obtained via a specialist travel agency. Some hotels will issue letters of invitation for confirmed reservations. Some nationalities may be excluded from the requirement to have one at all. Start working on your visas well in advance, as it may take weeks for the gears of bureaucracy to grind through your application, and make sure you comply with any local police/bureaucracy registration requirements after you've arrived.

By plane[edit]

The hub for the region is Tashkent, Uzbekistan, which has the most flights to destinations outside Central Asia. Unfortunately the airport also has a reputation for being unpleasant, and it is best to avoid flights which arrive here late at night.

There are also increasingly good options for flights to Almaty, Kazakhstan. You can fly here directly from London, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Seoul, Moscow, Riga and various others.

To arrive in other Central Asia cities will generally require a transfer in one of these hubs.


From Russia[edit]

Trains going to Central Asia leave from Moscow Kazansky station. Trains go to Tashkent (56 hours/US$80), Almaty (78 hours/US$120), Bishkek (75 hours/US$70), Samarkand (85 hours/US$100), and others.

From China[edit]

There is a railway line from Urumqi, China to Almaty, but the bus is quicker. An interesting option is the challenging crossing from Kashgar, China to Kyrgyzstan through the Torugart Pass. This was a major link on the old Silk Road.

From Iran[edit]

The border is closed to foreigners, but there are buses running between Mashhad and Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.

From Pakistan[edit]

Travelling to different areas of Pakistan is quite easy by train, bus or taxi. The route from there into Afghanistan via the Khyber Pass is not currently safe. The Karakoram Highway North into China is challenging but possible. It gets you to Kashgar; from there routes to Central Asia are either difficult (West to Bishkek) or long (swing North to Urumqi and then Almaty).

By boat[edit]

There is an irregular service between Baku, Azerbaijan and Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan.

Get around[edit]

Getting between Central Asian countries is tricky. Until recently, it was practically impossible to get into Türkmenistan. Get as many visas as you can before you leave. If not, make sure you're "stationed" in one and have time to deal with the bureaucracy at each embassy before you go.

See[edit][add listing]

The whole region is filled with steppes and mountains. Beautiful scenery that has served as the backdrop for a half-dozen empires. Most tourists to the region arrive in the capital and immediately book a tour of the mountains or countryside (especially in Kyrgyzstan).


Do[edit][add listing]

Eat[edit][add listing]

The further south you are, the more flavourful the cuisine is. Afghanistan and Tajikistan have far different cuisine than the Mongolic or Turkic cuisines, which are mostly hearty, spice-free, meaty fare.

All Central Asian countries are heavily carnivorous. There are local vegetarians in all Central Asian countries (even Afghanistan) but they are in the minority. This means while you can go without meat and survive, you will attract odd looks.

Drink[edit][add listing]

With the notable exception of fanatical regions of Afghanistan and northern Pakistan (where hashish smoking dominates), Central Asia is dominated by drinkers. Where Russian imperialists met little success attracting Muslim Turkic and Persian subjects to Christianity, vodka missionary efforts enjoyed a wildly successful conversion rate. The post-Soviet states are just as filled with liquor just as Buddhist Tibet and Mongolia are. Don't blame/thank the Russians for the drinking culture, though: fermented mare's milk (kumis) was popular long before they defeated the old khanates, and continues to be a popular drink among non-Russians and tourists, after working up liquid courage a la vodka. The non-alcoholic drink of choice is always tea, naturally.

Nightlife follows national patterns in drinking (there are not too many discotheques in Kandahar). While Central Asia is not the world's number one destination for clubbing, the Russophone party culture ensures a good time in places like Bishkek, Almaty, and Tashkent.

Stay safe[edit]

Safety in Central Asia is a complex issue. While Afghanistan is famous for the possibility of kidnappings, riots and Taliban resurgence, most other Central Asian countries risk riots after years of autocratic or near-autocratic government. Tibet and Xinjiang were engulfed by riots in 2008 and 2009, respectively, while Kyrgyzstan suffered through a violent revolution in 2010.

This is not to say that the entire region is a death trap. Most of the time, most of the region is peaceful. But even then you have some concerns. Most likely for the tourist is having one's pocket picked. See each individual country for a more complete summary.Create category

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